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The chemical substances and processes that occur in plants, animals, and microorganisms and of the changes they undergo during development and life.
A cell targets itself.
Almost all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are soluble, with the single exception of the enzyme ______, which is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
Which end of the water molecule has a slightly positive charge?
Almost all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are soluble, with the single exception of the enzyme _______, which is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
Chemical signals are released by ______ in the form of small, usually volatile or soluble molecules called ligands.
________ also regulates pain sensation and inflammatory responses.
Through a series of steps, citrate is _____, releasing two carbon dioxide molecules for each acetyl group fed into the cycle.
Signals from distant cells are called endocrine signals, and they originate from ________.
It is the process of making RNA from DNA template where the code in the DNA is
The reaction used to digest and break the bond in red is ___________.
What is the tetrameric protein that transports oxygen?
The neurotransmitters that are released into the chemical synapse are degraded quickly or get reabsorbed by the ______ so that the recipient nerve cell can recover quickly and be prepared to respond rapidly to the next synaptic signal.
Which matured cells in the human body do not contain nucleic acids
______ are produced by signaling cells that can also bind to the ligand that is released.
The ratio of 1:2:1 is one of the properties of disaccharide.
CoA is bound to a _____ (-SH) and diffuses away to eventually combine with another acetyl group.
The ligands released in endocrine signaling are called ________, signaling molecules that are produced in one part of the body but affect other body regions some distance away.
When a piece of liver is dropped into hydrogen peroxide, the peroxide bubbles vigorously as the hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen. This rapid change in reaction rate suggests ________________.
Which one is the active site?
There are four categories of chemical signaling found in multicellular organisms: paracrine signaling, endocrine signaling, autocrine signaling, and __________.
Which one is enzyme?
The distance between the presynaptic cell and the postsynaptic cellâ€”called the ______ â€”is very small and allows for rapid diffusion of the neurotransmitter.
Attractions between water molecules are called _____________.
When the neurotransmitter binds the _____ on the surface of the postsynaptic cell, the electrochemical potential of the target cell changes, and the next electrical impulse is launched.
What protein substances catalyze biochemical reactions?
When collagen is denatured by heat, it turns into?
This refers to the long chains of carbon hydrogen bonds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
If ATP is in ________________, the rate increases.
Signaling via gap junctions involves signaling molecules moving directly between ______.
The enzyme that catalyzes step four is regulated by ________________ of ATP, succinyl CoA, and NADH.
Which one is substrate?
What is the storage protein that is bonded with iron to store iron in the body?
Step six is a dehydration process that converts _________________.
Which group of amino acids can be synthesized by the body and may not be the requisite components of the diet?
Signals that act locally between cells that are close together are called ____.
The chylomicrons enable fats and cholesterol to move within the ______ environment of your lymphatic and circulatory systems.
Which one is not the function of lipids in the body?
Removing the signals will reestablish the concentration gradient for the signal, allowing them to quickly diffuse through the ______ if released again.
As water freezes, it expands and its density decreases.
A cell targets a cell connected by gap junctions.
From the lymphatic system, the chylomicrons are transported to the _____ system.
When food reaches the small intestine in the form of chyme, a digestive hormone called ______ is released by intestinal cells in the intestinal mucosa.
A hydrocarbon chain that is sometimes considered to be a monomer of lipids.
If an RNA molecule is single stranded, the DNA molecule has 2 strands, characteristically described as?
This refers to the molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges.
Lipid metabolism begins in the intestine where ingested triglycerides are broken down into smaller chain fatty acids and subsequently into monoglyceride molecules by pancreatic lipases, enzymes that break down fats after they are emulsified by _______.
Name the three universal types of RNA
Lipid metabolism is associated with carbohydrate metabolism, as products of ______ (such as acetyl CoA) can be converted into lipids.
This molecules is a ______________.
Name the 2 types of nucleic acids
GTP is energetically equivalent to _______________________.
What word describes when water is attracted to other substances?
One example of paracrine signaling is the transfer of signals across ______ between nerve cells.
What macromolecule is this?
Fats (or triglycerides) within the body are ingested as food or synthesized by adipocytes or hepatocytes from _____ precursors.
Hormones travel the large distances between endocrine cells and their target cells via the ______, which is a relatively slow way to move throughout the body.
Unsaturated fats are ______________ at room temperature.
A cell targets a distant cell through the bloodstream.
Some enzymes exist in their inactive forms and are known?
Which vitamin play an important role in the synthesis of collagen?
The glycerol that is released from triglycerides after lipolysis directly enters the glycolysis pathway as _____.
Saturated fats are ____________ at room temperature.
The sequence of amino acids is determined by ___________.
This is also water's ability to be attraction to other water molecules.
He discovered nucleic acids in 1869
What is the purpose of an enzyme?
What do you call the DNA segments that carry the genetic information?
CCK also travels to the brain, where it can act as a _____.
A ______ consists of a cell body, several short, branched extensions called dendrites that receive stimuli, and a long extension called an axon, which transmits signals to other nerve cells or muscle cells.
What are the 2 semi-essential amino acids among humans?
With what 3 letters do enzymes typically end?
The neurotransmitters are transported across the very small distances between nerve cells, which are called ______.
The characteristic that all lipids have in common is _____________.
Two __________ are transferred to FAD, producing FADH2.
The synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template where the code in the mRNA is
In ______, a cell may target itself (autocrine signaling), a cell connected by gap junctions, a nearby cell (paracrine signaling), or a distant cell (endocrine signaling).
Each of these monomeric units of nucleic acids has three components. Name these 3 components
What is the main function of carbohydrates?
This is the number of amino acids used to produce proteins for all living things.
Any substance that is acted upon by an enzyme is called aNo?
The diagram shows a bond forming between two amino acids. What is the name of the resulting bond?
In order to keep the response localized, ______ are normally quickly degraded by enzymes or removed by neighboring cells.
Which type of compound would not dissolve easily in water?
Organisms living in a bog environment must be able to tolerate nitrogen-poor acidic conditions. Bog plants such as the Venus flytrap and sundew are able to obtain their nitrogen by attacking and consuming insects. These plants produce chemicals that break down the insects into usable compounds.
Identify the monomeric unit of nucleic acids
How many sugar units make up disaccharides?
CCK stimulates the release of ________ from the pancreas and stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder to release stored bile salts into the intestine.
In _______, a cell may target itself (autocrine signaling), a cell connected by gap junctions, a nearby cell (paracrine signaling), or a distant cell (endocrine signaling).
Water is a universal solvent because ...
Communication between cells is called intercellular signaling, and communication within a cell is called _______.
Signals within the nerve cells are propagated by fast-moving _______ impulses.
The attraction that causes water and other liquids to form drops on thin films is called _________________.
The shape of the enzyme molecule is changed.
Ligands interact with proteins in target cells, which are cells that are affected by chemical signals; these proteins are also called ______.
Enzymes in the ______ degrade some types of neurotransmitters to terminate the signal.
If ATP levels _____, the rate of this reaction decreases.
Which of the following molecules make up the basic structure of a cell membrane?
To obtain energy from _______, triglycerides must first be broken down by hydrolysis into their two principal components, fatty acids and glycerol.
Which one would not affect the rate of enzyme activity?
Steps three and four are both ____________________, which release electrons that reduce NAD+ to NADH and release carboxyl groups that form CO2 molecules.
The breakdown of fatty acids, called fatty acid oxidation or beta (Î²)-oxidation, begins in the _____, where fatty acids are converted into fatty acyl CoA molecules.
This molecule is a __________.
Signals that act locally between cells that are close together are called ______.
What links these monomeric units to form proteins?
The pancreatic lipases and bile salts break down ______ into free fatty acids.
Proteins are polymers of what monomeric units?
Lipid metabolism entails the oxidation of fatty acids to either generate ______ or synthesize new lipids from smaller constituent molecules.
All carbohydrate names end with which ending?
In the citric acid cycle, the acetyl group from acetyl CoA is attached to a four-carbon oxaloacetate molecule to form a six-carbon ______.
In the process, three _____ are reduced to NADH, one FAD molecule is reduced to FADH2, and one ATP or GTP (depending on the cell type) is produced (by substrate-level phosphorylation).
Because of their form of transport, hormones get _____ and are present in low concentrations when they act on their target cells.
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from this graph?
Signals that act locally between cells that are close together are called
A water strider can skate along the top of a pond because of the hydrogen bonds result in water cohesion.
In step two, citrate loses one water molecule and gains another as citrate is converted into its isomer, _______________.
The term protein was derived from which Greek word that means “primary”?
What molecule is this:
These are all examples of lipids except one.
The junction between nerve cells where signal transmission occurs is called a ________.
Which of these is most likely an enzyme?
Which one is not an example of lipids?
Because the final product of the citric acid cycle is also the _____, the cycle runs continuously in the presence of sufficient reactants.
Which of the following is a lipid?
What is the clinical condition wherein the 6th amino acid in the beta chain of hemoglobin is altered?
Within the intestinal cells, these triglycerides are packaged along with cholesterol molecules in phospholipid vesicles called _______.
These are long term energy storage which helps to form cell membranes and provides parts of other biomolecules like hormones.
The amino acid that results in disulphide bridges is called _______________.
If a cell is infected with a ______, the cell can signal itself to undergo programmed cell death, killing the virus in the process. In some cases, neighboring cells of the same type are also influenced by the released ligand.
Chemical signals are released by _______ in the form of small, usually volatile or soluble molecules called ligands.
The structure of proteins can be changed by environmental factors such as temperature or pH.
______ acts on nearby cells, endocrine signaling uses the circulatory system to transport ligands, and autocrine signaling acts on the signaling cell.
Ligands can thus be thought of as ______.
Which biomolecule is often stored in the body's tissues as energy?
A cell targets a nearby cell.
How do lipids function for cells?
Where do substrates bind on an enzyme?
Like the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of _____.
Substances on which enzymes act to convert them into products are known as?
Unlike glycolysis, the citric acid cycle is a ______.
The citric acid cycle produces very little ATP directly and does not directly consume ______.
The main difference between the different categories of signaling is the ____ that the signal travels through the organism to reach the target cell.
Name the group of amino acids which are not synthesized by the body and must be taken in diet.
In step five, a phosphate group is substituted for coenzyme A, and a ___________________is formed.
Chylomicrons leave the enterocytes by exocytosis and enter the lymphatic system via ________ in the villi of the intestine.
The bond that joins amino acids are called _____________.
What fraction of the total dry body weight is made up of proteins?
Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol molecules, and other _____ (protein molecules).
A ______ is a molecule that binds another specific molecule, in some cases, delivering a signal in the process.
The primary sequence of a protein refers to the:
In step three, isocitrate is oxidized, producing a five-carbon molecule, Î±-____________________, together with a molecule of CO2 and two electrons, which reduce NAD+ to NADH.
When these impulses reach the end of the axon, the signal continues on to a dendrite of the next cell by the release of chemical ligands called ______ by the presynaptic cell (the cell emitting the signal).
What are the 2 basic types or models of enzyme-substrate complex formation?
What protein is the main constituent of skin, bone, tendon, cartilage and teeth among mammals?
Paracrine signals move by diffusion through the _______ matrix.
Most enzymes are composed of _______________.
Signals within the nerve cells are propagated by fast-moving ____ impulses.
These are short term energy and structure in plants.
Certain enzymes require specific, thermostable, low mol. wt, non-protein organic substance called?
Match the illustration of the form of chemical signaling.
Enumerate the 5 primary nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids
What is another name for enzyme?
Based on the graph, what is the optimal temperature for this enzyme?
A ______ is a chemical signal that travels between nerve cells.
What type of carbohydrate is this?
The enzyme in the body works at best at 37ÂºC.
Paracrine signals move by diffusion through the ______ matrix.
Why can water have no net charge but have slight charges in different parts of the molecule?
How many sugar units make up monosaccharides?
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