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Adipose Tissue

Commonly known as body fat, plays a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and overall metabolic health in the human body.

adipose

tissue

fat

lipid

cells

energy

storage

insulation

hormones

obesity

white

brown

triglycerides

metabolism

leptin

Which

  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue
  • Visceral adipose tissue
  • Brown adipose tissue
  • Beige adipose tissue

what are chylomicrons

  • low density lipoproteins in white adipose tissue, store triglycerides

metabolism of steroid hormones..White fat also ______________ CHOLESTEROL

  • stores

fuel reserve and storage..Fatty acids store energy _______________ adipose cells

  • within

WAT and BAT have essentially ___________________ functions

  • antagonistic

adipose tissue function..1. Serve as an energy ____________ for times of starvation (TAG)

  • store

How does adipose tissue contribute to the regulation of glucose levels in the blood?

  • By storing excess glucose as glycogen
  • By converting glucose into amino acids
  • By releasing glucose into the bloodstream
  • By producing insulin in response to high glucose levels

what are some physical characteristics of adipocytes?

  • large cells,eccentrically placed nuclei,surrounded by basal lamina, (some) surrounded by vascularized connective tissue

Which of the following hormones is primarily produced by adipose tissue and is involved in regulating appetite and metabolism?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

lipolysis.._________________ triglycerides (fats) into their component fatty acid and glycerol molecules

  • hydrolyze

Which of the following hormones is primarily produced by adipose tissue and regulates appetite by suppressing hunger?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

role in glucose homeostasis..WAT is needed for _________________ glucose homeostasis

  • normal

honeycomb

  • what is the characteristic appearance of adipose tissue

What is the primary function of beige adipose tissue?

  • Heat production
  • Energy storage
  • Insulin secretion
  • Bone formation

Breakdown of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis to release fatty acids

  • lipolysis

where does white adipose tissue originate?

  • mesoderm

Where is brown adipose tissue primarily found in adult humans?

  • Around the heart
  • In the liver
  • In the muscles
  • Scattered throughout the body

Which of the following statements about adipose tissue is correct?

  • Adipose tissue is composed of muscle fibers.
  • Adipose tissue is primarily found in the liver.
  • Adipose tissue is a connective tissue that stores fat.
  • Adipose tissue is responsible for oxygen transport in the body.

Which type of adipose tissue is involved in energy dissipation through thermogenesis?

  • White adipose tissue
  • Brown adipose tissue
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue
  • Visceral adipose tissue

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the pancreas?

  • Production of insulin
  • Storage of glucose
  • Protection of the pancreas
  • Synthesis of digestive enzymes

Which hormone is responsible for signaling the brain when energy stores are sufficient?

  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

Which of the following hormones is produced by adipose tissue and has anti-inflammatory properties?

  • Leptin
  • Adiponectin
  • Resistin
  • Ghrelin

How is white adipose tissue distributed?

  • uniformly in infants,gender dependent in adults

BAT..__________________ heat and actually consumes energy

  • generates

adipose tissue

  • tissues that are primary composed of adipocytes are called

in the periscapular region

  • where are hibernoma usually found

___________ fat is closer to muscle than to fat

  • brown

leptin..Critical hormone in energy __________________

  • balance

what is the function of white adipose tissue?

  • energy storage

How does brown adipose tissue contribute to thermogenesis?

  • By storing excess glucose
  • By producing hormones
  • By contracting muscles
  • By oxidizing fatty acids

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the liver?

  • Storage of glucose
  • Synthesis of blood cells
  • Production of bile
  • Regulation of blood pressure

Which of the following is NOT a function of adipose tissue in the body?

  • Energy storage
  • Insulation
  • Hormone production
  • Oxygen transport

Which hormone is responsible for signaling the brain when energy stores are low?

  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

a mix of white and brown fat- pure hibernomas are very rare

  • hibernoma usually contain

specialized in the dissipation of energy throughthe productionof heat

  • BAT

what is thermogenin?

  • uncoupling protein (UCP1) found in mitochondria.

Which type of adipose tissue is responsible for thermogenesis in newborns?

  • White adipose tissue
  • Brown adipose tissue
  • Beige adipose tissue
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue

unidifferentriated mesenchymal cells

  • adipocytes differentiate from

peroxisome proliferation activated receptor gamma ( PPAR gamma)

  • what transcription factor plays a roles in the differentiation of adipocytes and the initiation of lipid metabolism

What is the role of leptin in adipose tissue?

  • Stimulation of appetite
  • Inhibition of appetite
  • Promotion of fat storage
  • Reduction of metabolic rate

Which of the following factors can contribute to the expansion of adipose tissue mass?

  • Excessive calorie intake
  • Regular physical activity
  • High consumption of lean protein
  • Increased stress levels

Which of the following is a function of adipose tissue in the liver?

  • Storage of glucose
  • Synthesis of blood cells
  • Production of bile
  • Regulation of blood pressure

What is the main function of white adipose tissue?

  • Heat production
  • Energy storage
  • Oxygen transport
  • Hormone synthesis

What is the primary function of beige adipose tissue in the body?

  • Production of heat
  • Energy storage
  • Hormone synthesis
  • Maintenance of bone density

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the spleen?

  • Filtration of blood
  • Production of red blood cells
  • Storage of iron
  • Synthesis of antibodies

it produces heat, which warm the blood flowing through the tissue

  • what happens when brown fat is oxidized

Which adipokine has anti-inflammatory properties and is associated with improved insulin sensitivity?

  • Leptin
  • Adiponectin
  • Resistin
  • Ghrelin

Which of the following is a function of brown adipose tissue?

  • Energy storage
  • Heat production
  • Hormone synthesis
  • Oxygen transport

multiocular adi[ose tissue constitutes 2- 5 % of the body weight and is as shown in the photo- the black areas indicate multiocular adipose tissue and shaded areas are a mixture of multiocular and uniolcular adipose tissue

Image: https://o.quizlet.com/Nicipyjdgai0lLzLmMrrBg.png
  • distribution of brown adipose tissue in newborns

stores excess energy as TAG

  • WAT

Which of the following is a key characteristic of beige adipocytes?

  • They are only found in infants
  • They store excess energy as triglycerides
  • They are incapable of thermogenesis
  • They arise from the differentiation of white adipocytes

into lobes by connective tissue

  • brown adipose tissue is divided

Where is brown adipose tissue primarily located in the human body?

  • Around the heart
  • Around the kidneys
  • In the liver
  • Scattered throughout the body

adipose tissue function..4. ________________ and ___________________ hormones and molecules with major roles in: glucose homeostasis, feed intake and metabolism, inflammation, etc.

  • Secrete, synthesize

white adipose

  • what type of fat tissue forms a layer in the connective tissue under the skin called the hypodermis

Which of the following is a potential consequence of excessive visceral adipose tissue?

  • Improved insulin sensitivity
  • Decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Increased risk of metabolic disorders
  • Enhanced physical performance

Which of the following is a function of adipose tissue in the body?

  • Digestion of food
  • Oxygen transport
  • Hormone synthesis
  • Heat production

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the eyes?

  • Vision enhancement
  • Energy storage
  • Production of tears
  • Cushioning and support

leptin..Leptin has actions ____________ centrally (hypothalamus where it has receptors) and in peripheral organs

  • both

Which hormone is released by adipose tissue and promotes the breakdown of fat for energy during periods of fasting?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Adiponectin

Which of the following factors can lead to the "browning" of white adipose tissue?

  • High-fat diet
  • Chronic inflammation
  • Regular exercise
  • Cold exposure

is the most common benign adipose tissue tumor

  • lipoma

white adipose tissue (WAT)..Mainly under the skin (subcutaneous)Also in deposits between the musclesIn the intestines and in their membrane folds Around the heart and gonadsMen accumulate fat around the waist women tend to accumulate more fat around the hips than the waist

  • body distribution

Which hormone, produced by adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of blood sugar levels?

  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

is a source of HORMONES, which serve various roles in METABOLISM and ENDOCRINE FUNCTION

  • WAT

Which of the following hormones is produced by adipose tissue and has a role in regulating metabolism and hunger?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

BAT..Tan color due to ___________________ of lysosomes and mitochondria(energy-producing from ATP)

  • abundance

role in glucose homeostasis..WAT has the ability to __________________ glucose under certain conditions to provide energy for the body

  • metabolize

What is the primary function of brown adipose tissue?

  • Energy storage
  • Heat production
  • Hormone synthesis
  • Muscle contraction

-around organs- in omentum- in mesenteries-bone marrow - feet axilla -orbits Fat A*s Mom say MOOO

  • internally fat is found

leptin..Function: "satiety hormone" _____________ hunger!

  • inhibits

Which adipokine is primarily secreted by adipose tissue and is associated with insulin resistance?

  • Leptin
  • Adiponectin
  • Ghrelin
  • Resistin

heat

  • brown adipocytes generate

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the body during extreme cold exposure?

  • Heat dissipation
  • Heat production
  • Energy storage
  • Oxygen transport

- predominate type in adults

  • white adipose tissue

BAT..Not _______________ distributed. Located on the back, upper half of the spine and shoulders (mainly found around vessels, adrenal glands and neck region)

  • widely

____________ fat plays a wide-ranging role in metabolic regulation andphysiological homeostasis, far beyond the simple paradigmof fat storage

  • white

white adipose tissue- only one fat droplet

  • what type of adipose tissue is called unilocular

Produced principally by WAT

  • leptin

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the brain?

  • Energy storage
  • Protection of brain cells
  • Production of neurotransmitters
  • Temperature regulation

Which enzyme is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol in adipocytes?

  • Lipase
  • Amylase
  • Protease
  • Chymotrypsin

lipolysis..Enzyme: _______________

  • lipase

white adipose tissue (WAT)..Variable size mainly ______________ on the size of the single lipid droplet stored in them

  • depends

Which of the

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

is the process by which hibernating animals produce heat ultizing brown fat cell

  • non-shivering thermogenesis

leptin..__________________ apeptite and energy expenditure

  • Regulates

areas around the kidney, adrenal glands, aorta, regions of the neck and mediastium

  • brown adipose tissue in adults is localized to

fuel reserve and storage.._________________ is the primary energy source for the brain, not fatty acids

  • glucose

Which factor can stimulate the differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells into mature adipocytes?

  • Cold exposure
  • High-protein diet
  • Regular caffeine intake
  • Intense sunlight exposure

it uncouples oxidation of fatty acids from the production of ATP

  • UCP-1 or Thermogenin works by

white adipose tissue (WAT)..Each adipocyte of WAT is spherical and contains a large ____________ droplet of fat (unilocular) that accounts for 90% of thecell volume!

  • single

WAT play a key role in inflammatory processesDysregulation can lead to diabetesIn obese states, adipose tissue is subjected to oxidative stress, resulting in aging, accumulation of macrophages, production of proi-nflammatory cytokines and suppression of hormone production

  • obesity and inflammation

fuel reserve and storage..Energy is stored with ____________ water, making adipose very efficient!

  • little

what are the functions of adipose tissue?

  • energy storage (triglycerides) insulation from shock thermal insulation hormone production energy product for heat (brown fat)

what is the main function of brown adipose tissue?

  • generate heat

adipocytes ( fat storing cells)

  • adipose tissue is composed of

Where is beige adipose tissue primarily located in the human body?

  • Around the heart
  • Around the kidneys
  • In the liver
  • Mixed with white adipose tissue

Which type of adipose tissue is typically found in higher amounts in individuals who are overweight or obese?

  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue
  • Visceral adipose tissue
  • Brown adipose tissue
  • Beige adipose tissue

individual cells and small groups of cells scattered throughout loose connective tissue

  • adipocytes can be found as

metabolism of steroid hormones..White fat is __________________ in themetabolism of steroid hormones

  • involved

large lipid droplets

  • nucleus and cytoplasm in adipocytes are displaced by what?

Which hormone, produced by adipose tissue, is responsible for increasing appetite and promoting fat storage?

  • Leptin
  • Adiponectin
  • Ghrelin
  • Resistin

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the stomach?

  • Digestion of food
  • Storage of nutrients
  • Protection of the stomach lining
  • Production of gastric acid

Where is beige adipose tissue primarily located in the body?

  • Around the heart
  • Around the kidneys
  • In the liver
  • Mixed with white adipose tissue

role in glucose homeostasis.._____________________ (stored within adipocytes), are broken into fatty acids and glycerol

  • triglycerides

what hormones do adipocytes synthesize?

  • leptin,estrogen and testosterone,angiotensin

how does thermogenin work?

  • oxidizes fatty acids from the production of ATP releasing heat.

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the mammary glands of lactating females?

  • Insulation
  • Production of milk
  • Storage of iron
  • Protection of vital organs

Which type of adipose tissue is often referred to as "good fat" due to its potential benefits for metabolism?

  • White adipose tissue
  • Brown adipose tissue
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue
  • Visceral adipose tissue

BAT..Greater _________________ demand, contains more capillaries than white fat.

  • oxygen

fuel reserve and storage..When other tissues ____________ energy, certain hormones bind to adipose cells and trigger the hydrolysis of TAG, resulting in the release of energy-rich fatty acids and glycerol:process known as __________________

  • need, lipolysis

white adipose tissue (WAT)..Cytoplasm of adipose cell is sheet-like with a ___________________ nucleus

  • flattened

What is the primary function of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in adipose tissue?

  • Breakdown of fatty acids for energy
  • Synthesis of adipokines
  • Conversion of glucose to fat
  • Uptake of fatty acids for storage

what is the result of increased production of angiotensin?

  • hypertension

Which of the following statements about liposuction is true?

  • Liposuction is a surgical procedure to increase adipose tissue mass.
  • Liposuction is a method to reduce adipose tissue volume by suctioning fat.
  • Liposuction can only be performed on the face and neck.
  • Liposuction has no effect on body appearance.

the different parts of the body - depends on the sex of the individual

  • the thickness of the hypodermis depends on what

What is the main function of adipose tissue-derived adiponectin?

  • Stimulation of appetite
  • Promotion of inflammation
  • Enhancement of insulin sensitivity
  • Inhibition of fat breakdown

metabolism of steroid hormones..WAT does not synthesize steroid hormones de novo but it does _____________ enzymes which are involved in the conversion of bothglucocorticoids and sex hormones

  • express

the movement of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane- that leads to the production of heat instead of ATP

  • UCP-1 facilitates

Which of the following is NOT a type of adipose tissue?

  • White adipose tissue
  • Brown adipose tissue
  • Red adipose tissue
  • Beige adipose tissue

Where is subcutaneous adipose tissue located?

  • Around internal organs
  • Within the bone marrow
  • Beneath the skin
  • Within the liver

what chemical activates hormone sensitive lipase in adipose tissue?

  • norepinephrine (can be inhibited by insulin)

white adipose tissue (WAT).. body distributionMen ___________________ fat around the waist women tend to ___________________ more fat around the hips than the waist

  • accumulate

BAT..Brown adipocytes contain numerous and smaller _______ droplets (multilocular)

  • fat

is a specialized highly vascular tissue

  • adipose tissue

Which of the following is a role of adipose tissue in the body?

  • Skeletal muscle contraction
  • Temperature regulation
  • Vision enhancement
  • Bone density maintenance

found mainly in newborn babies (~5% of the body mass)

  • brown adipose tissue

white adipose tissue (WAT)..____________ distributed in the body

  • widely

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the kidneys?

  • Production of urine
  • Energy storage
  • Filtration of blood
  • Cushioning and support

newborn humans to prevent extensive heat loss

  • non-shivering thermogenesis also occurs in

what are some characteristics of brown fat?

  • large # of mitochondria,innervated by sympathetic nervous system,contain thermogenin

Which type of adipose tissue is commonly found in the abdominal cavity and is associated with metabolic syndrome?

  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue
  • Visceral adipose tissue
  • Brown adipose tissue
  • Beige adipose tissue

Which hormone promotes appetite and is often referred to as the "hunger hormone"?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Adiponectin

rare, benign, slow growing tumors of BROWN FAT

  • hibernoma

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the breast?

  • Storage of iron
  • Production of bile
  • Production of milk
  • Synthesis of neurotransmitters

lots of mitochondria

  • adipocytes in brown adipose tissue contain

adipose tissue function..2. Provide _____________________

  • insulation

white adipose tissue (WAT)..The lipid type found in WAT adipocytes is mainly ___________________

  • triglycerides

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the bone marrow?

  • Storage of energy
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Production of bile
  • Thermogenesis

fuel reserve and storage..___________ ___________ are the major secretory product of WAT

  • fatty acids

have a central nucleus, multiple fat droplets and abundant mitochondria

  • brown adipocytes

Type of connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells (adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat, within a structural network of fibers.

  • adipose tissue

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in protecting organs?

  • Production of antibodies
  • Storage of toxins
  • Cushioning and insulation
  • Synthesis of neurotransmitters

Which hormone stimulates the breakdown of triglycerides in adipocytes?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

What is the primary function of adipose tissue?

  • Energy storage
  • Oxygen transport
  • Muscle contraction
  • Heat production

What is the main function of subcutaneous adipose tissue?

  • Heat production
  • Energy storage
  • Hormone synthesis
  • Supporting internal organs

role in glucose homeostasis..Both of these products can be used in the metabolic processes __________________ for glucose production.

  • required

BAT..Provides an infant with an ___________________ means of heat regulation

  • alternative

dissipates the mitochondrial proton gradient, uncoupling respiration from ATP synthesis- and the energy produced by the mitochondria is used as heat

  • the movement of protons from the inner compartment of the mitochondria

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the lungs?

  • Oxygen transport
  • Energy storage
  • Temperature regulation
  • Production of mucus

what is the function of leptin?

  • act on hypothalamus to regulate appetite

What is the primary function of visceral adipose tissue?

  • Temperature regulation
  • Cushioning and insulation
  • Production of antibodies
  • Synthesis of neurotransmitters

What is the primary function of adipose tissue in the heart?

  • Energy storage
  • Protection of the heart
  • Production of blood cells
  • Regulation of heart rate

white and brown

  • there are two types of adipose tissue

is present during fetal life and diminishes during the first decade after birth- also called multiocular = contains numerous fat droplets

  • brown adipose tissue ( when in life is it present)

Which hormone is produced by adipose tissue and plays a role in regulating hunger and energy balance?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

lipolysis..activated by ___________________ such as: epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon (which bind to adipocytes).

  • hormones

Which hormone is produced by adipose tissue and plays a role in regulating hunger and appetite?

  • Insulin
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin
  • Cortisol

- large cells- shapes include round oval or polyhedral

  • adipoctyes are

BAT..(e.g., grizzly bears and black bears) BAT is found in adults and plays an important role in survival "hibernating gland "BAT consumes energy and releases heat(nonshivering thermogenesis)

  • hibernating animals

Which enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of fatty acids in adipose tissue?

  • Lipase
  • Amylase
  • Fatty acid synthase
  • Chymotrypsin

adipose tissue function..3. ____________________: forms pads between organs

  • Mechanical

an uncoupling protien found in mitochondria, UCP or thermogenin

  • thermogenic activity is regulated bu

not membrane bound

  • the lipid droplet in adipoctytes are

a rare, malignant tumor of adipose tissue- tumor containing cell that are less differentiated are more aggressive and tend to metastasize

  • liposarcoma

how are adipocytes stimulated to release free fatty acids?

  • hormonal or neural signals that hydrolyze triglycerides

BAT..Higher in __________, more oxygenated (capillaries)

  • iron

The classical view of the _________________ of adipose tissue is to provide a long-term fuel reserve (energy storage) which can be mobilized during food deprivation with the release of fatty acids for oxidation in other organs.

  • function

leptin..Leptin _____________ in blood are higher while we sleep suppressing appetite (?) decreased after short-term fasting and cronically increased in obese patients

  • levels
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