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Theories of Personality

Delves into the study of different psychological perspective and models that explain the development and dynamics of individual personality traits and behavior.

psychoanalysis

behaviorism

humanism

trait theory

cognitive theory

social learning theory

psychodynamic theory

self-efficacy

self-concept

temperament

attachment theory

defense mechanisms

consciousness

unconsciousness

identity development

general

A period of social latency.

  • a. Adolescent
  • b. Early Childhood
  • c. Young Adulthood
  • d. Adulthood

According to Skinner, this simply refers to the effects of the deprivation and satiation and to the corresponding probability that the organism will respond.

  • Intention
  • Purpose
  • Reinforcement
  • Drives
  • Emotions

The Studies of Hysteria contains many of Freud's own dreams.

  • True
  • False

Specific and Incidental

  • a. Threat
  • b. Guilt
  • c. Fear
  • d. Anxiety

According to Horney, most neurotic conflicts arise during or is influenced by _____________.

  • Childhood
  • Adolescence
  • Old Age
  • Adulthood

Self - Actualizing people can accept themselves the way they are. They lack defensiveness, phoniness and self-defeating guilt.

  • [No Answer]

Personality is rooted in the brain.

  • Adler
  • Rogers
  • Maslow
  • Skinner
  • Murray

The Basic Strength of Play Age.

  • a. Hope
  • b. Competence
  • c. Will
  • d. Purpose

"Self torture"

  • a. Depreciation
  • b. Self Accusation
  • c. Excuses
  • d. Accusation

Adler believed that people create patterns of behavior to protect their exaggerated sense of self - esteem against public disgrace. This enables people to hide their inflated self - image and to maintain their current style of life.

  • Style of Life
  • Masculine Protest
  • Safeguarding Tendencies
  • Factors in Maladjustment

"Gemeinschaftsgefühl"

  • Adler
  • Freud
  • Erikson
  • Jung
  • Horney

According to Allport, these are general characteristics held in common by many people. They can be inferred from factor analysis studies such as those conducted by Eysenck.

  • Cardinal Disposition
  • Emotional Security
  • Proprium
  • Motivation
  • Common Traits

This helps us regulate our behavior through the process of cognitive mediation. We are capable not only of reflective self - awareness but also of judging the worth of our actions on the basis of goals we have set for ourselves.

  • a. Judgmental Process
  • b. Self - Observation
  • c. Self - Reaction
  • d. Performance Attribution

People's beliefs and expectations of the future.

  • a. Compensation
  • b. Inferiority
  • c. Fictionalism
  • d. Creative Power

It is not a duty or obligation but a natural desire emerging from the conflict between generativity and stagnation or self - absorption.

  • a. The Basic Strength of Old Age
  • b. The Basic Strength of Adulthood
  • c. The Basic Strength of Play Age
  • d. The Basic Strength of Adolescent

The ability to fuse one's identity with that of another person without fear of losing it.

  • a. Intimacy
  • b. Role Confusion
  • c. Generativity
  • d. Isolation

People do more and contemplate future behaviors. People not onlu=y make choices but they monitor their progress toward fulfilling those choices.

  • a. Intentionality
  • b. Self - Reactiveness
  • c. Self - Reflectiveness
  • d. Forethought

The feelings of being finished or helpless.

  • Intimacy versus Isolation
  • Identity versus Role Confusion
  • Initiative versus Guilt
  • Integrity versus Despair
  • Generativity versus Stagnation

Taking responsibility for a natural disasters. Questioning the virtue of their own motivations.

  • a. Self accusation
  • b. Self contempt
  • c. Self destructive
  • d. Self torment

Product of the interaction of heredity, environment and person's creative power in Individual Psychology.

  • Unity of Personality
  • Style of Life
  • Subjective Personality
  • Creative Power

The satisfaction of love needs and the recognition that we have a positive reputation.

  • Esteem Needs
  • Physiological Needs
  • Safety Needs
  • Self - Actualization Needs
  • Love and Belongingness Needs

The presentation of an aversive stimulus, such as an electric shock, or the removal of a positive one.

  • a. Punishment
  • b. Reinforcement
  • c. Negative Reinforcement

The process of removing hysterical symptoms through “talking them out.”

  • a. Free association
  • b. Catharsis
  • c. Paralysis
  • d. Hypnosis

It grows according to a genetically established rate and in a fixed sequence according to Erikson and it does not replace the earlier stage.

  • Society's Influence
  • Epigenetic Principle
  • Psychosocial Development

Apprehension about an unknown danger and stems from the ego's relation with the id.

  • a. realistic Anxiety
  • b. Moral Anxiety
  • c. Neurotic Anxiety

It consists of drives and instincts that are beyond awareness, yet they motivate many of our behaviors.

  • Unconscious
  • Preconscious
  • Conscious

The basic strength of early childhood.

  • Hope
  • Will
  • Competence
  • Purpose

According to Horney, thi is the false pride based not on a realistic view of true self but on a spurious image of the idealized self.

  • Neurotic Pride
  • Neurotic Claims
  • Neurotic Search for Glory

It consists of drives and instincts that are beyond awareness, yet they motivate many of our behaviours.

  • a. Unconscious
  • b. Phylogenic Endowment
  • c. Preconscious
  • d. Conscious
  • e. Level of Mental Life

The period of little sexual development but a time of tremendous growth.

  • a. Play age
  • b. School Age
  • c. Early Childhood
  • d. Infancy

Governed by the reality principle.

  • a. das Ich
  • b. Uber Ich
  • c. das Es

Incompatibility of specific elements.

  • a. Modulation Corollary
  • b. Commonality Corollary
  • c. Fragmentation Corollary
  • d. Experience Corollary
  • e. Range Corollary

Carl Jung believed that psychologically healthy people would ______________.

  • Use their persona as a shield against self - realization
  • Identify with their persona and use it as a guide for effective relationships.
  • Have no persona
  • Recognize their persona but not confuse it with the self
  • Use their persona against other people

To Carl Rogers, external evaluation is our perception of other people's view of us that do not foster psychological health.

  • True
  • False

Adler believed that _____________ influenced many men and women to overemphasize the importance of being manly.

  • Social Practices and Anatomy
  • Anatomy
  • Social Practices
  • Cultural Practices

Emphasizes relationships among constructs and states that people are characteristically evolved for their convenience in anticipating events, a construction system embracing ordinal relationships between constructs.

  • a. Dichotomy Corollary
  • b. Construction Corollary
  • c. Individuality Corollary
  • d. Choice Corollary
  • e. Organization Corollary

The internal factors in self - regulation include self - observation, judgmental processes, and __________________.

  • Self - Consistency
  • Selective Activation
  • Self - Reaction
  • Congruence

According to Allport all those behaviors and characteristics that people regard as warm and central in their lives.

  • Proprium
  • Motivation
  • Motivational Dispositions
  • Structure of Personality

Motivated by a strong need to exploit others.

  • a. Towards people
  • b. Away from people
  • c. Against people

The conflict of the syntonic and the dystonic elements in Erikson's psychosocial stages.

  • The conflict of interests
  • The interaction of opposites
  • The conflict of oppositions
  • The pseudo - masochist conflicts

The most basic needs.

  • a. Safety Needs
  • b. Self - Actualization Needs
  • c. Love and Belongingness Needs
  • d. Esteem Needs
  • e. Physiological Needs

Based on Carl Rogers Theory, infants begin to develop a vague concept of self when a portion of their experience becomes personalized and differentiated in awareness as "I" or "me" experiences.

  • True
  • False

Neurotics attempt to indiscriminately please others.

  • a. Neurotic need for social recognition and prestige.
  • b. Neurotic need to exploit others.
  • c. Neurotic need for perfection and unassailability.
  • d. Neurotic need for affection and approval.

An individual who is very religious is using this protective device against basic anxiety according to Horney.

  • Prestige
  • Power
  • Withdrawal
  • Submissiveness
  • Defensiveness
  • Affection
  • Possessiveness

Fears that are strong enough and pervasive enough to have severely debilitating effects on one's daily life.

  • Phobias

Positive and negative contact with a person.

  • a. Becoming a Person
  • b. Awareness
  • c. Self - Actualization

Conscious: Ideas can slip past the vigilant censor and enter into the preconscious in a disguised form.

  • True
  • False

According to Alfred Adler, the children in this birth order are the most socially matured.

  • Youngest Child
  • Oldest Child
  • Only Child
  • Middle Child

It includes assuming responsibility for the care of offspring that result from sexual contact.

  • Fidelity
  • Procreativity
  • Genitality
  • Sensuality

Characteristics are unique qualities of an individual that include such attributes as temperament, physique, and intelligence.

  • True
  • False

Skinner accounted for _________________ by the contingencies of survival and the contingencies of reinforcement.

  • Drives
  • Self - Awareness
  • Purpose and Intention
  • Emotions

A response to a similar environment in the absence of previous reinforcement.

  • Stimulus generalization

The eight stages were characterized by a psychosexual mode as well as a psychosocial crisis.

  • True
  • False

Works based on the reality principle.

  • Id
  • Superego
  • Ego

The final psychosocial stage.

  • Procreativity
  • Generalized Sensuality
  • Genitality
  • Latency

The third characteristic of science according to B.F. Skinner.

  • [No Answer]

When people have primarily satisfied their physiological needs, they become motivated by__.

  • Safety needs

According to Skinner, humans not only have consciousness but are also aware of their consciousness; they are not only aware of their environment but are also aware of themselves as part of their environment.

  • True
  • False

Incongruence between the ideal self and the erceived self can result in conflict and unhappiness.

  • True
  • False

Reality Principle

  • Superego
  • Personality
  • Ego
  • Id
  • Behavior

People are motivated by a strong need to exploit others and to use them for their own benefit.

  • Moving together with people
  • Moving toward people
  • Moving against people
  • Moving away from people

The idea that personality is mostly shaped during the first years of childhood is a/an _____________ notion.

  • Behavioral
  • Humanistic
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Socioanalytic
  • Individualistic

"Social Cognitive Theory"

  • Allport
  • Eysenck
  • Bandura
  • Kelly
  • Maslow

Similar to the lowers steps on Maslow's hierarchy of needs that includes basic needs.

  • a. Self - Actualization
  • b. Enhancement
  • c. Maintenance

Stagnation and pathology.

  • a. General Discussion Needs
  • b. Cognitive Needs
  • c. Neurotic Needs
  • d. Aesthetic Needs
  • e. Hierarchy of Needs

Lisa has a desire to know things and solve mysteries. She loved understanding her surrounding and is also very curious.

  • a. Aesthetic Needs
  • b. Cognitive Needs
  • c. Neurotic Needs
  • d. Hierarchy of Needs
  • e. General Discussion Needs

Undervaluing other people's achievements and overvaluing one;s own.

  • Repression
  • Regression
  • Aggression
  • Accusation
  • Depreciation

The basic strength of old age.

  • Care
  • Wisdom
  • Faith
  • Love

Two people need not experience the same event or even similar events for their processes to be psychologically similar; they must merely construe their experiences in a similar fashion.

  • a. Organization Corollary
  • b. Sociality Corollary
  • c. Commonality Corollary
  • d. Experience Corollary
  • e. Construction Corollary

For girls, the castration complex in the form of penis envy.

  • a. Oral Phase
  • b. Anal Phase
  • c. Phallic Phase

The second source of efficacy. That is the vicarious experiences provided by other people.

  • a. Social Modeling
  • b. Mastery Experiences
  • c. Social Persuasion
  • d. Physical and Emotional States

"Self - Efficacy"

  • Maslow
  • Bandura
  • Kelly
  • Skinner
  • Horney

Contains images that are not in awareness but that can become conscious either quite easily or with some level of difficulty.

  • a. Preconscious
  • b. Conscious
  • c. Uncoscious

"Psychology of the Individual"

  • Jung
  • Cattell
  • Horney
  • Adler
  • Allport

Define Self-Efficacy according to Albert Bandura.

  • People's beliefs in their capability to exercise some measure of control over their own functioning and over environmental events.

People constantly need to replenish their food and water supply.

  • a. Self - Actualization Needs
  • b. Esteem Needs
  • c. Safety Needs
  • d. Physiological Needs
  • e. Love and Belongingness Needs

Combined with the needs for prestige and possession.

  • a. Neurotic need for social recognition and prestige.
  • b. Neurotic need for power.
  • c. Neurotic need for perfection and unassailability.
  • d. Neurotic need for a powerful partner.

According to Maslow, this is the desire to dominate, to inflict pain, or to subject oneself to the will of another person.

  • Cognitive Needs
  • General Discussion of Needs
  • Neurotic Needs
  • Aesthetic Needs

To Maslow, this is when you run away from your best self, and you fear success in the things that you do.

  • Jonah Complex
  • Successful Complex
  • Hill Complex
  • Inferiority Complex

"Hope"

  • Initiative versus Guilt
  • Trust versus Mistrust
  • Industry versus Inferiority
  • Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt

One has little confidence in themselves and tend to overestimate difficulties connected with life's major problems. They are distrustful of other people and are unable to cooperate for the common welfare.

  • Neglected Style of Life
  • Exaggerated Physical Deficiencies
  • Safeguarding Tendencies
  • Pampered Style of Life

Monitoring our own performance.

  • Self - Observation
  • Self - Reaction
  • Judgmental Process

The most influential source of self - efficacy is performance.

  • True
  • False

He insisted that human behavior should be studied scientifically. His scientific behaviorism holds that behavior can best be studied withour reference to needs, instincts, or motives.

  • Skinner
  • Jung
  • Erikson
  • Adler
  • Maslow

According to Adler's family constellation, _________________ is realistically ambitious but dependent to others and wants to excel in everything.

  • Second Child
  • Only Child
  • Oldest Child
  • Youngest Child

The ability of the therapist to sense the feeling of a client and also to communicate these perceptions so that the client knows that another person has entered into his world of feelings without prejudice, projection, or evaluation.

  • Unconditional Positive Regard
  • Empathic Listening
  • Congruence

Portions of this may be beyond a person's awareness or simply not owned by that person.

  • Organismic self

Physical Security, stability, dependency, protection, and freedom from danger.

  • Self - Actualization Needs
  • Esteem Needs
  • Physiological Needs
  • Love and Belongingness Needs
  • Safety Needs

Self - actualizing people maintain their feelings of self - esteem even when scorned, rejected and dismissed by other people.

  • True
  • False

Generalizes Sensuality is the final psychosexual stage.

  • True
  • False

A person of Aesthetic Need is strongly motivated by power and can acquire nearly unlimited power.

  • True
  • False

An unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other.

  • a. Intentionality
  • b. Fortuitous Event
  • c. Forethought
  • d. Chance Encounter

The desire to know, to understand, and to be curious.

  • Neurotic Needs
  • Hierarchy of Needs
  • Cognitive Needs
  • Aesthetic Needs

According to Freud, this part of our unconscious originates from the experiences of our early ancestors that have been passed on to us through hundreds of generations of repetition.

  • Phylogenetic Endowment
  • Genetic Unconscious
  • Collective unconscious
  • Genetic Needs

This is the stage where most of the infant's pleasure comes from stimulation of the mouth.

  • Oral Stage
  • Anal Stage
  • Phallic Stage
  • Genital Stage
  • Latency Stage

To the General Discussion of Needs, this leads to the pathology of some sort.

  • Reversed Order Needs
  • Instinctoid Nature of Needs
  • Deprivation of Needs
  • Unmotivated Behavior

The basic assumptions of the person-centered theory of Carl Rogers.

  • Formative tendency and actualizing tendency

The protection of the self - concept against anxiety and threat bu the denial or distortion of experiences inconsistent with it.

  • Incongruence
  • Defensiveness
  • Disorganization
  • Conditions of Worth

A defense mechanism associated with the reversion to an earlier, more secure pattern of behavior.

  • Regression
  • Identification
  • Reaction Formation
  • Projection
  • Repression

Strengthens the behavior and it rewards the person.

  • Reinforcement

From the radical behaviorism, it does not cause the behavior but merely explanatory fictions.

  • a. Purpose
  • b. Self - Awareness
  • c. Drives
  • d. Emotions

The one dynamic force behind people's behavior is striving for success or superiority.

  • Erik Erikson
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Carl Jung
  • Karen Horney
  • Alfred Adler

Neither the id nor the superego is in contact with reality.

  • True
  • False

Adler believed that people strive for superiority

  • In order to survive in a competitive society
  • In order to compensate for feelings of inferiority
  • As a means of attaining sexual satisfaction

STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY: According to him/her, the most important important structures are those that permit the description of the person in terms of individual characteristics, and he called these individual characteristics personal dispositions.

  • Gordon Allport
  • Karen Horney
  • Raymond Cattell
  • Erik Erikson
  • Hans Eysenck

Is it true that self-actualizing people have a quality of detachment that allows them to be lone without being lonely?

  • True
  • False

A survivor in a competitive society.

  • a. Toward people
  • b. Against people
  • c. Away from people

People behave in a detached manner. A strategy of expression of needs for privacy, independence, and self - sufficiency.

  • Moving toward people
  • Moving away from people
  • Moving together with people
  • Moving against people

This is the reinforcement schedule associated with the presentation of rewards during changing, inconsistent intervals of time.

  • Interval Ration Schedule
  • Fixed Ration Schedule
  • Variable Ratio Schedule
  • Variable Interval Schedule

It changes the frequency of a response or the probability that a response will occur.

  • Operant conditioning

They must defeat other people in order to confirm their superiority.

  • a. Neurotic need for power.
  • b. Neurotic need for personal admiration
  • c. Neurotic need for social recognition and prestige.
  • d. Neurotic need for ambition and personal achievement.

Fears that are strong enough and pervasive enough to have severely debilitating effects in one's daily life.

  • Aggression
  • Phobias
  • Depression

"Operant Conditioning"

  • George Kelly
  • Abraham Maslow
  • Carl Rogers
  • Albert Bandura
  • B.F. Skinner

To the extent that people accurately construe the belief system of others, they may play a role in a social process involving those other people.

  • Sociality Corollary
  • Choice Corollary
  • Fragmentation Corollary
  • Commonality Corollary

The two cornerstones of Freud's theory.

  • Lust and Aggression
  • Sex and Aggression
  • Sex and Anger
  • Lust and hunger
  • Lust and Anger

Adler believed that the essence of maladjustment is in a person's _____________.

  • Creative Power
  • Safeguarding Tendencies
  • Fictional Goals

They believe they are entitled to be first in everything.

  • a. Neglected Style of Life
  • b. Pampered Style of Life
  • c. Maladjustments
  • d. Exaggerated Physical Defeciencies

Repression of one impulse and the pretentious expression of its exact opposite.

  • Projection
  • Repression
  • Reaction Formation
  • Displacement
  • Regression

Under Operant Conditioning, it does not cause the behavior, but it increases the likelihood that it will be repeated.

  • Reinforcement

People are not always conscious of their final goal.

  • True
  • False

The need to develop, to become more and to achieve growth.

  • Enhancement

This refers to a neurotic need to protect oneself against feelings of helplessness.

  • Moving against people
  • Moving together with people
  • Moving toward people
  • Moving away from people

Each basic strength has an underlying antipathy that becomes the core of pathology of those stages. Personality always develops during a particular historical period and within a given society.

  • True
  • False

People are forward-looking; their behavior is forged by their anticipation of future events.

  • a. Construction Corollary
  • b. Organization Corollary
  • c. Individuality Corollary
  • d. Choice Corollary
  • e. Dichotomy Corollary

The belief of an individual that he can do a particular task properly or correctly.

  • Self - Capacity
  • Self - Regulation
  • Self - Efficacy

The archetype associated with fertility and nourishment.

  • God
  • Anima
  • Hero
  • Great Mother
  • Wise Old Man

Combating basic anxiety by trying to be first.

  • a. Neurotic need for social recognition or prestige.
  • b. Neurotic need to exploit others.
  • c. Neurotic need for affection and approval.
  • d. Neurotic for personal admiration.

According to Albert Bandura, this is the essence of humanness.

  • Human agency

For both genders, suppression of masturbation is the principle source of frustration.

  • a. Anal Phase
  • b. Phallic Phase
  • c. Oral Phase

A subset of the actualization tendency and is therefore not synonymous with it.

  • [No Answer]

People are forward-looking; their behavior is forged by their anticipation of future events. A person anticipates events by constructing their replications.

  • Dichotomy Corollary
  • Individuality Corollary
  • Organization Corollary
  • Construction Corollary

Sense of having lost one's core role structure.

  • a. Anxiety
  • b. Guilt
  • c. Fear
  • d. Threat

He used factor analysis to identify a large number of traits, including personality traits.

  • Gordon Allport
  • Carl Jung
  • Erik Erikson
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Henry Murray
  • Alfred Adler
  • Raymond Cattell

Which of the following concepts of Erikson is similar to Jung's persona?

  • Ego Ideal
  • Ego
  • Ego Identity
  • Disdain

In interpersonal relationships, not only do people observe the behavior of the other person, but they also interpret what that behavior means to that person.

  • True
  • False

Product of interaction of heredity environment and person's creative power.

  • a. Creative Power
  • b. Subjective Perceptions
  • c. Style of Life
  • d. Social Interest

The destructive instinct.

  • a. Anxiety
  • b. Libido
  • c. Aggression

In Kelly's view, psychology healthy people validate their personal constructs against their experiences with the real world.

  • True
  • False

The basic strength of adulthood.

  • Love
  • Wisdom
  • Faith
  • Care

The type of conditioning that involves the association of an unconditioned response with neutral stimuli.

  • Shaping
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Reinforcement
  • Operant Conditioning

According to Erik Erikson, this is the center of our personality

  • Id
  • Superego
  • Ego

Culpable behavior is made to seem defensible or even noble.

  • a. Palliative Comparisons
  • b. Euphemistic Labels
  • c. Moral Justification

Disparaging, doubting, discrediting and ridiculing oneself.

  • a. Self torment
  • b. Self contempt
  • c. Self accusation
  • d. Self frustration

People have different reservoirs of experiences, they construe the same event in different ways.

  • a. Range Corollary
  • b. Choice Corollary
  • c. Fragmentation Corollary
  • d. Individuality Corollary
  • e. Dichotomy Corollary

Horney would argue that properly raising children involves ______________ to ensure healthy development.

  • Love and Social Recognition
  • Genuine love and healthy discipline
  • Power, prestige and possession
  • Fame and pampered style of life

Persons differ from each other in their construction of events.

  • Individuality Corollary
  • Organization Corollary
  • Construction Corollary
  • Dichotomy Corollary

Receives physical stimuli and transmits them to perceptual consciousness.

  • Feeling
  • Thinking
  • Sensation
  • Intuition

Shows a non-possessive warmth and acceptance, not an effusive, effervescent persona.

  • Empathic Listening
  • Congruence
  • Genuine Love
  • Unconditional Positive Regard

According to Allport people not only react to their environment, but they also shape their environment and cause it to react to them. His proactive approach emphasized the idea that people often seek additional tension and that they purposely act on their environment in a way that fosters growth toward psychological health.

  • Proprium
  • Theory of Motivation
  • Structure of Personality
  • Functional Autonomy

This is the term used to indicate the ability of a theory to be confirmed or disconfirmed.

  • Discountable
  • Operational
  • Falsifiable
  • Coherent

They build a world of their own.

  • a. Against people
  • b. Away from people
  • c. Toward people

We misinterpret an experience in order to fit it into some aspect of our self - concept.

  • Distortion
  • Vulnerability
  • Anxiety
  • Threat

A person's construction system varies as he successively construes the replication of events.

  • Experience Corollary
  • Range Corollary
  • Modulation Corollary
  • Fragmentation Corollary

Self - fulfillment, the realization of one's own potential.

  • Love and Belongingness Needs
  • Safety Needs
  • Physiological Needs
  • Self - Actualization Needs
  • Esteem Needs

"Yes/but" ; "If only"

  • a. Withdrawal
  • b. Aggression
  • c. Excuses
  • d. Maladjustments

Serves as the idealistic principle.

  • Das Ich
  • Das Es and Das Ich
  • Das Es
  • Uber Ich
  • Das Ich and Uber Ich

According to Individual Psychology, this is where one may appear to be interested in others, their basic motivation is personal benefit.

  • The Final Goal
  • Striving force as compensation
  • Striving for success
  • Striving for personal superiority

Lacking self-confidence. This need includes an overvaluation of love and a dread of being alone or deserted.

  • Neurotic need for social recognition or prestige
  • Neurotic need for a powerful partner
  • Neurotic need for personal admiration
  • Neurotic need for affection and approval

It becomes pathological when it blocks one's ability to cooperate, compete or compromise - all prerequisite ingredients for intimacy and love.

  • Intimacy
  • Love
  • Fidelity
  • Exclusivity

Contribute to the welfare of society.

  • a. Displacement
  • b. Sublimation
  • c. Regression

They dread making mistakes and having personal flaws.

  • a. Neurotic need for social affection and approval.
  • b. Neurotic need for self - sufficiency and independence.
  • c. Neurotic need for perfection and unassailability.
  • d. Neurotic need for personal admiration.

Theory is the individual's reference point.

  • True
  • False

According to Calr Jung, this is the adaptation to one's inner world.

  • Introversion
  • Progression
  • Extraversion
  • Regression
  • Conservation Principle

This term is used to indicate the ability of a theory to be confirmed or disconfirmed.

  • Operational
  • Discountable
  • Coherent
  • Falsifiable

An interrelated and more pertinent assumption. The tendency within all humans to move toward completion or fulfillment of potentials.

  • a. Self Giving Tendency
  • b. Formative Tendency
  • c. Actualizing Tendency

The first year of life.

  • a. Play Age
  • b. Early Childhood
  • c. School Age
  • d. Infancy

According to Individual Psychology, this is a person's belief and expectations of the future. Example: A belief in an omnipotent God who rewards good and punishes evil.

  • Inferiorities
  • Fictionalism
  • Final Goal
  • Striving force as compensation
  • Striving for Success

Some people combat basic anxiety by trying to be first, to be important, or attract attention to themselves.

  • Neurotic need for affection and approval
  • Neurotic need for power
  • Neurotic need for social recognition or prestige
  • Neurotic need for ambition and personal achievement

Receiving and accepting what is given.

  • a. Anal - Urethral - Muscular Mode
  • b. Genital - Locomotor Mode
  • c. Latency
  • d. Oral - Sensory Mode

According to Adler, _______________ considers behavior as springing from a specific cause.

  • Deficiencies
  • Teleology
  • Causality
  • Fiction

In Adler's family constellation theory, ______________ are likely to have intensified feelings of power and superiority, high anxiety and overprotective tendencies.

  • Youngest children
  • First born children
  • Only children
  • Second born children

Permanent Attachment of the libido to an earlier stage of development.

  • a. Introjection
  • b. Fixation
  • c. Repression

A procedure in which the experimenter or the environment first rewards gross approximations of the behavior, then closer approximations and finally the desired behavior itself.

  • Shaping

The variation in a person's construction system is limited by the permeability of the constructs within whose range of convenience the variants lie.

  • Fragmentation Corollary
  • Modulation Corollary
  • Range Corollary
  • Experience Corollary

This allows us to evaluate our performances without comparing them to the conduct of others.

  • a. Personal Standards
  • b. Judgmental Process
  • c. Standard of Reference
  • d. Performance Attribution

The chief of psychosocial accomplishment of young adulthood and exists only in an intimate relationship.

  • Exclusivity
  • Fidelity
  • Intimacy
  • Genitality

Psychology of Personal Constructs

  • Skinner
  • Kelly
  • Allport
  • Rogers
  • Bandura

The need for beauty.

  • Aesthetic Needs
  • Self - Actualization Needs
  • Cognitive Needs
  • Neurotic Needs

According to Adler's theory of creative power in indiviual psychology, each person uses ___________________ and __________________ as the bricks and mortar to build personality, but the architectural design reflects that person's own style.

  • Interaction and Fixation
  • Genes and Development
  • Heredity and Environment
  • Social and personal interest.

The desire for friendship, the wish for a mate and children and the need to belong.

  • Esteem Needs
  • Physiological Needs
  • Safety Needs
  • Love and Belongingness Needs
  • Self - Actualization Needs

A pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior.

  • a. Behavior
  • b. Character
  • c. Traits
  • d. Personality

People make choices on the basis of how they anticipate events and those choices between dichotomous alternatives.

  • a. Relationships among constructs
  • b. Similarities among events
  • c. Choice between dichotomies
  • d. Differences among people
  • e. Dichotomy of constructs

Based on Carl Rogers' theory, psychologically healthy individuals perceived a little discrepancy between their self - concept and what they ideally would like to be.

  • True
  • False

Provide clues to solving future problems.

  • a. Psychotherapy
  • b. Early recollections
  • c. Family Constellation
  • d. Dreams

According to Carl Jung, ego is the center of _____________.

  • Experiences
  • Personality
  • Balance
  • Consciousness

The time when people make significant contributions to society.

  • Identity versus Role Confusion
  • Generativity versus Stagnation
  • Integrity versus Despair
  • Intimacy versus Isolation

Adler saw people as forward moving who are motivated by goals they set for the future.

  • True
  • False

Realization of full adult sexuality occurs here; sexual urges reawaken.

  • Phallic Stage
  • Genital Stage
  • Anal Stage
  • Latency Stage
  • Oral Stage

Safeguarding through distance.

  • a. Maladjustments
  • b. Agression
  • c. Excuses
  • d. Withdrawal

People are aware of both their self-concept and their ideal self, although awareness need not be accurate.

  • Awareness
  • Self - Actualization
  • Needs
  • Basic Assumptions

Two Types of Conditioning.

  • operant and classical
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