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The chemical substances and processes that occur in plants, animals, and microorganisms and of the changes they undergo during development and life.
What are the 2 basic types or models of enzyme-substrate complex formation?
The attraction that causes water and other liquids to form drops on thin films is called _________________.
Two __________ are transferred to FAD, producing FADH2.
Which one is not the function of lipids in the body?
A ______ is a molecule that binds another specific molecule, in some cases, delivering a signal in the process.
When collagen is denatured by heat, it turns into?
This molecule is a __________.
What molecule is this:
A hydrocarbon chain that is sometimes considered to be a monomer of lipids.
A ______ is a chemical signal that travels between nerve cells.
What is another name for enzyme?
What is the main function of carbohydrates?
Signaling via gap junctions involves signaling molecules moving directly between ______.
There are four categories of chemical signaling found in multicellular organisms: paracrine signaling, endocrine signaling, autocrine signaling, and __________.
When the neurotransmitter binds the _____ on the surface of the postsynaptic cell, the electrochemical potential of the target cell changes, and the next electrical impulse is launched.
This is also water's ability to be attraction to other water molecules.
________ also regulates pain sensation and inflammatory responses.
Proteins are polymers of what monomeric units?
The ligands released in endocrine signaling are called ________, signaling molecules that are produced in one part of the body but affect other body regions some distance away.
What are the 2 semi-essential amino acids among humans?
Any substance that is acted upon by an enzyme is called aNo?
Removing the signals will reestablish the concentration gradient for the signal, allowing them to quickly diffuse through the ______ if released again.
Lipid metabolism entails the oxidation of fatty acids to either generate ______ or synthesize new lipids from smaller constituent molecules.
The neurotransmitters are transported across the very small distances between nerve cells, which are called ______.
Name the group of amino acids which are not synthesized by the body and must be taken in diet.
Lipid metabolism is associated with carbohydrate metabolism, as products of ______ (such as acetyl CoA) can be converted into lipids.
Where do substrates bind on an enzyme?
In step two, citrate loses one water molecule and gains another as citrate is converted into its isomer, _______________.
Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol molecules, and other _____ (protein molecules).
Which one is enzyme?
A cell targets a nearby cell.
Unlike glycolysis, the citric acid cycle is a ______.
These are short term energy and structure in plants.
How many sugar units make up monosaccharides?
What do you call the DNA segments that carry the genetic information?
From the lymphatic system, the chylomicrons are transported to the _____ system.
As water freezes, it expands and its density decreases.
Ligands can thus be thought of as ______.
In _______, a cell may target itself (autocrine signaling), a cell connected by gap junctions, a nearby cell (paracrine signaling), or a distant cell (endocrine signaling).
Which one is substrate?
What word describes when water is attracted to other substances?
What links these monomeric units to form proteins?
Why can water have no net charge but have slight charges in different parts of the molecule?
CCK stimulates the release of ________ from the pancreas and stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder to release stored bile salts into the intestine.
If ATP is in ________________, the rate increases.
The neurotransmitters that are released into the chemical synapse are degraded quickly or get reabsorbed by the ______ so that the recipient nerve cell can recover quickly and be prepared to respond rapidly to the next synaptic signal.
The term protein was derived from which Greek word that means “primary”?
In step three, isocitrate is oxidized, producing a five-carbon molecule, Î±-____________________, together with a molecule of CO2 and two electrons, which reduce NAD+ to NADH.
The ratio of 1:2:1 is one of the properties of disaccharide.
Identify the monomeric unit of nucleic acids
Because the final product of the citric acid cycle is also the _____, the cycle runs continuously in the presence of sufficient reactants.
CCK also travels to the brain, where it can act as a _____.
The diagram shows a bond forming between two amino acids. What is the name of the resulting bond?
This refers to the molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges.
Paracrine signals move by diffusion through the _______ matrix.
A cell targets itself.
A cell targets a distant cell through the bloodstream.
Substances on which enzymes act to convert them into products are known as?
Signals that act locally between cells that are close together are called ______.
This refers to the long chains of carbon hydrogen bonds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
The bond that joins amino acids are called _____________.
Communication between cells is called intercellular signaling, and communication within a cell is called _______.
What protein substances catalyze biochemical reactions?
Fats (or triglycerides) within the body are ingested as food or synthesized by adipocytes or hepatocytes from _____ precursors.
He discovered nucleic acids in 1869
These are long term energy storage which helps to form cell membranes and provides parts of other biomolecules like hormones.
Which end of the water molecule has a slightly positive charge?
Through a series of steps, citrate is _____, releasing two carbon dioxide molecules for each acetyl group fed into the cycle.
The main difference between the different categories of signaling is the ____ that the signal travels through the organism to reach the target cell.
Almost all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are soluble, with the single exception of the enzyme _______, which is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
The enzyme in the body works at best at 37ÂºC.
This is the number of amino acids used to produce proteins for all living things.
Steps three and four are both ____________________, which release electrons that reduce NAD+ to NADH and release carboxyl groups that form CO2 molecules.
It is the process of making RNA from DNA template where the code in the DNA is
Water is a universal solvent because ...
Which of the following is a lipid?
Signals from distant cells are called endocrine signals, and they originate from ________.
CoA is bound to a _____ (-SH) and diffuses away to eventually combine with another acetyl group.
Chemical signals are released by ______ in the form of small, usually volatile or soluble molecules called ligands.
In ______, a cell may target itself (autocrine signaling), a cell connected by gap junctions, a nearby cell (paracrine signaling), or a distant cell (endocrine signaling).
Which of these is most likely an enzyme?
When these impulses reach the end of the axon, the signal continues on to a dendrite of the next cell by the release of chemical ligands called ______ by the presynaptic cell (the cell emitting the signal).
The enzyme that catalyzes step four is regulated by ________________ of ATP, succinyl CoA, and NADH.
A water strider can skate along the top of a pond because of the hydrogen bonds result in water cohesion.
How do lipids function for cells?
The chylomicrons enable fats and cholesterol to move within the ______ environment of your lymphatic and circulatory systems.
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from this graph?
Which one is the active site?
The citric acid cycle produces very little ATP directly and does not directly consume ______.
What type of carbohydrate is this?
The reaction used to digest and break the bond in red is ___________.
The primary sequence of a protein refers to the:
Enzymes in the ______ degrade some types of neurotransmitters to terminate the signal.
A ______ consists of a cell body, several short, branched extensions called dendrites that receive stimuli, and a long extension called an axon, which transmits signals to other nerve cells or muscle cells.
The junction between nerve cells where signal transmission occurs is called a ________.
Like the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of _____.
The structure of proteins can be changed by environmental factors such as temperature or pH.
What is the tetrameric protein that transports oxygen?
Signals that act locally between cells that are close together are called ____.
Based on the graph, what is the optimal temperature for this enzyme?
The glycerol that is released from triglycerides after lipolysis directly enters the glycolysis pathway as _____.
To obtain energy from _______, triglycerides must first be broken down by hydrolysis into their two principal components, fatty acids and glycerol.
______ acts on nearby cells, endocrine signaling uses the circulatory system to transport ligands, and autocrine signaling acts on the signaling cell.
Step six is a dehydration process that converts _________________.
What protein is the main constituent of skin, bone, tendon, cartilage and teeth among mammals?
If an RNA molecule is single stranded, the DNA molecule has 2 strands, characteristically described as?
The sequence of amino acids is determined by ___________.
All carbohydrate names end with which ending?
Enumerate the 5 primary nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids
Each of these monomeric units of nucleic acids has three components. Name these 3 components
Organisms living in a bog environment must be able to tolerate nitrogen-poor acidic conditions. Bog plants such as the Venus flytrap and sundew are able to obtain their nitrogen by attacking and consuming insects. These plants produce chemicals that break down the insects into usable compounds.
In the citric acid cycle, the acetyl group from acetyl CoA is attached to a four-carbon oxaloacetate molecule to form a six-carbon ______.
______ are produced by signaling cells that can also bind to the ligand that is released.
Chylomicrons leave the enterocytes by exocytosis and enter the lymphatic system via ________ in the villi of the intestine.
What is the purpose of an enzyme?
Because of their form of transport, hormones get _____ and are present in low concentrations when they act on their target cells.
Which one would not affect the rate of enzyme activity?
Signals within the nerve cells are propagated by fast-moving _______ impulses.
The distance between the presynaptic cell and the postsynaptic cellâ€”called the ______ â€”is very small and allows for rapid diffusion of the neurotransmitter.
A cell targets a cell connected by gap junctions.
Which biomolecule is often stored in the body's tissues as energy?
The pancreatic lipases and bile salts break down ______ into free fatty acids.
Unsaturated fats are ______________ at room temperature.
Which of the following molecules make up the basic structure of a cell membrane?
Most enzymes are composed of _______________.
Chemical signals are released by _______ in the form of small, usually volatile or soluble molecules called ligands.
Lipid metabolism begins in the intestine where ingested triglycerides are broken down into smaller chain fatty acids and subsequently into monoglyceride molecules by pancreatic lipases, enzymes that break down fats after they are emulsified by _______.
Signals within the nerve cells are propagated by fast-moving ____ impulses.
GTP is energetically equivalent to _______________________.
Which matured cells in the human body do not contain nucleic acids
The amino acid that results in disulphide bridges is called _______________.
Within the intestinal cells, these triglycerides are packaged along with cholesterol molecules in phospholipid vesicles called _______.
These are all examples of lipids except one.
Ligands interact with proteins in target cells, which are cells that are affected by chemical signals; these proteins are also called ______.
When food reaches the small intestine in the form of chyme, a digestive hormone called ______ is released by intestinal cells in the intestinal mucosa.
Name the three universal types of RNA
In step five, a phosphate group is substituted for coenzyme A, and a ___________________is formed.
Almost all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are soluble, with the single exception of the enzyme ______, which is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
Which one is not an example of lipids?
What macromolecule is this?
Which group of amino acids can be synthesized by the body and may not be the requisite components of the diet?
What is the clinical condition wherein the 6th amino acid in the beta chain of hemoglobin is altered?
What fraction of the total dry body weight is made up of proteins?
Signals that act locally between cells that are close together are called
Which type of compound would not dissolve easily in water?
The shape of the enzyme molecule is changed.
In the process, three _____ are reduced to NADH, one FAD molecule is reduced to FADH2, and one ATP or GTP (depending on the cell type) is produced (by substrate-level phosphorylation).
How many sugar units make up disaccharides?
Which vitamin play an important role in the synthesis of collagen?
Saturated fats are ____________ at room temperature.
When a piece of liver is dropped into hydrogen peroxide, the peroxide bubbles vigorously as the hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen. This rapid change in reaction rate suggests ________________.
Paracrine signals move by diffusion through the ______ matrix.
What is the storage protein that is bonded with iron to store iron in the body?
If ATP levels _____, the rate of this reaction decreases.
Hormones travel the large distances between endocrine cells and their target cells via the ______, which is a relatively slow way to move throughout the body.
If a cell is infected with a ______, the cell can signal itself to undergo programmed cell death, killing the virus in the process. In some cases, neighboring cells of the same type are also influenced by the released ligand.
Attractions between water molecules are called _____________.
Some enzymes exist in their inactive forms and are known?
One example of paracrine signaling is the transfer of signals across ______ between nerve cells.
Certain enzymes require specific, thermostable, low mol. wt, non-protein organic substance called?
The characteristic that all lipids have in common is _____________.
The synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template where the code in the mRNA is
In order to keep the response localized, ______ are normally quickly degraded by enzymes or removed by neighboring cells.
The breakdown of fatty acids, called fatty acid oxidation or beta (Î²)-oxidation, begins in the _____, where fatty acids are converted into fatty acyl CoA molecules.
Match the illustration of the form of chemical signaling.
This molecules is a ______________.
Name the 2 types of nucleic acids
With what 3 letters do enzymes typically end?
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