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Earth Science

The study of the Earth's structure, properties, processes, and four and a half billion years of biotic evolution for the maintenance of life on the planet.




life science




shave skin soother

before life


earth orbit

magnetic field



solar system

james fatherree

concept map


Epoch is the smallest division of the geologic time scale.

  • True
  • False

When two plates move lateral to one another, this boundary is called ____________.

  • a. convergent
  • b. transform
  • c. concurrent
  • d. divergent

Extreme heat and ________________ is needed for metamorphism to occur.

  • a. pressure
  • b. water supply
  • c. erosion agent
  • d. weather condition

How old is the solar system?

  • a. 3.4 billion years old
  • b. 4.6 billion years old
  • c. 5.6 billion years old
  • d. 5.5 billion years old

Horizon R or bedrock is a mass of rock such as granite, basalt, quartzite, limestone or sandstone that forms the parent material for some soils – if the bedrock is close enough to the surface to weather.

  • True
  • False

The Mesozoic era is divided into three periods; Triassic, Jurrasic, and Cretaceous.

  • True
  • False

Erosion is the breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface.

  • True
  • False

Erosion is consist of material saturated with water that moves as a fluid mass.

  • True
  • False

Physical structure of living beings depends on the protein content in their bodies.

  • a. amino acid dating
  • b. radiometric dating
  • c. Dendrochronology
  • d. Thermoluminescence

The most abundant element in magma is oxygen.

  • True
  • False

There are four types of igneous rock.

  • True
  • False

Amber is the fossilized remains of tree sap millions of years ago.

  • True
  • False

A large body of water surrounded by land is called ____________.

  • a. lake
  • b. ocean
  • c. river
  • d. estuary

Weathering is the breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface.

  • True
  • False

In the theory of Continental Drift, Earth’s continents were once part of an enormous, single landmass called ___________________.

  • a. continental landmass
  • b. Pangaea
  • c. Gondwana
  • d. Laurasia

Precambrian contains large piece of the earth's geological history.

  • True
  • False

The pressure is a measure of the stress, the physical force, being applied to the surface of a material.

  • True
  • False

Metamorphic rocks are those that have been transformed by pressure and heat but that has not actually melted.

  • True
  • False

Formal geologic time begins at the start of the Phanerozoic Eon (4.0 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) and continues to the present day.

  • True
  • False

The period when the first primates arise is ______________.

  • a. Paleozoic
  • b. Mesozoic
  • c. Cretaceous
  • d. Permian

"Bio" is a Greek word which means _________________.

  • a. life
  • b. ground
  • c. water
  • d. air

Domestic waste is a special type of waste.

  • True
  • False

Relative time allows scientists to tell the story of Earth events but does not provide specific numeric ages, and thus, the rate at which geologic processes operate.

  • True
  • False

The Milky Way Galaxy is about 100,000 light-years wide.

  • True
  • False

It determines if an object/event is younger or older than another object/event from history

  • a. absolute dating
  • b. relative dating

He proposed that the universe began from a single primordial atom.

  • a. George Lemaitre
  • b. Galileo Galilei
  • c. Aristotle
  • d. Cicero

Continental drift, large-scale horizontal movements of continents relative to one another and to the ocean basins during one or more episodes of geologic time.

  • True
  • False

The discovery of this by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson led to the thought that the universe started as a tiny, hot, and dense state.

  • a. Big Bang
  • b. Singularity
  • c. Cosmic Microwave Background
  • d. Steady State

This type of power taps Earth's internal heat to produce electricity.

  • a. hydroelectric
  • b. nuclear
  • c. solar
  • d. geothermal

The breakdown of rocks by oxygen and water, often giving iron-rich rocks a rusty color is called oxidation.

  • True
  • False

A classification of a nonrenewable mineral resource that is identified resource that can be extracted profitably.

  • a. undiscovered
  • b. reserves
  • c. others
  • d. identified

Physical weathering is caused by the rainwater reacting with the mineral grains in rocks to form minerals and soluble salts.

  • True
  • False

Aquifers are areas of permeable rock that hold water.

  • True
  • False

It is the oldest in the three periods.

  • a. Paleozoic
  • b. Cenozoic
  • c. Mesozoic

The age of the universe is ____________.

  • a. 13.8 thousand years old
  • b. 13.8 million years old
  • c. 13.8 billion years old
  • d. 18.3 billion years old

Seafloor spreading occurs along mid-ocean ridges—large mountain ranges rising from the ocean floor.

  • True
  • False

Eras are subdivided into periods.

  • True
  • False

Betelgeuse and Rigel are two of the brightest stars of Orion's Belt.

  • True
  • False

This is the stage when clumps of gas collapsed enough to form the very first stars and galaxies.

  • a. Singularity
  • b. Inflation
  • c. Recombination
  • d. Dark Ages

This theory states that the universe has no beginning and no ending.

  • a. Protoplanetary Hypothesis
  • b. Steady State Theory
  • c. Nebular Hypothesis
  • d. Big Bang Theory

Temperature is a major factor in the formation of magma.

  • True
  • False

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of rocks by acidic water to produce clay and soluble salts.

  • True
  • False

Most of the pores in the vadose zone are filled with air, rather than water.

  • True
  • False

A continent is composed of relatively light blocks that float high on the mantle, like gigantic, slow-moving icebergs.

  • True
  • False

A region with similar plants, animals, terrain, and climate is called _______________.

  • a. biome
  • b. community
  • c. ecosystem
  • d. biosphere

"Geo" came from the Greek word ____________.

  • a. ground
  • b. life
  • c. air
  • d. water

The following are types of biome, except ________________.

  • a. rain forest
  • b. pond
  • c. grassland
  • d. desert

The hardest mineral is ________________.

  • a. diamond
  • b. corundum
  • c. topaz
  • d. talc

The period when dinosaurs diversify is ____________.

  • a. Cretaceous
  • b. Permian
  • c. Jurassic
  • d. Carboniferous

This rock forms when either magma or lava cools down and turns from liquid to solid.

  • a. sedimentary
  • b. Metamorphic
  • c. polymorphic
  • d. igneous

A stress is any change in volume or shape.

  • True
  • False

The different type of rocks are the following, except ________________.

  • a. igneous
  • b. sedimentary
  • c. mineral
  • d. metamorphic

What is the study of minerals called?

  • a. limnology
  • b. geology
  • c. mineralogy
  • d. hydrology

It is the best-supported theory on the origin of the universe.

  • a. Nebular Hypothesis
  • b. Protoplanetary Hypothesis
  • c. Steady State Theory
  • d. Big Bang Theory

A process of preserving the remains or traces of a dead organism.

  • a. plate tectonic
  • b. fossilization
  • c. compaction
  • d. metamorphism

The geologic time scale is divided into four segments.

  • True
  • False

Hadean eon is the earliest in the geologic time scale.

  • True
  • False

The following scientists are believers of the Big Bang Theory, except ____________.

  • a. Georges Lemaitre
  • b. Francesco Redi
  • c. Robert Wilson
  • d. Arno Penzias

It works best for sedimentary rocks having layered arrangement of sediments.

  • a. absolute dating
  • b. relative dating

Saltwater is abundant in the surface of the planet and is not directly useful for potable purposes.

  • True
  • False

The eon where humans are living is _____________.

  • a. Hadean
  • b. Archean
  • c. Phanerozoic
  • d. Proterozoic

Virtually all of the metamorphic rocks that we see on Earth are derived from magmas that formed from partial melting of existing rock, either in the upper mantle or the crust.

  • True
  • False

A type of mining where only shallow deposits are removed.

  • a. open-pit mining
  • b. surface mining
  • c. subsurface mining
  • d. strip mining

A mass movement also called Mass Wasting.

  • True
  • False

The most active divergent plate boundaries are between oceanic plates and are often called mountain ranges.

  • True
  • False

The processes of evaporation and transpiration is also called transpoevaporation.

  • True
  • False

The word 'universe' is derived from the Latin word 'Universum' which was used by the Roman statesman named __________________.

  • a. Aristotle
  • b. Plato
  • c. Socrates
  • d. Cicero

Two minerals that have the same composition but different crystal form.

  • a. euhedral
  • b. polymorphs
  • c. dicrystal
  • d. anhedral

It works best for igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  • a. absolute dating
  • b. relative dating

The following are terrestrial planet, except ____________________.

  • a. Earth
  • b. Jupiter
  • c. Mars
  • d. Mercury

"Atmos" came from the Greek word which means _____________.

  • a. life
  • b. ground
  • c. air
  • d. water

This shows the leftover radiation of the ancient universe.

  • a. Steady State
  • b. Singularity
  • c. Primordial Soup
  • d. Cosmic Microwave Background

Island arcs and oceanic trenches occur when both of the plates are made of oceanic crust

  • True
  • False

This type of power plants uses moving water to generate electricity.

  • a. nuclear
  • b. hydroelectric
  • c. solar
  • d. geothermal

A large, slowly moving, sheet of ice.

  • a. ice berg
  • b. glacier
  • c. snow
  • d. permafrost

This termed to as the infinitely tiny, hot, and dense point where the universe started.

  • a. Proton
  • b. Primordial Soup
  • c. Electron
  • d. Singularity

"Hydro" is a Greek term which means ___________________.

  • a. air
  • b. life
  • c. ground
  • d. water

Current within the mantle have broken the crust into blocks called _______________.

  • a. boundaries
  • b. continents
  • c. plates
  • d. crust

It took how many years before the universe started to cool down enough for the protons, neutrons, and electrons to bind together to form neutral Hydrogen and Helium?

  • a. 830,000 years
  • b. 83,000 years
  • c. 380,000 years
  • d. 38,000 years

The process of rapid expansion -about a billionth of a trillionth of a second, creating what we now call space.

  • a. Inflation
  • b. Radiation
  • c. Expansion
  • d. Recombination

Paleontology is the study of fossils.

  • True
  • False

The term 'cosmos' is derived from the Greek word 'kosmos' which means _________________.

  • a. the space
  • b. the sky
  • c. the unknown
  • d. the world

The point where the denser plate goes under the less dense plate is called a rift valley.

  • True
  • False

The theory of continental drift is most associated with the scientist ____________.

  • a. Alfred Wegener
  • b. James Maxwell
  • c. Ernest Rutherford
  • d. Albert Einstein

All sedimentary rocks contain fossils.

  • True
  • False

The point where the denser plate goes under the less dense plate is called _______________.

  • a. subduction zone
  • b. rift valley
  • c. ridges
  • d. fault

The earth's water is how many percents of the earth's surface?

  • a. 50%
  • b. 35%
  • c. 71%
  • d. 97%

Rich in minerals that leached (moved down) from the A or E horizons and accumulated in Horizon O.

  • True
  • False

It determines the age of a rock/object using radiometric techniques.

  • a. absolute dating
  • b. relative dating

Parent material can be found in the C horizon.

  • True
  • False

When did the first mammal live?

  • a. Carboniferous
  • b. Triassic
  • c. Ordovician
  • d. Tertiary

When did the first vascular plants arise?

  • a. Triassic
  • b. Devonian
  • c. Silurian
  • d. Jurassic

This technique solely depends on the traces of radioactive isotopes found in fossils.

  • a. Thermoluminescence
  • b. amino acid dating
  • c. radiometric dating
  • d. Dendrochronology

It is based on the concept that the lowest layer is the oldest and the topmost layer is the youngest.

  • a. Fluorine dating
  • b. Cross dating
  • c. stratigraphy
  • d. Biostratigraphy

At what era, do humans live?

  • a. Cenozoic
  • b. Mesozoic
  • c. Precambrian
  • d. Paleozoic

Seafloor spreading and other tectonic activity processes are the results of convection current in the mantle.

  • True
  • False

This level of the atmosphere comprises 80% of the gas on Earth and where weather patterns take place.

  • a. troposphere
  • b. stratosphere
  • c. mesosphere
  • d. thermosphere

The Milky Way Galaxy is how many light-years across?

  • a. 10,000
  • b. 100,000
  • c. 100
  • d. 1,000,000

A divergent boundary is formed when two plates move away from each other.

  • True
  • False

Solid or as paste that once deposited in a landfill do not undergo significantly physical-chemical or biological transformations is called inert waste.

  • True
  • False

The process of breaking down of rocks by means of water, ice, wind, plants, and animals is called weathering.

  • True
  • False

When two plates are colliding, the type of boundary is called ____________.

  • a. convection
  • b. divergent
  • c. transform
  • d. convergent

The theory that explains an expanding universe is the ______________ theory.

  • a. Steady State
  • b. Nebular
  • c. Big Bang
  • d. Interstellar

A body of flowing water moving towards the sea.

  • a. estuary
  • b. lake
  • c. ocean
  • d. river

It determines the period during which certain object was last subjected to heat. It is based on the concept that heated objects absorb light, and emit electrons.

  • a. Thermoluminescence
  • b. Radiometric dating
  • c. Dendrochronology
  • d. Amino acid dating

The following are definitions of a mineral, except ______________.

  • a. homogeneous
  • b. fluid
  • c. inorganic
  • d. naturally-occurring

Eras are the second to the largest intervals of geologic time and are hundreds of millions of years in duration.

  • True
  • False