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Electronics: Electronic Devices and Circuits

Provides a comprehensive understanding of electronic circuits, and their applications, equipping students with essential knowledge for electrical engineering.










integrated circuits





power supplies


The bias wherein the positive side is connected to the p region and the negative side of external voltage is connected to the n region of the diode.

  • Reverse Bias

What is the meaning of JFET?

  • Junction field-effect transistor

make political statements in order to create an awareness of issues that are important to them

  • hacktivists

The limit of external reverse-bias voltage wherein the reverse current will drastically increase.

  • Breakdown voltage

It states how much change occurs in the output voltage over a certain range of load current values.

  • Load Regulation

A type of input signal mode wherein either one signal is applied to an input with the other input grounded or two opposite-polarity signals are applied to the inputs.

  • Differential mode

Free electrons are also called __________.

  • Conduction electrons

It means there are no impurities.

  • Intrinsic

A circuit of half-wave voltage doubler with the addition of another diode-capacitor section.

  • Voltage tripler

The p region of the diode.

  • Anode

What is the best method to avoid getting spyware on a machine?

  • Install software only from trusted websites.

Fill in the blank. Any device that controls or filters traffic going in or out of the network is known as a ____

  • firewall

The VGS must be __________ to have channel conductivity in n-channel E-MOSFETS in enhancement mode,

  • Positive

What does SCS means?

  • Silicon controlled switch

It determines the effectiveness of the filter.

  • Ripple factor

What are two objectives of ensuring data integrity? (Choose two.)

  • Data is unaltered during transit. Data is not changed by unauthorized entities.

It is a field-effect transistor that has no pn junction.


A single pn junction device and therefore, does not belong to the thyristor family.

  • UJT

An employee points out a design flaw in a new product to the department manager.

  • ethical

Which protocol is used by the Cisco Cyber threat Defense Solution to collect information about the traffic that is traversing the network?

  • NetFlow

The SCS means ________________.

  • Silicon controlled switch

Another name is SUS.

  • Shockley diode

A mode wherein either one signal is applied to an input with the other input grounded or two opposite-polarity signals are applied to the inputs.

  • Differential mode

Which statement describes cybersecurity?

  • It is an ongoing effort to protect Internet-connected systems and the data associated with those systems from unauthorized use or harm.

The transistor configuration that has a 180 out of phase relationship.

  • Common Emitter Configuration

Type of MOSFET that operates only in enhancement mode.

  • Depletion MOSFET (WRONG)

A device that is like a diac with a gate terminal.

  • Triac

It is used as a dc-controlled microwave switch operated by rapid changes in bias or as a modulating device that takes advantage of the variable forward-resistance characteristic.

  • PIN diode

The circuit wherein the during the negative alternation of the ac input voltage, the diode is reverse-biased and there is no current.

  • Full-wave rectifier

Two basic methods to turn off the SCR.

  • Anode current interruption and forced commutation

The meaning of MOSFET.

  • Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

Fill in the blank. _________ is a group of compromised or hacked computers (bots) controlled by an individual with malicious intent.

  • botnet

What is the last stage of the Cyber Kill Chain framework?

  • malicious action

It is a two-terminal four-layer semiconductor device that conducts current in either direction when activated.

  • Diac

The addition of impurities to an intrinsic semiconductive material.

  • Doping

What are the terminals of UJT?

  • Emitter, base 1 and base 2

It is represented like a switch.

  • Ideal diode model

The _____________ produces a depletion region along the pn junction.

  • Reverse-biased

It symbolizes the broken lines of E-MOSFETs.

  • Absence of a physical channel

What is one main function of the Cisco Security Incident Response Team?

  • to ensure company, system, and data preservation

Refer to the exhibit. Rearrange the letters to fill in the blank The behavior-based analysis involves using baseline information to detect _______that could indicate an attack.

  • anomaly

The three terminals of SCR.

  • Anode, cathode and gate

The four terminals of SCS.

  • Cathode gate, anode gate, anode and cathode

A pn junction is formed by

  • The boundary of a p-type and an n-type material

It adds a dc level to an ac voltage.

  • Diode Clamper

The JFET three terminals.

  • Drain, source and gate

A four-terminal thyristor that has two gate terminals that are used to trigger the device on and off

  • SCS

Which statement describes cyberwarfare?

  • It is Internet-based conflict that involves the penetration of information systems of other nations.

It is the voltage variation in the capacitor.

  • Filter voltage

The JFET operates as a

  • Voltage-controlled, constant-current device

What is another name for confidentiality of information?

  • privacy

A medical office employee sends emails to patients about recent patient visits to the facility. What information would put the privacy of the patients at risk if it was included in the email?

  • patient records

Diode clamper is also known as __________.

  • DC restorer

It is also known as tuning diodes.

  • Varactor diode

The value of the forward voltage in practical diode model.

  • 0.7 V

The configuration that has high input impedance and low output impedance.

  • Common Collector Configuration

What is an example of the a Cyber Kill Chain?

  • a planned process of cyberattack

Alicia, a company employee, has lost her corporate identification badge. She is in a hurry to get to a meeting and does not have time to visit Human Resources to obtain a temporary badge. You lend her your identification badge until she can obtain a replacement.

  • unethical

A company is experiencing overwhelming visits to a main web server. The IT department is developing a plan to add a couple more web servers for load balancing and redundancy. Which requirement of information security is addressed by implementing the plan?

  • availability

Holes in an n-type semiconductor are

  • Minority carriers that are thermally produced

When describing malware, what is a difference between a virus and a worm?

  • A virus replicates itself by attaching to another file, whereas a worm can replicate itself independently.

An employee is at a restaurant with friends and describes an exciting new video game that is under development at the company the employee works for. Is the behavior of the employee ethical or unethical?

  • unethical

An American Physicist who first describe the properties of breakdown voltage.

  • Clarence Melvin Zener

Which method is used to check the integrity of data?

  • checksum

The condition that allows current through the pn junction

  • Forward Bias

How can users working on a shared computer keep their personal browsing history hidden from other workers that may use this computer?

  • Operate the web browser in private browser mode

What JFET stands for?

  • Junction field-effect transistor

Which configuration on a wireless router is not considered to be adequate security for a wireless network?

  • prevent the broadcast of an SSID

A user is surfing the Internet using a laptop from a public WiFi cafe. What should be checked first when the user connects to the public network?

  • if the laptop requires user authentication for file and media sharing

What three items are components of the CIA triad? (Choose three.)

  • availability confidentiality integrity

What are the terminals of SCS?

  • Cathode gate, anode gate, anode and cathode

The depletion region is created by

  • Diffusion

True or False?An employee does something as a company representative with the knowledge of that company and this action is deemed illegal. The company would be legally responsible for this action.

  • true

It is the difference of the input bias currents, expressed as an absolute value.

  • Input offset current

What is called to a diode clamper which inserts a negative dc level in the waveform?

  • Negative clamper

The JFET operates as a _______________.

  • Voltage-controlled, constant-current device

What does UJT means?

  • Unijunction transistor

A consumer would like to print photographs stored on a cloud storage account using a third party online printing service. After successfully logging into the cloud account, the customer is automatically given access to the third party online printing service. What allowed this automatic authentication to occur?

  • The cloud storage service is an approved application for the online printing service.

A type of FET that operates with a reverse-biased pn junction to control current in a channel.

  • JFET

A material that has no bandgap.

  • Conductor

It is a four-terminal thyristor that has two gate terminals that are used to trigger the device on and off.

  • SCS

The majority carriers in an p-type semiconductor are

  • Holes

The connection wherein the negative terminal of the source is connected to the anode side of the circuit and the positive terminal is connected to the cathode side.

  • Reverse-bias connection

make political statements, or create fear, by causing physical or psychological damage to victims

  • terrorists

Which technology removes direct equipment and maintenance costs from the user for data backups?

  • a cloud service

The fuse rating that must be used

  • should be at least 20% larger than the calculated Ipri.

What is the best method to prevent Bluetooth from being exploited?

  • Always disable Bluetooth when it is not actively used.

Also known as the 4-layer diode.

  • Shockley diode

Which stage of the kill chain used by attackers focuses on the identification and selection of targets?

  • reconnaissance

Which two tools used for incident detection can be used to detect anomalous behavior, to detect command and control traffic, and to detect infected hosts? (Choose two.)

  • intrusion detection system NetFlow

The resistance from the output.

  • Output impedance

What is the main purpose of cyberwarfare?

  • to gain advantage over adversaries

The n region of the diode.

  • Cathode

The IT department is reporting that a company web server is receiving an abnormally high number of web page requests from different locations simultaneously. Which type of security attack is occurring?

  • DDoS

The differential dc voltage required between the inputs to force the output to 0 V.

  • Input offset voltage

A diode clamper that inserts a positive dc level in the output waveform.

  • Positive clamper

gather intelligence or commit sabotage on specific goals on behalf of their government

  • state-sponsored attackers

The process of imparting impurities to an intrinsic semiconductive material in order to control its conduction characteristics.

  • Doping

What action will an IDS take upon detection of malicious traffic?

  • create a network alert and log the detection

The following are examples of trivalent atoms except ___________,

  • Carbon

Which tool can perform real-time traffic and port analysis, and can also detect port scans, fingerprinting and buffer overflow attacks?

  • Snort

It is created from the addition of a trivalent impurity in silicon.

  • A p-type semiconductor

High-current diodes used primarily in high-frequency and fast-switching applications.

  • Schottky diode

The value of the voltage gain of a Common Base Configuration.

  • Low (WRONG)

What is the most common goal of search engine optimization (SEO) poisoning?

  • to increase web traffic to malicious sites

Another name of constant-current diode.

  • Current regulator diode

During a meeting with the Marketing department, a representative from IT discusses features of an upcoming product that will be released next year.

  • ethical

As data is being stored on a local hard disk, which method would secure the data from unauthorized access?

  • data encryption

An employee is laid off after fifteen years with the same company. The employee is then hired by another company within a week. In the new company, the employee shares documents and ideas for products that the employee proposed at the original company.

  • unethical

The two types of JFET.

  • N-channel and P-channel

Why do IoT devices pose a greater risk than other computing devices on a network?

  • Most IoT devices do not receive frequent firmware updates.

A web server administrator is configuring access settings to require users to authenticate first before accessing certain web pages. Which requirement of information security is addressed through the configuration?

  • confidentiality

These are family of devices constructed of four semiconductor layers.

  • Thyristors

The value of barrier potential of a diode.

  • 0.7 V

A material that easily conducts electrical current.

  • Conductor

A user is having difficulty remembering passwords for multiple online accounts. What is the best solution for the user to try?

  • Save the passwords in a centralized password manager program.

A solid material in which the atoms are arranged in a symmetrical pattern.

  • Crystal

The ideal diode model is represented like a/an __________.

  • simple switch

It produces an output voltage from the input voltage with a multiplication factor of two.

  • Voltage Doubler

What are two security implementations that use biometrics? (Choose two.)

  • voice recognition fingerprint

Also known as diode limiter.

  • Diode Clipper

Another application of diode circuit which used to clip a portion of signal voltages above or below certain levels.

  • Diode Limiter

A trivalent impurity is added to silicon to create

  • A p-type semiconductor

It has a small transparent window that allows light to strike the pn junction.

  • Photodiode

A type of current wherein holes are moving because of the vacancy left in every move of free electrons.

  • hole current

The bias wherein the negative side of external voltage is connected to the n region of the diode and its positive side is connected to the p region.

  • Forward Bias

Type of MOSFET that can operate in either enhancement mode or depletion mode.

  • Depletion MOSFET

The surge current initially occurs during ________.

  • The first turn on of the power

This term refers to the depletion region formed in the channel of a FET because of the voltage imposed on the gate.

  • Field-effect

The process of adding impurities is called ___________.

  • Doping

A pentavalent impurity is added to silicon to create

  • An n-type semiconductor

What type of attack uses zombies?

  • DDoS

It only conducts current in one direction and block the other direction.

  • Diode

What is an example of “hacktivism”?

  • A group of environmentalists launch a denial of service attack against an oil company that is responsible for a large oil spill.

The 4-layer diode.

  • Shockley diode

Special purpose diode that is monochromatic and also emits coherent light.

  • Laser diode

What tool is used to lure an attacker so that an administrator can capture, log, and analyze the behavior of the attack?

  • honeypot

Which tool can identify malicious traffic by comparing packet contents to known attack signatures?

  • IDS

It has a single pn junction and therefore, does not belong to the thyristor family.

  • UJT

What happens to the depletion region during forward bias?

  • Narrows

The smallest particle of an element that possesses the unique characteristics of that element.

  • Atom

Fill in the blank.The individual user profile on a social network site is an example of a/an_____identity.

  • online

What type of attack disrupts services by overwhelming network devices with bogus traffic?

  • DDoS

What is the purpose of a rootkit?

  • to gain privileged access to a device while concealing itself

A network administrator is conducting a training session to office staff on how to create a strong and effective password. Which password would most likely take the longest for a malicious user to guess or break?

  • mk$$cittykat104#

Which type of technology can prevent malicious software from monitoring user activities, collecting personal information, and producing unwanted pop-up ads on a user computer?

  • antispyware

The bias wherein the positive side of external voltage is connected to the n region of the diode and its negative side is connected to the p region.

  • Reverse Bias

The two main types of field effect transistor.


What is a reason that internal security threats might cause greater damage to an organization than external security threats?

  • Internal users have direct access to the infrastructure devices.

Which technology creates a security token that allows a user to log in to a desired web application using credentials from a social media website?

  • Open Authorization

The two basic methods to turn off the SCR.

  • Anode current interruption and forced commutation

How can a user prevent others from eavesdropping on network traffic when operating a PC on a public Wi-Fi hot spot?

  • Connect with a VPN service.

It is another name for MOSFET because of the polycrystalline silicon used instead of metal for the gate materials.


Which example illustrates how malware might be concealed?

  • An email is sent to the employees of an organization with an attachment that looks like an antivirus update, but the attachment actually consists of spyware.

For what purpose would a network administrator use the Nmap tool?

  • detection and identification of open ports

The inventor of Shockley diode.

  • William Shockley

It is a two-terminal four-layer semiconductor device that conducts current in either direction when activated

  • Diac

To have channel conductivity in n-channel E-MOSFETS in enhancement mode, The VGS must be __________.

  • Positive

What is the motivation of a white hat attacker?

  • discovering weaknesses of networks and systems to improve the security level of these systems

A special purpose diode which consists of heavily doped p and n regions separated by an intrinsic region.

  • PIN diode

These are the two types of JFET.

  • N-channel and P-channel

The reverse voltage is ____________ in practical diode model.

  • equal to bias voltage

What is the best approach to prevent a compromised IoT device from maliciously accessing data and devices on a local network?

  • Place all IoT devices that have access to the Internet on an isolated network.

What are three methods that can be used to ensure confidentiality of information? (Choose three.)

  • data encryption username ID and password two factor authentication

A voltage multiplier that produces an output voltage from the input voltage with a multiplication factor of four.

  • Voltage quadrupler

A type of limiter which the level to which an ac voltage can be adjusted by adding a bias voltage in series with a diode.

  • Biased Limiter

A semiconductor operates in the reverse-breakdown region and provides stable reference voltages

  • Zener diode

The total resistance between the base terminals.

  • Interbase resistance

The JFET always operates with the gate-source on junction _____________.

  • Reversed-biased

A special purpose diode uses graded doping where the doping level of the semiconductive materials is reduced as the pn junction is approached.

  • Step-recovery diode

A 4-layer pnpn device similar to Shockley diode except it has three terminals.

  • SCR