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Logic and Critical Thinking

Is the process of evaluating the conditions of truth and the legitimacy of the connections between statements through the application of formal deductive logic.

nursing

philosophy

afaan oromoo

amharic

critical thinking

argumentation

informal logic

objectives

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thinking skill

fallacies

The ego’s mechanism for suppressing and forgetting instinctual impulses.

  • Repression
  • Instinct
  • Reality
  • Gratification

The argument that this being than which no greater can be conceived exists in reality as well as exists in the mind, is the:

  • The Wager
  • The Problem of Evil
  • Ontological Argument
  • The Argument to Necessary Being
  • Five Ways

St. Thomas Aquinas argues that since everything that moves is moved by another, there must thereby exist an Unmoved Mover. This is the:

  • The Argument from Efficient Cause
  • The Argument from Gradation
  • The Argument from Motion
  • The Argument to Necessary Being
  • The Argument from Design

Which is not true about Nirvana?

  • Nirvana means extinguishing.
  • It is a state of profound spiritual joy, without negative emotions and fears
  • Someone who reaches nirvana immediately disappear to a heavenly realm.
  • Nirvana is better understood as a state of mind that humans can reach.

Philosophy is taken from the Greek words philo and sophia, which mean

  • Love of ethics
  • Love of Literature
  • Love of wisdom
  • Love of correct reasoning

The study of the fundamental nature of existence as such, and the fundamental questions of reality, both of man and of the world.

  • Ontology
  • Ethics
  • Metaphysics
  • Epistemology

What was the greatest contribution of Augustine to the history of Philosophy and Theology?

  • He was able to convert thousands into Christianity
  • Appropriating Aristotle to a Christian framework
  • Appropriating Plato to a Christian framework
  • Appropriating Ambrose to a Christian framework

You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Ron, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you're slipping.

  • Ad baculum
  • Ad verecundiam
  • Ad hominem
  • Ad ignorantiam

According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a First Cause exists (and this is God). What is this argument called?

  • The Argument from Gradation
  • The Argument from Design
  • The Argument from Efficient Cause
  • The Argument to Necessary Being
  • The Argument from Motion

Philosophy is the science by which the natural light of reason studies the first causes or highest principles of all things.

  • True
  • False

What was the statement of Ivan which Alyosha said was a rebellion against god?

  • I cannot live in a world made by God where children suffer day and night
  • Evil does not exist.
  • An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth
  • I most respectfully return him the ticket
  • That than which no greater can be conceived.

For Greeks, their Philosophy is cosmo-centric; “from where does everything come?”

  • False
  • True

It is the ultimate reality; the supreme reality which transcends all things and yet underlies all things as the ground of all things.

  • Vedas
  • Brahman
  • Atman
  • Upanishads

Which Eastern philosophical system highlights the Four Noble Truths which are Dukkha, Samudaya, Nirodha, and Magga?

  • Daoism
  • Buddhism
  • Confucianism
  • Hinduism

From Buddha’s Eight fold path, this stage indicates cultivating positive states of mind; freeing oneself from evil and unwholesome states and preventing them from arising in the future.

  • Right Intention
  • Right Effort
  • Right Understanding
  • Right Livelihood

Which among the statements is a particular affirmative?

  • All musicians are artists.
  • Poor have dignity.
  • People commit mistakes.
  • Some tragedies are natural events.

Mia Lei has really worked hard on her term project, and she will really be depressed if she does not make an A. For these reasons, you just have to give her an A on her project.

  • Ad verecundiam
  • Ad baculum
  • Ad Misericordiam
  • Ad ignorantiam

Jean-Paul Sartre calls it ______ when we put the blame on other people or outside circumstances whenever we commit wrong acts.

  • Anguish
  • Bad faith
  • Phenomena
  • No Exit

According to Pascal, human beings live not by reason alone. Without heart, feeling, emotion, life would lose its value.

  • True
  • False

Which Eastern philosophical system highlights the inner man and his reality?

  • Buddhism
  • Hinduism
  • Confucianism
  • Daoism

According to Aquinas, design and purpose is a product of coincidence.

  • False
  • True

In ethics, that right action consists solely in the conformity of an action to a justified rule or principle is called:

  • Liberalism
  • Consequentialist ethics
  • Deontological ethics
  • Master Salve morality

No mathematician has ever been able to demonstrate the truth of the variants of the Goldberg conjecture, so they cannot all be true.

  • Ad verecundiam
  • Ad ignorantiam
  • Ad hominem
  • Ad baculum

Also known as the Teleological Argument - the intricate design and order of existent things andnatural processes imply that a Great Designer exists. This is the:

  • The Argument to Necessary Being
  • The Argument from Efficient Cause
  • The Argument from Motion
  • The Argument from Gradation
  • The Argument from Design

The benefit of an ethics as proposed by Nietzsche is that it is:

  • individualistic
  • empowering
  • flexible
  • All of the answers

In categorical syllogism, what is the pattern that stands for major term?

  • n
  • u
  • M
  • S

As the comprehension of the idea increases, the extension decreases and vice versa.

  • False
  • True

It is a term that expresses a meaning that is partly different and partly the same, or meanings that are related.

  • Monogamy
  • Equivocal
  • Univocal
  • Analogous

Those who say that extra-sensory perception is not reliable are mistaken. The police, Hollywood stars, and politicians have all relied on it.

  • Ad ignorantiam
  • Ad baculum
  • Ad verecundiam
  • Ad Populum

The study of the nature of the universe or the cosmos.

  • Politics
  • Logic
  • Cosmology
  • Theodicy

Aristotle believed that man had a natural drive for society, being a political animal, as well as for knowledge, God, and ultimately, happiness.

  • False
  • True

This corresponds to nutrition and growth, as well as reproduction.

  • Compounding
  • Vegetative
  • Rationalism
  • Appetitive

A question is philosophical when it is reflexive.

  • True
  • False

It is the process by which the intellect strips the object of its nonessential qualities, retains the essential ones, and forms them into one image, which is the idea.

  • Comprehension
  • Apprehension
  • Idea
  • Abstraction

Modification of substance with regards to the effect of having extended and measurable parts.

  • Substance
  • Quality
  • Quantity
  • Measurement

A philosophical worldview emphasizing equality and liberty among men.

  • Liberalism
  • Master Salve morality
  • Consequentialist ethics
  • Deontological ethics

Which of the following is not one of the three roots of evil according to Buddhism?

  • Lust and craving
  • Greed and desire
  • Hatred and destructive urges
  • Ignorance or delusion

It is the external manifestation or sign of an idea. It is a written or spoken word.

  • Abstract
  • Idea
  • Love
  • Term

According to Hume, all our more complex ideas can be reducible to more complicated ideas.

  • False
  • True

Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answers to its questions since no definite answers can be, as a rule, known to be true, but rather for the sake of the questions themselves.

  • True
  • False

It expresses only ONE meaning or sense when applied to several objects.

  • Monogamy
  • Analogous
  • Equivocal
  • Univocal

It is the sole reality, for it is the metaphysical unity which is manifested in all empirical plurality.

  • Vedas
  • Atman
  • Brahman
  • Upanishads

Everyone believes that men write the best novels; therefore, there is little doubt that they do so.

  • Ad baculum
  • Ad Populum
  • Ad verecundiam
  • Ad ignorantiam

One form of deductive argument which is a set of three propositions, the first two being the premises and the last is the conclusion. The conclusion must always follow and must be derived from the premises.

  • Deductive Argument
  • Syllogism
  • Truth premise
  • Inductive Argument

In this kind of syllogism, the terms are not identified as major, minor or middle.

  • Deductive syllogism
  • Categorical syllogism
  • Hypothetical syllogism
  • Inductive syllogism

It is a process of reasoning which proceeds from specific or particular instances to the formulation of general or universal principles or statements.

  • Truth premise
  • Deductive Argument
  • Inductive Argument
  • Syllogism

Which is a characteristic of human consciousness?

  • Anguish
  • Being
  • nothingness

The study of science and art of correct inferential reasoning.

  • Philosophy
  • Ethics
  • Logic
  • Metaphysics

Which among the statements is a universal affirmative?

  • All things are not permanent.
  • Some animals are mammals.
  • Some teachers are strict.
  • Giraffes are all animals.

For Indians, their philosophy is Egocentric; “What am I doing here?”

  • False
  • True

Which among the statements is a particular negative?

  • All teachers are professionals.
  • All writers are genius.
  • Some warriors are not winners.
  • No man is an island.

It is the act by which the intellect relates or combines ideas or concepts.

  • Enunciation
  • Negative Proposition
  • Affirmative Proposition
  • Judgment

This discusses the conceptual patterns or structures needed for a valid and correct argument or

  • Informal logic
  • Logistics
  • Material logic
  • Formal Logic

According to Freud, which part of the mind is composed mainly of life and death instincts?

  • Ego
  • Superego
  • None of these
  • Id

It is the beginning of knowledge. It is when we have an understanding or an idea of things that we can say we know.

  • Abstraction
  • Idea
  • Apprehension
  • Comprehension

It is ridiculous to have spent thousands of dollars to rescue those two whales trapped in the Arctic ice. Why, look at all the people trapped in jobs they don’t like.

  • Straw Man
  • Slippery slope
  • Begging the Question
  • Red Herring

According to St. Thomas Aquinas, since all existent things can be compared to such qualities as degrees of goodness, there must exist something that is an Absolutely Good Being. This is the:

  • The Argument from Design
  • The Argument from Efficient Cause
  • The Argument to Necessary Being
  • The Argument from Motion
  • The Argument from Gradation

It is a pronouncement that is considered as the mental product of the act of judgment.

  • Judgment
  • Negative Proposition
  • Enunciation
  • Affirmative Proposition

Plato, the idealist, presented the three parts of soul namely:

  • The Form, The Mind, and The Body
  • The Appetitive, The Spirited, and The Rational
  • The Reason, The Courage, and The Appetites
  • The Form, The Matter, and The Compound

Human beings are pour soi, or being-for-itself, but becomes en soi, or being being-in-itself,when:

  • When we abandon ourselves passively to the prevailing state of affairs.
  • When we realize that existence precedes essence.
  • When we insist on freedom
  • When we feel anguish

All are categorical or attributive proposition EXCEPT:

  • Some politicians are liars.
  • If that is a snake, then that is a reptile.
  • The cloud is dark or the sun is shining.
  • Either we will win or lose.

But Doctor, surely your advice that I should not drink coffee is not sound advice since you yourself often drink coffee.

  • Ad baculum
  • Ad verecundiam
  • Ad ignorantiam
  • Ad hominem

According to Augustine, _______ allows for the very possibility of knowing.

  • Feelings
  • Reason
  • Effort
  • Faith

Plagiarism is deceitful because it is dishonest.

  • Slippery slope
  • Straw Man
  • Red Herring
  • Begging the Question

You support capital punishment just because you want an “eye for an eye,” but I have several good reasons to believe that capital punishment is fundamentally wrong…

  • Red Herring
  • Straw Man
  • Begging the Question

It specifically refers to the illusion superimposed upon reality as an effect of ignorance.

  • Vedas
  • Upanishads
  • Brahman
  • Maya

What is the oldest extant literary work of the Aryan mind?

  • Atman
  • Upanishads
  • Vedas
  • Brahman

Bentham felt that it was not useful to involve legislature or societal constraints on:

  • private matters because the stakes are low
  • public matters because the stakes are unsure
  • Animals because they are irrelevant to man
  • All of the above

Two basic elements of syllogism.

  • Matter and form
  • Proposition and premise
  • Deductive and inductive
  • Solid and liquid

No term may have a greater extension in the conclusion than in the premises. This applies to the two terms in the conclusion namely the major and the minor terms. If a term is used as a particular in the premise, it must remain particular in the conclusion, otherwise, the same term would have a wider extension in the conclusion and that may not be the same term used in the premise.

  • True
  • False

The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious.

  • True
  • False

According to Rawls, Justice can only be formed only within a hypothetical contract, essentially characterized by:

  • the veil of ignorance
  • calculations of pleasures and pains
  • collectivism
  • deontology

Which among the statements is a universal negative?

  • Some things are permanent.
  • Each deserves his rights.
  • All of these people do not belong here.
  • Some movies are not entertaining.

Which is not a proposition among the following statements?

  • The sun is not shining.
  • She waves her hand.
  • Tell the manager of the incident.
  • Some students are not affluent.

This law states that whatever is denied universally, in a formal manner, of a logical whole or class, should also be denied of its logical parts.

  • Laws of Categorical Syllogism
  • Dictum de Nullo
  • four-term construction
  • Dictum de Omni

Self apprehension and comprehension are useful to put order in our universal concepts by ways of classification and to assign the proper nature of things when we try to understand and define them.

  • False
  • True

If one concept agrees with a third term and the other disagrees with the same third term, then they disagree with each other. If A agrees with B, but C does not agree with A, then B and C do not agree with each other.

  • True
  • False

If each of two concepts agrees respectively with the same third concept, then they also agree with each other. If A agrees with B, and B agrees with C, then A agrees with C.

  • True
  • False

According to St. Thomas Aquinas, since all existent things depend upon other things for their existence, there must exist at least one thing that is not dependent on anything for existence. This is the:

  • The Argument from Design
  • The Argument from Gradation
  • The Argument from Efficient Cause
  • The Argument from Motion
  • The Argument to Necessary Being

This law states that whatever is affirmed universally, in a formal manner, of a logical whole or class, should also be affirmed of its logical parts.

  • Laws of Categorical Syllogism
  • Dictum de Omni
  • four-term construction
  • Dictum de Nullo

Pascal’s Wager is a proof of the existence of God.

  • True
  • False

Motion of the substance, commonly inducing a result in another thing. e.g. running, sawing,baking.

  • Where
  • Habit
  • Posture
  • Action

A Philosophical school of thought believes in the superiority of the mind in finding the truth and acquiring knowledge, but since pure reason tends to be very formalistic, they tend to be dogmatic.

  • Repression
  • Instinct
  • Rationalism
  • Reality

Philosophy is a review of what is right and what is wrong and aims to determine the right from the wrong and the wrong from reasoning.

  • True
  • False

Which is NOT an example of affirmative judgment?

  • All whales are mammals.
  • All roses are flowers.
  • None of the choices.
  • A squash is not an eggplant.

Which among the propositions is conjunctive?

  • If the cloud is dark, then it will rain.
  • She is stylish or she is gorgeous.
  • A person cannot be both a friend and enemy at the same time.
  • It is acid if the blue litmus papers turn red.

According to Freud, primitive instinctual motives and repressed memories are stored in the__________.

  • Superego
  • Unconscious mind
  • Preconscious mind
  • Conscious mind

This stage of Buddha’s Eight fold path addresses the developing of mental focus necessary for awareness.

  • Right Livelihood
  • Right Concentration
  • Right Action
  • Right Speech

But Mom, I don't see why I have to wear socks; Einstein never did wear socks.

  • Ad verecundiam
  • Ad ignorantiam
  • Ad hominem
  • Ad baculum

According to Freud, which part of the mind is dominated by the pleasure principle?

  • Superid
  • Id
  • Superego
  • Ego
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