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A diagnostic imaging technique that uses low-dose X-rays to detect and diagnose breast abnormalities, aiding in the early detection of breast cancer.
The ____ view is an alternative for the Cranio-caudal view and may be substituted.
Choose the correct equation:
Removal of unwanted, unexposed silver bromide on film happens in the:
When should breast self-examination performed?
Which of the following determines the level of radiographic contrast displayed on mammograms?
When using a phototimer, if a plus density setting is used, which of the following will occur?1. reduction focal spot size2. increase in mA3. increase in exposure time
Thepatient’s ____ is likely to obstruct the X-ray beam when the obese patient ispositioned for theCaudo-Cranial(FB) view.
What percent voltage ripple occurs with a high frequency generator?
A broken parallel set of calcifications will most likely be located in:
Compared to open surgical biopsy, ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy:
Processor roller marks that show up as artifacts running perpendicular to the direction of film travel are called
What is the correct height of the image receptor in relation to the breast for routine CC projection?
Which of the following positions or techniques is used to demonstrate tissue that has been superimposed on another position?
A grid may be used when performing magnification.
Lobular carcinoma accounts for approximately what portion of all breasts carcinomas?
The ACS does not recommend routine mammograms for women below the age of:
A simple cyst will show on ultrasound:
According to MQSA guidelines, how many continuing education credits are necessary for a mammography technologist to obtain in mammography
The core specimens should be radiographed when the biopsied lesion:
The maximum MQSA-allowed radiation dose per exposure for a 4.2 cm average breast is:
When processor sensitometry falls out of limits, what should be done first?
____ is a characteristic most likely associated with carcinoma.
Under MQSA guidelines, which of the following represents the minimum number of mammograms a mammography technologist must perform in a 2 year period?
Which is NOT an advantage of compression?
The storage conditions of processed films should have a relative humidity of
MQSA stands for:
The effective focal spot is always largest on the _____ side of the field.
In mammography facilities in the United States, ACR accreditation is applied for every
Mild cases of gynecomastia will be visualized on the mammogram as a small circumscribed density ____.
All chemical reactions depend on all of the following EXCEPT:
Analog-to-digital (A to D) conversion occurs _________ image processing.
What is the average focal film distance (FFD) available on dedicated Mammography units?
What material is used in the x-ray tube's window allow photons to pass through?
Of the tissues types that make up the breast, which is the most radiosensitive?
The actual focal spot is always _______ the projected focal spot.
What quadrant is 1:00 in the left breast
Which of the following is the primary reason for breast compression?
perform processor QC
Characteristics of calcifications associated with benign growths include which of the following?1. Smooth borders 2. Presence in clusters 3. Round shape 4. Numerous microcalcifications
The primary purpose for using grids in mammography is to:
Which projection would best demonstrate fluid levels in the erect patient?
Which of the following is the most serious citation a facility can obtain upon an FDA annual inspection
During a mammographic evaluation the radiographer does not have a responsibility to:
Abasic rule in male breast radiography is ____.
Blurring of a mammogram image can be caused by:
The amount of obliquity (rotation of the C-arm) used to perform the mediolateral oblique projection varies from patient to patient. However, the average degree of obliquity is:
A characteristic associated with gynecomastia is ____.
Changing from the moly to the rhodium filter ______ the x-ray beam energy.
What is the primary reason for performing magnification mammography?
Extended cycle processing vs. Standard cycle processing:
In which of the following life stages would the breast contain the LEAST amount of adipose (fat)tissue?
What quadrant is 2:00 in the right breast
Aluminum filters are not used in mammography because of:
The area of the breast that is not visualized on the CC view is:
The developer temperature should be kept within how many degrees of the processor manufacturer’s recommendation?
How many days does a facility have to notify a woman of her screening mammogram results following her screening mammogram?
50% of all breast cancers occur in which quadrant?
The physical boundaries of the breast include superior to the clavicle, medial to the sternum, inferior to the inframammary crease, and lateral to the midaxillary line.
Stereotactic imaging implies the use of:
Spot compression/coned-down views can:
Match the following description with the correct projection: The tube assembly is rotated to a 90 degree position from vertical (x-ray beam is parallel to the floor). The patient is erect and the arm on the side being examined is at the right angle to the body. The edge of the image receptor is along the sternum and central ray is directed perpendicular to the image receptor from lateral to medial.
The base of the breast is considered to:
Good breast compression is important because it:
Lymph node enlargement, nipple inversion, nipple discharge, skin thickening, and breast lumps are ALWAYS a sign of breast cancer.
The base of the breast and the inframammary crease are one and the same.
In order to improve positioning capability for the Craniocaudal projection on a kyphotic patient, which alternate projection should be performed?
BSE should be performed monthly by all women beginning in their 20's
in the correct order with largest number of pixels to the smallest:
In order to perform successful magnification mammography, what criteria must be met?
All mammography films, no matter the manufacturer are
Proper compression of the breast is indicated by which of the following?
The principle reason for the use of mammography in male patients is to distinguish ____.
Correct placement of the breast onto the image receptor for CC projection requires:
To reduce the patient's radiation dose during pre-operative needle localizations, which of the following can be done:
The digital detector can also function as the AEC.
Current treatment for localized breast carcinoma with minimal disfiguration includes:
What age group is at the greatest risk for radiation-induced breast cancer?
The advantage of the molybdenum target over the tungsten target for Mammography is its ability to produce:
check viewboxes and viewing conditions
Which is NOT considered curative breast surgery?
Which of the following should influence the length of the time between screening examinations on asymptomatic patients?1. If the patient performs BSE 2. If the patient drinks coffee3. Age of the patient 4. Positive family history
The size of the effective focal spot to the actual focal spot is related to
The overall advantage of using automatic exposure control (phototimer, AEC’s) is the ability to automatically compensate for:
DCIS is an acronym for:
Repeat rate will decrease with FFDM mainly because of:
The Mid-density (MD) on the processor quality control chart is chosen by the step closest in density to
Which of the following may be achieved with magnification views of the breast?
Plus density artifact bands running parallel to the direction of film travel are caused by:
What is an adequate range of force for a compression device?
The tissue type that attenuates the x-ray beam the least is:
The anatomic structures that support the breast are the:
Which of the following positions is/are most helpful in demonstrating tissue in the 12:00 or 6:00 position?
Possible causes of poor film screen contact include which of the following?1. Trapped air 2. Warped cassettes 3. Foreign bodies with-in cassettes
Output for a FFDM system includes: (choose all correct answers)
How does increasing the radiation dose affect the image noise?
The projection that best demonstrates the posterior portion of the breast, including the axillary tail, is the:
Which of the following minimum requirements applies to the Phantom test in order to pass the evaluation
Which view would be most useful in determining whether calcification are within the skin rather than within the breast parenchyma?
Which of the following would be considered major risk factors for breast cancer?1. Family history (mother, sister) of breast disease2. First of three pregnancies at age 223. Previous treatment for breast disease
In order to minimize patient discomfort, how should compression be applied?
Which of the following should the technologist complete before obtaining the mammogram images?1. Record the exposure factors to be used on the patient’s film file2. Review the patient’s personal history form with the patient3. Review the patient’s previous mammogram images, (if available)
Breast cancer accounts for ____% of malignancies in men.
BSE should be done in a random pattern using the fingertips.
The breasts are separated from the pectoral muscle by a layer of retromammary:
The following are all breast interventional procedures except:
A mammography technologist may not count which of the following toward her MQSA performance requirement of 200 mammograms every 2 years
What portion of the breast is best demonstrated on the Axially Tail view
Using a 5M-pixel monitor to display 100 micron (0.1 mm) pixels, what is the FOV?
What is the typical range of kVp used in mammography?
How should the patient’s arm on the side being examined be positioned for the CC projection?
What brightness is recommended by the ACR for mammographic film illuminators?
Artifacts oriented perpendicular between 2 films after processing that have been run perpendicular and parallel to the direction of film travel are caused by problems in
For magnification mammography, what is the maximum size the focal spot should be?
The x-ray interaction that provides the contrast for the radiograph is:
The main advantage of half-field geometry is:
An adult male with a suspicious mammogram and a firm unilateral nodule will be advised by his physician to ____.
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma accounts for ____% of male breast cancer.
A common temporary benign enlargement of the male breast is ____.
When performing BSE, which of the following should be done?
The incidence of breast cancer in men ____.
What percentage of mammographic images of malignant disease present microcalcifications?
What quadrant is 5:00 in the right breast
Extended processing involves:
The characteristics of microcalcifications associated with malignancy include which of the following?1. Fine size 2. Clustered appearance3. Round shape 4. Very numerous calcifications
The maximum amount of automated compression allowed by the ACR is:
The tissue type that attenuates the x-ray beam the most is:
The most common characteristic symptom of a male with breast cancer is ____.
To improve the appearance of the specimen on film, one can:
Core biopsies of the breast are performed with a ____ gauge needle?
If processing artifacts are more severe when the film is run emulsion side up, the artifacts may be caused by:
The reason(s) for performing BSE include:
According to standards, where are the view markers placed when doing a mammogram?
A Mammotome is:
Which of the following positions are recommended for a complete study of the augmented breast?1. Routine CC & MLO 2. Modified CC & MLO (push back, Eklund) 3. 30 degree oblique
Subjecting processed films to high temperatures and low humidity (below 30%) can result in which of the following
When a combination of single emulsion film and single screen is used, how should the screen and film be aligned?
What is the typical SID for mammographic imaging?
Recommended film storage conditions are: ___ relative humidity and ___ degrees F.
Radiation dose for FFDM will always be lower than for screen-film mammography:
To increase exposure slightly when the AEC’s tracking ability is sub-optimum:
Which view would best demonstrate the deep medial aspect of the beast?
A malignant breast lesion can appear on a mammogram:
Artifacts oriented parallel between 2 films after processing that have been run perpendicular and parallel to the direction of film travel are caused by problems in
The phosphors most commonly used for mammography screens emit light in what color?
About _____% of male breast cancer patients are treated by mastectomy.
A pneumocystogram starts with aspiration of most or all of the fluid from a cystic lesion. Which of the following is then injected into the lesion just before the pneumocystogram films are done?
Ductal carcinoma can present with findings of:
Stereotactic guided core needle biopsy:
What is the condition of the detector if the radiation exposure is too high:
Use of a grid _____ contrast and ______ radiation dose.
The automatic exposure control (AEC) may be used for all of the following EXCEPT:
During pre-operative needle localizations, the amount of compression used should be equal to that of the routine mammogram.
If films are requested on a mastectomy patient (one side affected). What views would you take?1. Routine projections - CC and MLO 2. MLO of the skin over the mastectomy site3. Spot view of any area of concern 4. AP view of Axillary
Male breast carcinoma accounts for approximately what portion of all breast carcinomas?
The crossover procedure is:
Which of the following breast conditions is considered malignant:
The majority of glandular tissue exists in groups known as:
The most common type of breast cancer in the male is ____.
How frequently should breast self-examination be performed?
If a facility receives a Level 2 citation upon an annual FDA inspection, how many days does the facility have to correct the problem?
A mammographic image that appears to be properly penetrated but slightly underexposed should be corrected by altering which variable?
Which of the following would be the greatest risk factor for breast cancer?
The final MQSA regulations went into effect
On which projection would the technologist check the medial and lateral aspects of the breast for the proper amount of compression?
What is the approximate increased likelihood of developing breast cancer for the woman with a family history of breast cancer?
A grid is not required during magnification mammography because of:
Which of the following are primary signs of breast cancer?1. numerous microcalcifications2. skin thickening and retraction3. dense mass of irregular shape
Image processing that smoothes the image will have what effect on image noise and detail?
The typical placement of the intensifying screen, when a single screen is employed, is with the:
The “preferred” limits on a Processor Quality Control Chart for MD (mid density) are which of the following:
Ideally, when is the best time to perform processor sensitometry?
Radiation dose with a screen is about ___ times the dose of direct film mammography.
What is (are) the benefit(s) of a high frequency generator in mammography?
Where should identified markers be placed on the image receptor for the MLO and 90 lateral projection?
How many years do mammography films need to be kept for if the woman is a returning patient?
Which of the following conditions is most likely to be associated with an abnormal galactogram?
If microcalcification clustering is present on routine screening views what is the best next step?
Which two items are used in mammography to reduce scattered radiation?1. Stationary grid 2. Air gap 3. Moving grid 4. Lead shielding
The control limits on a phantom chart for the density difference (DD) are which of the following
A smaller anode angle results in a _____ field size and is used with the _____ focal spot.
When a lesion has been entirely removed (resected) as seen on the post core needle biopsy stereotactic images, what must be done before the patient is released from the stereotactic unit?
Which anatomical structures typically develop in the male breast?
The spread of malignant cancer cells from the primary tumor to distant an area of the body is termed:
Which additional position/s should be performed to determine milk of calcium?1. Tangential 2. Roll (RL or RM) 3. ML 90 or LM 90
Magnification views have __________ exposure times than/as routine mammography.
Which combination of procedures is most effective for early detection of breast cancer?1. breast self-examination 2. physical examination 3. mammography
In flooded replenishment, the starter is added to:
Architectural distortion is most often found in cases of:
Mammography films show breast calcifications better than chest x-rays because of:
Which of the following is NOT required on the Medical Report?
Which link in the mammographic imaging chain is the Phantom Image test monitoring?
Typically, the breast is situated on the thorax between the levels of the:
The most important factor influencing prognosis in male breast cancer ____.
The purpose of adding starter to fresh chemicals is:
The only task NOT required of the RT is:
Which of the following primary signs of breast cancer, evident on a mammographic image, would indicate the disease at the earliest possible time?
Which of the following positions may be required for a complete mammographic study of a patient after a mastectomy?1. MLO of skin of affected breast 2. CC and MLO of uneffective breast3. Axillary view of affected breast 4. Spot view of any area of concern
Implant displaced views:
To decrease image noise you should do what to the radiation dose?
It is necessary for the technologist to diagram which of the following:
The film for the weekly phantom test is taken from
Breast cancers arise in which type of tissue?
Indicate the projection described by the following positioning instructions: The tube assembly is vertical (x-ray beam perpendicular to the floor) and the tube is angled 5 degree in a lateral to medial direction. The erect atient faces the image receptor and is slightly rotated medially. The inferior aspect of the breast is on the image receptor. The central is directed to the midpoint of the image receptor (may be slightly lateral to the nipple).
Correct use of vigorous compression will lower patient dose because of decreased:
check compression device
The area between the breast and the pectoral muscle is the:
The most commonly used magnification factor for mammography is:
Reciprocity failure occurs when:
For the mediolateral oblique (MLO) projection, the technologist should place the image receptor:
For the MLO view, the best angle of the tube is:
Choose all of the correct functions of a digital detector:
Low contrast detectability can be improved by ________ the image.
The breast attenuates what percentage of incident x-rays.
Which TWO materials are used as anode target materials in mammography?1. Aluminum 2. Rhodium 3. Beryllium 4. Molybdenum
Why is the breast specimen radiographed?
Where is beam limitation most critical?
Forthe Cranio-caudal projection, the mammographer should stand on ____.
The word "orthogonal" is best described as:
Compared with routine mammographic imaging, what effect will magnification studies have on patient dose?
Currently what are the statistics of how many women will develop breast cancer over their lifetimes
A man's likelihood of developing breast cancer is increased by ____.(1) Klinefelter syndrome (2) childhood radiation of the chest(3) family history of breast cancer
Which detector type converts x-ray energy directly into electrical charge?
When using automatic exposure control (AEC) for mammography, which of the following must be applied?
What should be done first if the nipple is rotated up or down instead of in profile?
If WW = 500 and WL = 500, what image pixel values are displayed?
Any electrical charge remaining in the detector after image data readout is referred to as:
What effect does beam restriction have on the quality of the mammography image?
During pregnancy and throughout lactation, the breast has an increased amount of:
"Camel's nose" refers to a mammogram which:
A predisposition to breast cancer is inherited in ____.
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