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Developmental Psychology

Examines the psychological changes and processes that occur throughout a person's lifespan, including emotional, and social development from infancy to old age.

cognitive development

socioemotional development

language development

attachment

parenting styles

self-concept

identity formation

moral development

peer relationships

play

theory of mind

emotional regulation

temperament

adolescence

developmental milestones

Self-efficacy can be built when significant people in our lives such as parents, teachers, managers or coaches communicate to us in order to strengthen our beliefs that we have what it takes to succeed.

  • Verbal Persuasion

Piaget's term for the understanding that when a person or object still exists when out of sight:

  • Object permanence

In adults, attachment towards the child includes responding sensitively and appropriately to the child's needs

  • True

The macrosystem includes the transitions and shifts in one's lifespan. According to a majority of research, children are negatively affected on the first year after the divorce. The next years after it would reveal that the interaction within the family becomes more stable and agreeable.

  • False

Evelyn wants to ensure that her nephew Orlando acquires a sense of identity and develop virtue. She should

  • Encourage him to explore various interests, fields of study and activities

What do people face during each psychosocial stage that can serve as a turning point in development?

  • Conflict

During a workshop on self-awareness, the facilitator asked the participants to pick one of three colored candies. Based on the color of the candies, the participants have to say something about themselves as follows: Yellow candy: State their names, their companies, and their jobs. Red candy: Narrate a peak moment in their lives as leaders Green candy: Share a dream that they repeatedly have The red candy taps on which part of the mind?

  • Conscious

According to the ecological systems theory, a child's development is best understood by examining which of the following?

  • the context of the child's environmental influences

A person who breaks a law she perceives as unjust, such as civil-rights advocates did in the 1960s, is in

  • Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights (Not Sure)

All of the following statements are true except -

  • According to Bowlby, the attachment between individuals has to be reciprocal.

This is a way of adapting or adjusting to the environment through the use of an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.

  • Assimilation

In order for observational learning to occur, the observer must pay attention to the occurring behavior, be able to remember observed behavior, and be motivated to produce the behavior. Which of the following is missing from the above list?

  • Reproduce the behavior

This refers to the children's ability to work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world)

  • Operational thought

For Bruner, the goal of education should be to create

  • True

Which statement is most consistent with Bandura's concept of humanity?

  • . Humans have the capacity to become many things-within the limits set by biology. (WRONG)

The lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.

  • Attachment

What level of Kohlberg's moral reasoning have adolescents reached when they set their own internal standards for behavior?

  • Post conventional

Which of these is MOST likely to increase self-efficacy?

  • performance accomplishments

Infants until 6 weeks are in the indiscriminate attachment stage manifested by the favorable reaction they make to many kinds of stimuli, both social and non-social.

  • True

(0 to 6 weeks) Many kinds of stimuli, both social and non-social, produce a favorable reaction from the child, such as a smile.

  • Asocial

In 1905, Freud proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed changes.

  • True

Vygotsky's Theory of Social Development has two important principles: the MKO and the ZPD

  • True

According to Freud, which of the following is the function of the "id"?

  • To push for the fulfilment of self-pleasure and gratification.

TRUE OR FALSE: The mesosystem involves the relationships between the microsystems in one's life.

  • True

According to Bowlby, attachment can be understood within an evolutionary context.

  • True

A process in which group members with different levels of ability work together so that more advanced peers can help less advanced members operate within their ZPD.

  • Collaborative learning

The will to imitate a behavior is also based on rewards and punishment that follow a

  • Motivation

No psychosexual issues take place during this stage. The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during this stage and sexual energy can be sublimated towards school work, hobbies and friendships

  • Latency Stage

This stage of cognitive representation is when information is stored in the form of a code or symbol such as language. Each symbol has a fixed relation to something it represents. For example, the word 'dog' is a symbolic representation for a single class of animal.

  • Symbolic representation

Iconic representation involves the storage of information in the form of a code, such as language.

  • False

Education, training, and rehabilitation of individuals bank on the capacity of individuals for change. This characteristic of development pertains to which of the following

  • Plasticity

This level of morality is based on the physical consequences of actions.

  • Pre-conventional morality

This stage of cognitive representation involves an internal representation of external objects visually in the form of a mental image. For example, a child drawing an image of a tree or thinking of an image of a tree would be representative of this stage.

  • Iconic representation

A child who shares her lunch with a classmate who forgot his falls under which stage?

  • Stage 6. Universal Principles (WRONG) Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights (WRONG)

Which of the individuals below is in the identity versus confusion stage?

  • Chris who understands that the awkwardness he feels due to his changing voice and physique is part of the growing up process.

This is the characterized by the child's difficulty taking the viewpoint of others.

  • Egocentricism

This characteristic of development is evidenced by development consisting of biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional dimensions.

  • Multidimensional

Jerome Bruner's cognitive development theory is a

  • Constructivist theory

Your reactions to the people in your microsystem will affect how they treat you in return.

  • True

Which of the individuals below is in the integrity versus despair stage?

  • Jaja who looks back at her past life and wishes she had spent more time with her loved ones.

This is a mediational process in which the extent to which we notice a behavior affects the likelihood of the behavior being imitated.

  • Attention

During the asocial attachment stage, infants enjoy human company and most babies respond equally to any person giving care.

  • False

Children who have Disorganized Attachment engage in stereotypical behaviors.

  • True

The _____ is a setting that affects an individual despite the fact that the person is not being an active participant.

  • Exosystem

According to Bruner, discovery learning implies that students construct their own knowledge for themselves through exploring ideas

  • True

Albert Bandura's famous Bobo Doll Experiment focused on what type of social behavior?

  • Agressiveness

Four-month old Kuina smiles and laughs whenever anyone plays peek-a-boo with her. She also goes happily with whoever carries her. But she cries when she wants to be breastfed. In what stage of attachment development is Kuina?

  • Multiple Attachment

Which of the following provides the best example of the macrosystem as described in Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory?

  • . Local government approves increased funding for public school libraries. (WRONG)

This refers to the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge.

  • Equilibration

During a workshop on self-awareness, the facilitator asked the participants to pick one of three colored candies. Based on the color of the candies, the participants have to say something about themselves as follows:

  • Yellow candy: State their names, their companies, and their jobs. Red candy: Narrate a peak moment in their lives as leaders Green candy: Share a dream that they repeatedly have

The central theme of Erikson's theory of psychosocial stages was the development of:

  • Personality (WRONG)

This source of efficacy pertains to the experience of success or failure in doing a task or controlling an environment To have a resilient sense of self-efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through effort and perseverance.

  • Mastery Experiences

The concept of Spiral Curriculum involves information being structured so that complex ideas can be taught at a simplified level first, and then re-visited at more complex levels later on.

  • True

According to Kohlberg people can only pass through the levels of moral reasoning in the order that he listed.

  • True

Laura wants to develop baby James' ability to trust. An example of the things she should do is:

  • Carry him when he cries.

Older adults who have already stopped learning are more flexible and are more capable of engaging in more adaptive behaviors.

  • Exosystem

Low self-efficacy and an unresponsive environment are MOST likely to result in

  • learned helplessness. (WRONG)

According to Sigmund Freud, the ego dwells in the conscious mind.

  • True

(10 months and onwards) The baby becomes increasingly independent and forms several attachments.

  • Multiple Attachment

This level of morality is based on individual rights and justice

  • Post-conventional morality

A child with insecure avoidant attachment seeks the attachment figure when distressed.

  • False

The government of a country is an example of a macrosystem

  • True

According to Freud, a person who had too strict toilet training may be fixated at the Oral Stage.

  • False

How many stages of psychosocial development did Erikson describe?

  • Eight

Erik Erikson defined psychosocial as involving:

  • . the psychological needs of the individual conflicting with the needs of society.

This stage takes place from birth until the first year of life.

  • Oral Stage

People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines and principles which may or may not fit the law. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment.

  • Universal Principles

FILL IN THE BLANK: The Macrosystem encompasses _____ in which the person lives.

  • Cultural Environment

The mesosystem is the direct environment we have in our lives.

  • False

Piaget believed that the thinking of children in the concrete operational stage are characterized by the following, except:

  • Re-evaluate hypotheses

The stage that occurs between birth and one year of age is concerned with:

  • Trust vs. Mistrust

Cyan became a paraphlegic after meeting with an accident during paragliding. Watching other PWDs on YouTube driving, working, engaging in various productive activities makes him firmly believe that he, too, possesses the capabilities to perform the activities. The source of Cyan's efficacy belief is:

  • Mastery Experiences (WRONG)

The "bioecological" approach to human development broke down barriers amongthe social sciences, and built bridges between the disciplines that have allowed findings to emerge about which key elements in the larger social structure, and across societies, are vital for optimal human development.

  • True

At this stage, the child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear

  • Phallic Stage

Object permanence is knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden.

  • True

At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people

  • Social Contract and Individual Rights

The Social Development Theory states that development takes place before social interaction; consciousness and cognition are the results of socialization and social behavior

  • False

This factor that contributes to human development pertains to the process of biological inheritance and maturation.

  • Nature

Maria's mother threw her a birthday party where her relatives, friends, classmates, and teachers attended. This situation reflects which of the following systems?

  • Mesosystem

Jarred thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarred demonstrates a(n) ________ morality

  • Preconventional

View of human development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context.

  • Contextual

John Bowlby defined attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings."

  • True

Adah can't believe her eyes that when her son and his family arrived from the USA six years after they migrated, her school age grandchildren have grown taller and spoke English like Americans. They also had plenty of ideas about so many things and candidly expressed their views. This situation is an example of what characteristic of development?

  • Contextual

The unconscious mind can verbalize about your conscious experience and you can think about it in an logical fasion.

  • False

A child being affected by a parent receiving a promotion at work or losing their job is an example of a macrosystem.

  • False

IDENTIFICATION:_____ It includes the transitions and shifts in one's lifespan. This may also involve the socio-historical contexts that may influence a person.

  • Chronosystem

Psychologist Albert Bandura is most closely associated with

  • social cognitive learning

According to Vygotsky, language develops social interactions.

  • True

Private speech is, to a large extent, thinking in pure meanings.

  • False

Early adulthood begins in the late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties

  • True

According to Sigmund Freud, during this stage, the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands.

  • Oral Stage

It is the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a competent person

  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

The American psychologist who coined the term scaffolding is -

  • Jerome Bruner

A strong emotional and physical attachment to at least one primary caregiver is critical to personal development.

  • Attachment theory

According to Bruner, discovery learning implies that students construct their own knowledge for themselves through exploring ideas.

  • True

According to Jerome Bruner, the aim of education should be to create flexible learners.

  • False

The Ego is the part of the personality that is aware of reality and is in contact with the outside world.

  • True

At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.

  • Individualism and Exchange

The developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood starts at 3-5 years and ends at 18-22 years.

  • False

Refers to the interaction where the tutor provides instructions to the child and the child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor.

  • Cooperative or collaborative dialogue

If a child struggles to do well in school, what problem might emerge?

  • Struggle with feelings of inferiority

Which of the individuals below is in the intimacy versus isolation stage?

  • Johnny who will propose marriage to his girlfriend tomorrow

Sharif has great confidence in himself as a masseur. However, the economy in his city has recently turned downward, and few people cannot afford a masseur. When Sharif applies for a job at a spa, he will likely have high ______ and low _____.

  • self-efficacy; outcome expectations (Not Sure)

Which of the following is true about Scaffolding?

  • describes the way children often build on the information they have already mastered.

This stage is from 1 to 3 years of age.

  • Anal Stage

IDENTIFICATION:____ It refers to a setting that does not involve the person as an active participant, but still affects him/her. This includes decisions that have bearing on the person, but in which they have no participation in the decision-making process.

  • Exosystem

In this stage, the child does good in order to avoid being punished.

  • Obedience and Punishment

The accurate and helpful response to a baby's signals.

  • Sensitive responsiveness

According to Bandura, reinforcement

  • is cognitively mediated.

Children in the preoperational stage have difficulty taking the perspective of another person. This is known as:

  • Egocentrism

Jose knows that when he goes out to dinner he needs to follow certain rules and mind his manners at the table. Such standards are an example of:

  • Conventional rule

Freud argued that the individual's personality should be in a state of dynamic equilibrium (balance), and humans may suffer from psychological difficulties if there is too much id, superego or a weak ego

  • True

This level of morality is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs.

  • Conventional morality

This set of processes that affect an individual's development include the inheritance of genes from parents, the development of the brain, height and weight gains, changes in motor skills, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline among others.

  • Biological processes

TRUE OR FALSE: The Macrosystem can have either a positive or negative impact on a person's development depending on his or her cultural environment.

  • True

When Mika is asked why he should not hit his brother, he responds, "Because Mommy says so and if I do I will get yelled at." Mika's level of moral development fits with which of Piaget's and/or Kohlberg's stages?

  • Obedience and Punishment

Family, friends, classmates, teachers, neighbors and other people in your community are under which of the following system?

  • Microsystem

Spiral Curriculum requires students to construct their own knowledge for themselves.

  • False

A child being affected by a parent receiving a promotion at work. This reflects which of the following?

  • Exosystem

Hans stole the medicine from the pharmacy because his sick wife's life depended on it. In what stage is Hans?

  • Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights (WRONG)

People's expectations that they are capable of performing a behavior that will produce desired outcomes in any particular situation is called

  • self-efficacy

This stage of cognitive representation involves the encoding and storage of information. There is a direct manipulation of objects without any internal representation of the objects

  • Enactive representation

This involves adopting observed behaviors, values, beliefs and attitudes of another person.

  • Identification

Jerome Bruner published the study titled Value and Need as Organizing Factors in Perception, in which poor and rich children were asked to estimate the size of coins or wooden disks the size of American pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and half-dollars.

  • True

Vygotsky sees the More Knowledgeable Other as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given, in order to allow children to develop skills which they will use on their own

  • False

The study involving young children and a Bobo doll found that

  • children exposed to an aggressive live model were more aggressive than children not subjected to an aggressive live model.

Enactive representation involves the encoding and storing of action-based information in a person's memory.

  • True

Children's symbolical thinking is manifested by their ability to represent objects with images and words.

  • True

The degree that a child looks at the person giving care to check how they should respond to something new

  • Social Referencing

The attachment between the child and the caregiver has to be reciprocal. One person may have an attachment to an individual while the other may not.

  • True

TRUE OR FALSE: The Microsystem involves the relationships between the exosystems in one's life

  • False

According to Jerome Bruner, the outcome of cognitive development is

  • Thinking

Anya wants to take the licensure examination for psychologists. However, she does not feel confident enough to take it because the stress and demand of taking care of her sick father makes her feel drained physically and emotionally. Her situation also prevents her from reviewing for the examination. The source of her efficacy belief is:

  • Emotional and Physiological States

This stage is where the child or individual recognizes law and order as the primary source of morality.

  • Maintaining Social Order

Attachment in children is usually manifested by seeking proximity with the attachment figure when upset or threatened.

  • True

This source of self-efficacy has to do with success in mastering a task or controlling an environment whereas a failure will undermine that efficacy belief. To have a resilient sense of self-efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through effort and perseverance

  • Mastery Experiences

Attachment theory states that a strong emotional and physical attachment to at least one primary caregiver is critical to personal development.

  • True

The processes through which children internalize meaning in social interaction and organize it in an internal psychological system

  • Meaning-making

This characteristic of development explains that development consists of biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional aspects

  • Multidimensional

During the formal operational stage, the child begins to have the ability to think about abstract concepts and thinking in a formal systematic way.

  • True

The ability to think abstractly and systematically solve problems emerges during the:

  • Formal Operational Stage

After 3-month old Ana hit the toy piano bars at the foot of her crib and made a musical sound, she intentionally kicked her feet to hit it. What stage of representation is Ana at?

  • Enactive

This stage of cognitive representation involves the encoding and storage of information. There is a direct manipulation of objects without any internal representation of the objects.

  • Enactive representation

According to Piaget, during which stage do children develop the capacity for conservation?

  • Concrete Operational

After Sai learned that penguins can't fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of -

  • Accommodation

ZPD stans for Zone of Proximal Development.

  • True

TRUE OR FALSE: According to the ecological theory, if the relationships in the immediate microsystem break down, the child will not have the tools to explore other parts of his environment.

  • True

The main achievement of children during the sensorimotor stage is -

  • Object permanence

What are the five levels of environmental influence from intimate to broad?

  • Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem

In 1882, developmental psychology emerged as a specific discipline when Wilhelm Preyer published a book where he described the development of his daughter from birth to two and a half years. The title of the book was:

  • The Mind of the Child

This is from 3 to 5 or 6 years of age.

  • Phallic Stage

Which perspective views human development as being shaped by unconscious forces?

  • Psychoanalytic

Which is an example of the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage?

  • A preschooler insisting on wearing his shoes even if the left and right are interchanged

The crisis that arises in young adulthood is concerned with:

  • Intimacy vs. Isolation

Social cognitive theory relates to learning by:

  • Modeling Others

Dr. Saji has been doing neurosurgery for 10 years. Today, he will perform his 25th surgery, and he cannot help that bit of anxiety because the patient is his relative. He found peace and confidence in recalling the 24 times that he successfully did it, and in the fact that he always gives his best effort in the performance of his duties. Dr. Saji's source of self-efficacy belief is:

  • Mastery Experiences

This refers to individuals' beliefs about their ability to succeed at a task.

  • Self-efficacy

Speech directed to the self and serves an intellectual function (typical from the age of three).

  • Private speech

According to Bruner, children learn best through building on the information they have already mastered with the help of adults or peers who are more knowledgeable in a particular area. This process is called

  • Scaffolding

Reciprocal teaching refers to the contemporary educational application of Vygotsky's theories

  • True

the development of the brain, height and weight, are examples of biological processes that affect human development.

  • True

Two containers hold the same amount, but Jane thinks that the taller, skinnier glass holds more. This is known as:

  • Absence of Conservation

When two microsystems interact, Urie Bronfenbrenner would term this the:

  • Mesosystem

The outcome of cognitive development is thinking.

  • True

This is the child's understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes

  • Conservation

A process in which teachers and students collaborate in learning and practicing the skills of summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting.

  • Reciprocal teaching

Rose wants to develop her son's sense of autonomy, instead of shame and doubt. She should:

  • . Encourage him to work on his school assignments and home chores

This system involves the relationships between the people in the direct environment in one's life.

  • Mesosystem

Who discovered that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people, also known as Social Cognitive Theory?

  • Albert Bandura

A cornerstone of Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is that society and culture play a key role in promoting development. What type of perspective is this considered to be?

  • A sociocultural perspective

This is another route to self-efficacy through the art of visualizing yourself behaving effectively or successfully in a given situation.

  • Imaginal Experiences

Joey is watching a horse race. He knows that his dog at home has four legs, a tail, and fur. When he sees the horses, he shouts out "Doggies." Joey is demonstrating -

  • Assimilation

This characteristic of development pertains to the setting within which development takes place as influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.

  • Contextual

The Scaffolding Theory involves the helpful, structured interaction between an adult and a child with the aim of helping the child achieve a specific goal.

  • True

According to Freud, what is the function of the "ego"?

  • To mediate between impulsive drives and the reality.

The link between the child's home and their school is an example of the _______ in Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory

  • mesosystem

In this stage of moral development, the child does good things in order to be seen as a good person by others.

  • Good Interpersonal Relationship

Lev Vygotsky coined the term "scaffolding" to describe the way children often building on the information they have already mastered.

  • False

TRUE OR FALSE: Relationships in a Microsystem are non-directional.

  • False

Dr. Aryan's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Aryan is a(n) ________ psychologist.

  • Developmental

One example of Projection defense mechanism is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

  • False

Which of the following is an example of observational learning?

  • . Young women wear clothes styled like those of a popular actress

According to Kohlberg's model, all of the following statements about moral development are true except -

  • a focus on socially acceptable action is the highest level of morality

Konrad Lorenz developed the ethological theory that newborn animals tend to form a bond with their caregiver.

  • True

The libido now becomes focused on the anus and the child derives satisfaction from defecating.

  • Anal Stage

Infants indiscriminately enjoy human company during 6 weeks to 7 months old.

  • True

The red candy taps on which part of the mind?

  • Preconscious

Developmental Psychology did not immediately begin as a discipline.

  • True

This pertains to inborn traits or characteristics inherited from the biological parents

  • Heredity

This is a source of self-efficacy pertaining to the state a person is in including stress reactions or tension, or positive emotions.

  • Emotional and Physiological States

MKO stands for More Knowledgeable Order.

  • False

This is a mediational process in which the extent to which we remember a behavior affects the likelihood of it being imitated later by the observer.

  • Retention

The concept of Spiral Curriculum involves information being structured so that complex ideas can be taught at a simplified level first, and then re-visited at more complex levels later on

  • True

According to Kohlberg, everyone achieves all the stages of moral reasoning.

  • False

Johnny is playing in his crib when his teddy bear Mr. Peeps falls under the crib. Johnny cries knowing that Mr. Peeps exists somewhere. Johnny is demonstrating -

  • Object permanence

Which of the following BEST defines spiral curriculum?

  • Introducing basic information on a topic early in the year and complex forms of the same topic later in the year

This system encompasses the cultural environment in which the person lives and all other systems that affect them.

  • Macrosystem

The ability to imitate a behavior can be limited by abilities to copy the behavior.

  • Reproduction

Cognitions are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world.

  • False

The child's libido becomes dormant upon reaching the Latency Stage.

  • True

This refers to the knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden or cannot be seen by the eyes

  • Object permanence

Developmental Psychology focuses on biological, socio-emotional and cognitive processes which affect human development.

  • True

(7 to 9 months) The baby looks to particular people for security, comfort and protection.

  • Specific Attachment

(6 weeks to 7 months) Infants enjoy human company and most babies respond equally to any person giving care. They get upset when an individual ceases to interact with them.

  • Indiscriminate Attachment

Vygotsky's theories feed into many current interests except for:

  • competitive learning

Defense Mechanisms are invented by the ego in order to resolve conflict between the Id and the superego

  • True

A process in which a teacher or more advanced peer helps to structure or arrange a task so that a novice can work on it successfully.

  • Apprenticeship

This refers to thinking before imitation. This occurs between observing the behavior and imitating it or not.

  • Mediational Process

During Piaget's Sensorimotor stage, what is the ability to flexibly altering existing schemas into new schemas called?

  • Accommodation

Faridah wears a hijab wherever she goes. This situation falls under which of the following?

  • Macrosystem

Mary is carefully studying how her classmate demonstrated the dance steps before she performs them. What Mary is doing mentally is called:

  • Mediational processes

The father of the ecological systems theory.

  • Urie Bronfenbrenner

Which of the following was added by Bronfenbrenner as a fifth system?

  • Chronosystem

What is the gap between a child's capacity to perform a task independently and the potential to perform it with assistance known as?

  • Zone of proximal development

The mesosytem involves the relationships between the microsystems in one's life.

  • True

For Vygotsky, knowledge and understanding emerge through:

  • an interaction process, by which socially and culturally determined competencies become individualised.

Refers to a measure of a child's response to the arrival of a stranger.

  • Stranger Anxiety

Equilibration is when an existing schema does not work and thus needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.

  • False

According to the Ecological Systems Theory, which of the following affects a person's development the most?

  • Everything in their surrounding environment

This characteristic of development refers to a person's capacity for change.

  • Plastic

This source of efficacy pertains to seeing people (role models) similar to ourselves succeed by their sustained effort, and raising our beliefs that we too possess the capabilities to master the activities needed for success in that area.

  • Vicarious Experiences

Vigotsky suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skillful peers - within the zone of proximal development.

  • True

It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person

  • Genital Stage

This is from 5 or 6 to puberty

  • Latency Stage

This refers to Jerome Bruner's cognitive development theory itself which means that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge and by exploring as opposed to being told about something.

  • Discovery learning

The model in observational learning is the person who

  • is imitated by the learner.

The English psychiatrist who presented his first formal statements of ethologically based attachment theory to the British Psychoanalytic Society in 1957 where he argued that mother-child attachment promotes the child's survival by increasing mother-child proximity.

  • John Bowlby

this theory explains that personality results from the interaction of an individual's thoughts with inner qualities, self-beliefs, and environmental cues.

  • Social Cognitive Theory

This source of self-efficacy is about seeing people (role models) similar to ourselves succeed by their sustained effort raises our beliefs that we too possess the capabilities to master the activities needed for success in that area

  • Vicarious Experiences

According to Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development, during which stage do children develop the capacity for conservation?

  • Concrete Operationa

In 1877, this significant figure conducted the first systematic study of developmental psychology through detailing the development of his own son's innate forms of communication.

  • Charles Darwin

How did Vygotsky see children?

  • hildren are active participants in an interactive process

In 1882, developmental psychology emerged as a specific discipline when this German physiologist published the book, The Mind of the Child, where he described the development of his own daughter from birth to two and a half years.

  • Wilhelm Preyer

"3 STAGES OF LIFE: TEEN AGE - Have time & energy but no money; WORKING AGE - Have money & energy but no time; OLD AGE - Have time & money but no energy." The above quotation captures what characteristic of development?

  • Multidirectional (Not Sure) Multidimensional (WRONG)

Iconic Mode of Represetation is where information is stored visually in the form of images.

  • True

Vygotsky postulates that learning cannot be seperated from its social context.

  • True

Assimilation is the use of an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.

  • True

Why is the microsystem the most influential environmental level in a person's life?

  • Because it is the system where a person has the most direct contact with factors influencing development.

During which stage is children's developmental focus on studies?

  • Latency (6-12 years)

This source of efficacy pertains to influential people in our lives who can strengthen our beliefs that we have what it takes to succeed.

  • Verbal Persuasion

The Ego can guide the individual towards socially acceptable behavior.

  • False

Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are suddenly judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:

  • Concept of conservation.

Emma was going to audition for a dramatic role in a stage play. In order to give a good performance, she created a drama scenario with herself playing the role of an orphaned daughter. Playing the image in her mind gave her the confidence to act during the audition. The source of Emma's efficacy was:

  • Imaginal Experiences

The yellow candy taps on which part of the mind?

  • Conscious

What is the function of the "superego"?

  • To guide one in performing socially-acceptable behavior

Andy got married and relocated out of the city temporarily. This situation reflects which of the following systems?

  • Chronosystem

Fred was on the verge of resigning from his work due to his perception that his supervisor was not recognizing his efforts. However, his wife and his father encouraged him to hang on because they believe that he had the necessary soft and hard skills to keep growing on the job. Fred heeded their advice and gave his job his best. One year later, he was promoted as unit supervisor. Fred's efficacy belief originated from:

  • Verbal Persuasion

Nat was busy playing with Lego bricks but when he noticed that his mother was not around, he started crying and he was inconsolable. He stopped only when his mother returned and carried him.

  • Specific Attachment

Late Adulthood is a time of life review, retirement and new social roles.

  • True

Observational learning is said to take place when an individual

  • imitates the behavior of a model

Children with Avoidant Attachment show a clear preference for the caregiver (e.g., avoiding strangers).

  • False

Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting cognitive development. He assumes that cognitive development varies across cultures, whereas Piaget states cognitive development is mostly universal across cultures.

  • True

During the concrete operational stage, the child begins to learn to think hypothetically.

  • False

Harlow and Zimmerman's famous experiment showed that infants developing a close bond depending on their hunger satisfaction.

  • False

An example of enactive representation is a baby remembering how to shake a rattle.

  • True

In the study conducted by Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson, all of the babies were studied in their own home.

  • True

This source of efficacy pertains to the state we are in.

  • Emotional and Physiological States

In the Phallic Stage, the child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear.

  • True

This comprise culturally determined methods or materials that allow children to use the basic mental functions more effectively/adaptively.

  • Tools of intellectual adaptation

According to Bruner, the Iconic Representation involves storing of information in the form of a code or symbol, such as language. The words and symbols are abstractions, they do not necessarily have a direct connection to the information.

  • False

Kevin and his friends dislike their seventh-grade math teacher. They decide to scratch his car in the school parking lot. Kevin knows that this is wrong but doesn't want his friends to think he isn't part of their group. According to Kohlberg, what stage of moral reasoning is Kevin in?

  • Good Interpersonal Relationships

As Shane and Deb are preparing their joint yearly taxes, they consider not reporting income that Deb received. Shane suggests that misreporting their taxes could result in fines and imprisonment. Deb suggests that such consequences would embarrass the family and possibly ruin their children's future. They subsequently decide not to misreport income. In making this decision, Shane reflects the _____ stage of moral development and Deb reflects the _____ stage.

  • conventional; conventional

Which of the following is one way a teacher can model a skill or behavior?

  • Live modeling of a process

Cognitive growth involves an interaction between basic human capabilities and "culturally invented technologies that serve as amplifiers of these capabilities."

  • True

During the sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years), children tend to do a lot of exploring thus making Piaget refer to them as "little scientists."

  • True

A child who refuses to help a classmate cheat falls under which of the following stages?

  • Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment (WRONG) Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights (WRONG) Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order (Not Sure)

Charles Darwin published his book The Mind of the Child which was based on his observations of his son.

  • False

he concept of Spiral Curriculum involves information being structured so that complex ideas can be taught at a simplified level first, and then re-visited at more complex levels later on.

  • True

In discovery learning, students perform tasks to uncover what is to be learned.

  • True

Which of the individuals below is in the generativity versus stagnation stage?

  • . Mary who is thinking hard whether she should contribute to the business startup money of her son or not.

Dr. Katsuki is a psychologist who uses observational learning to help parents reduce aggressiveness in their children. The first step that he recommends is that parents

  • . help their children remember the behavior. (WRONG)

Which of the following refers to the intense, enduring, social-emotional relationship that develops between a child and a caregiver?

  • Attachment

Attachment Theory states that infants seek close proximity with their caregivers because they seek security and comfort

  • True

According to Piaget, children are ______ in constructing their understanding of the world.

  • Active

A teacher applying discovery learning

  • Facilitates the learning process

According to Freud's theory of development, during which stage is children's developmental focus on gender identity?

  • Phallic (3-6 years)

Which of the activities below best demonstrates discovery learning: When there is some disagreement during class, the teacher should ________.

  • allow for the free exchange of ideas, keep an eye on things, and get involved only if needed

Successfully completing the eighth stage of psychosocial development leads to the emergence of what quality?

  • Purpose (WRONG) Wisdom (WRONG) Hope (Not Sure)

Which of Piaget's stages is associated with adolescence?

  • Formal operation

Refers to the distress level when a child is away from person giving care and the degree of comfort felt on return.

  • Separation Anxiety

Developmental Psychology does not focus on how people grow and change over the course of a lifetime.

  • False

Babies whose needs are not met during the Oral Stage may grow up to become nail biters or smokers.

  • True

Refers to the speech used to talk to others (typical from the age of two).

  • Social speech

This characteristic of development explains that development progresses through a span of time with different points in the life of a person.

  • Lifelong

Which of the following is NOT one of the four elements of observational learning?

  • Defiance

Infant Jed smiles when people talk to him, and even just when the toys hanging over his crib move and make a sound. Jed is in what stage of attachment development?

  • Specific Attachment (not sure)

According to Lev Vygostky, learning begins with an action, feeling, and manipulating.

  • False

This way of adapting or adjusting to the environment happens when the existing schema is changed in order to deal with a new object or situation

  • Accommodation

Ahmira has no problem going to work and leaving her one-year old daughter Jaja with her mother-inlaw, sister-in-law or a nanny because she doesn't show any distress being left with them. Jaja is in what stage of attachment development?

  • Multiple Attachment

Most education institutions in the world provide education opportunities from preschool until post-graduate education in cognition of the varying learning needs throughout the ages. What characteristic of development does this government stance take into accou

  • Lifelong

According to Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory, cognitive development is a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience.

  • True

The Ego is the part of the personality that is aware of reality and is in contact with the outside world

  • True

Schemas enable us to form a mental representation of the world.

  • True

Beth wants to prevent her husband John from stagnating during middle adulthood. One of the things that she can do is:

  • . Encourage him to join activities for helping the youth

Bandura believes that learning

  • is not facilitated by reinforcement. (WRONG)

Erik Erikson's interest in identity was greatly influenced by:

  • Freud

During 0 to 6 weeks of age, infants have already developed a special preference for a single attachment figure.

  • False

This factor that contributes to human development pertains to the environment within which the development process takes place.

  • Nurture

The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by:

  • Piaget's cognitive development theory

According to Bruner, even the most complex material, if properly structured and presented, can be understood by very young children. Complex ideas can be taught at a simplified level first, and then re-visited at more complex levels later on. This concept refers to

  • Spiral curriculum

Piaget's term for organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations

  • Schemes

The Ecological Systems theory states that we are mere recipients of the experiences we have when socializing with the people in the microsystem environment.

  • False

Cognitive development is a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience.

  • True

Which technique is LEAST likely to raise self-efficacy?

  • increased emotional arousal

Speech that takes on a self-regulating function. It is to a large extent thinking in pure meanings (typical from the age of seven).

  • Silent inner speech

The school board passes a new rule that limits the number of students allowed in each classroom in order to enhance teacher-student relationships. This is an example of which of Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems?

  • Microsystem

The direct environment people have in their lives with which there is direct social interactions.

  • Microsystem

Incorporating new information into your existing ideas is a process known as:

  • Accommodation (WRONG)

The early developmentalists focused on the mind of the child.

  • True

A child hiding a toy so he doesn't have to share it with the other kids falls under which of the following stages?

  • Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange

This characteristic of development means that developmental changes occur naturally and in all directions, not in a solid path. Development is a continuity of change that produces gains or losses which will prove to enhance future change

  • Multidirectional

Knowing that someone grew up before TVs existed is an example of understanding someone based on their ______.

  • Chronosystem

The correct sequence of Piaget's stages of cognitive development are

  • Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

According to Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory, there are five stages of cognitive development.

  • False

This was defined by Piaget as the basic building block of intelligent behavior - a way of organizing knowledge.

  • Schema
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