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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing

Delves into the key theories and concepts that form the basis of nursing practice, providing a solid foundation for delivering quality patient care.

theory

nursing

foundations

knowledge

practice

patient care

health

wellness

nursing education

research

evidence-based practice

nursing theories

nursing models

nursing philosophy

professionalism

holistic care

Although similarities exist in the different nursing theories, key elements distinguish one from another. The emphasis of Jean Watson’s conceptual model is that:

  • . Stimuli disrupt an adaptive system
  • . Caring is central to the essence of nursing
  • . Subsystems exist in dynamic stability
  • Self-care maintains wholeness

Nursing need theory

  • Virginia Henderson

Imogene King's "goal attainment theory" is a type of:

  • Interaction theories
  • Outcome theories
  • Humanistic theories
  • Need theories

Established in Laguna; near a medicinal spring, founded by Brother J. Bautista of the Franciscan Order.

  • hospital de Indios
  • Hosp de aguas Santas
  • San Juan de dios
  • None of the above

Caring is healing, it is communicated through the consciousness of the nurse to the individual being cared for. It allows access to higher human spirit.

  • Watson
  • Benner
  • Swanson
  • Leininge

Statements that explain the relationship between the concepts in a theory:

  • Predictions
  • Process
  • Propositions
  • Assumptions

Kristen Swanson defines nursing as informed caring for the well-being of others.

  • True
  • False

Validity and predictability of nursing interventions are related to

  • Descriptive theories
  • . Prescriptive theories
  • Mid-ranged theories
  • . Grand theories

In a theory, a statement of relationship between concepts is called

  • Hypothesis
  • Construct
  • Conceptual model
  • Proposition

Martha Roger’s theory has a framework for practice that includes the:

  • Twenty-one nursing problems within four major client needs
  • Manipulation of the client’s environment
  • . Unitary human being in continuous interaction with the environment
  • Seven categories of behavior and behavioral balance

The four major concepts in nursing theory are the

  • Nurse, Person, Environment, Cure
  • Promotive, Preventive, Curative, Rehabilitative
  • Person, Environment, Nursing, Health
  • Person, Environment, Nurse, Health

It was established mainly to care for the Spanish king’s soldiers, but also admitted Spanish civilians; founded by Gov. Francisco de Sande.

  • san Juan de dios
  • Hospital Real de Manila
  • San Lazaro Hospital
  • Hospital de Indios

She defines a person that he is an organism that “strives in its own way to reduce tension generated by needs

  • Peplau

Behavioral system model

  • Dorothy Johnson

Which is NOT a concept explained in Dorothy Johnson's Behavioral Systems Model?

  • Energy fields
  • Achievement
  • Dependency
  • Affiliation

Peaceful End-of-Life Theory

  • Cornwlia M Ruland and Shirley M Moore

Modeling and Role Modeling

  • HELEN C. ERICKSON, EVELYN M. TOMLIN AND MARY ANN P. SWAIN

Adaptation Model

  • SISTER CALLISTAROY

Theory of Comfort

  • Katharine Kolcaba

The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health that he would perform unaided if he has the necessary strength, will and knowledge, and do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.

  • Peplau
  • Levin
  • Abdellah
  • Henderson

Symphonological Bioethical Theory

  • Gladys L. Husted

Postpartum Depression Theory

  • Cheryl Tatano Beck

The theory that involves care and helps the client attain total self-care is:

  • . Orem's Theory
  • Roger's Therory
  • Leininger's Theory
  • Nightingale's Theory

"Nursing is therapeutic interpersonal process". This definition was stated by:

  • Jean watson
  • Faye Glen Abdelah
  • Martha Rogers
  • Hildegard Peplau

One of the purposes of nursing theories is to develop a theory that is fundamental to the research process where it is necessary to use theory as a framework to provide perspective and guidance to the research study.

  • True
  • False

. The nursing paradigm identifies four linkages of interest to the nursing profession. These four linkages are:

  • The person, health, environment/situation, and nursing.
  • Concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions
  • The individual, groups, situations, and interests specific to nursing
  • . Description, explanation, prediction, and prescription of an interrelationship of nursing

Martha Roger’s theory has a framework for practice that includes the

  • . Manipulation of the client’s environment
  • . Seven categories of behavior and behavioral balance
  • Unitary human being in continuous interaction with the environment
  • . Twenty-one nursing problems within four major client needs

Typology of 21 nursing problems

  • Faye Abdellah

refers to a pattern of shared understanding and assumptions about reality and the world; worldview or widely accepted value system.

  • PARADIGM

are representation of the interaction among and between the concepts showing patterns.

  • MODELS

Human being is valued person to be cared for, respect, nurtures, understood, and assisted; in general a philosophical view a person as a fully functional integrated self.

  • Watson

Nurse’s roles according to Virginia Henderson are the following, Except:

  • Doing for the patient
  • Working with the patient
  • Curing the patient
  • Helping the patient

According to her, health was taken to mean balance in all realms of human life

  • Henderson

Evidence-based nursing practice is the end result of

  • Prescriptive theory
  • Use of practical knowledge
  • . Application of theoretical knowledge
  • Theory-generating and theory-testing research

The Science of Unitary and Irreducible Human Beings

  • MARTHA ROGERS

According to this theory goal of nursing is to help the person adapt to the changes in physiological needs, self-concept, role function and interdependent relations during health and illness.

  • Orem's Theory
  • . Leininger's Therory
  • . Watson's Theory
  • Roy's Theory

Some nursing theories use a systems theory as a base. As a system, the nursing process has the following components:

  • . Grand theories, middle-range theories, descriptive theories and prescriptive theories
  • Concepts, definitions and assumptions
  • . Collaboration, cooperation and discipline
  • . Input, output, feedback and content

are often called the blocks of theories. They are primarily the vehicles of thought that involve images.

  • [No Answer]

Environmental Theory

  • Florence Nightingale

A belief, policy, or procedure proposed or followed at the basic of action.

  • THEORY

Self-care deficit theory was proposed by:

  • Betty Neuman
  • Virginia Henderson
  • Imogene King
  • Dorothea Orem

. Nursing's paradigm includes:

  • All the above
  • Nurses, physicians, models, and client needs
  • . Health, person, environment, and theory
  • The person, health, environment/situation, and nursing
  • . Concepts, theory, health, and environment

Human Caring Science, A Theory of Nursing

  • JEN WATSON

Viewed nursing as both a science and an art as it provides a way to view the unitary human being, who is integral with the universe

  • Martha E. Rogers

Founded by the Brotherhood of Misericordia and administered by the Hospitaliers of San Juan de Dios; support was delivered from alms and rents; rendered general health service to the public.

  • Hospital Real
  • UST hospital
  • San Juan de Dios Hospital
  • PGH

is the perspective or territory of a profession or discipline.

  • DOMAIN

Caring is the essence and central unifying, a dominant domain that distinguishes nursing from other health disciplines. Care is an essential human need.

  • . Swanson
  • . Leininger
  • . Watson
  • . Benner

When you clean the bedside unit or environment of the patient as well as washing your hands before and after a procedure, who’s nursing theory are you applying?

  • Hildegard Peplau
  • Dorothea Orem
  • Florence Nightingale
  • Virginia Henderson

Which theory defines nursing as the science and practice that expands adaptive abilities and enhances person and environment transformation?

  • Faye Glen Abdelah's theory
  • Henderson's definition of nursing
  • Roy's adaptation model
  • Goal attainment theory

Which of the following is NOT a concept related to Roy's Adaptation Model?

  • Focal Stimuli
  • Flexible line of defense
  • Cognator Subsystem
  • Role function

While working on a postoperative unit, the nurse is applying the elements of the Self-Care theory. The nurse who assists the client to manage or attain self-care in wound management is using the theory developed by:

  • . Florence Nightingale
  • . Dorothea Orem
  • Virginia Henderson
  • Imogene King

According to her, Nursing is a helping or assistive profession to persons who are wholly or partly dependent or when those who are supposedly caring for them are no longer able to give care.

  • Henderson
  • Neuman
  • Orem
  • Swanson

Caring involves 5 processes, KNOWING, BEING WITH, DOING FOR, ENABLING and MAINTAINING BELIEF.

  • . Swanson
  • Watson
  • Leininger
  • Benner

According to Neuman Systems Model, the increase in energy that occurs in relation to the degree of reaction to the stressor is termed as:

  • Primary prevention
  • Lines of resistance
  • Reconstitution
  • Secondary Prevention

The act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery is theorized by

  • Benner
  • King
  • Swanson
  • Nightingale

Notes on Nursing: What it is, What it is not was written by:

  • Betty Neuman
  • Dorothea Orem
  • Florence Nightingale
  • Virginia Henderson
  • Imogene King

Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. Health has different meanings for each client and is

  • . Dynamic and continuously changing
  • Dependent on the medical profession for definition.
  • Different in the clinical setting
  • Static dependent on the nursing profession

are statements that describe the relationship between the concepts.

  • [No Answer]

. A similarity in the theories of Leininger and Benner and Wrubel is

  • . Caring as a central focus
  • Dynamic interpersonal communication
  • An emphasis on the maximum level of wellness
  • The client’s adaptation to demands

. The theory that involves care and helps the client attain total self-care is

  • . Orem's Theory
  • Roger's Therory
  • . Leininger's Theory
  • Nightingale's Theory

She defines health as an expression of the life process

  • Rogers

Theory of interpersonal relations

  • Hildegard Peplau

A paradigm refers to

  • Aspect of reality that can be consciously sensed or experienced
  • Statements that describe concepts
  • Ideas and mental images that help to describe phenomena
  • A model that explains the linkages of science, philosophy, and theory accepted and applied by the discipline

Nursing's goal is to educate the client and family and to help the client reach mature personality development. This focus on the individual, the nurse and the interactive process is an example of which nursing theory?

  • . Henderson's Theory
  • . Abdellah's Theory
  • Nightingale's Theory
  • Peplau's Theory

are a series of organized steps, changes or functions intended to bring about the desired result.

  • PROCESS

. Validity and predictability of nursing interventions are related to

  • . Prescriptive theories
  • . Mid-ranged theories
  • . Grand theories
  • Descriptive theories

Established by the Franciscan Order; service was in general supported by alms and contributions from charitable persons.

  • . Hosp de Indios
  • UST Hospital
  • Hospital Real de Manila
  • Phil Gen Hospital

Descriptive theories are the first level of theory development. They describe the phenomena and identify its properties and components in which it occurs.

  • True
  • False

Patient Centered Approaches to Nursing : 21 Nursing Problems

  • FAYE G. ABDELLAH

The goal of nursing is to facilitate optimal wellness for the client through retention, attainment, or maintenance of client system stability

  • BETTY NEUMAN

Definitions are not important in nursing theories because not useful in creating theories.

  • True
  • False

Nursing's paradigm includes

  • Concepts, theory, health, and environment
  • Nurses, physicians, models, and client needs
  • . The person, health, environment/situation, and nursing
  • All the above
  • . Health, person, environment, and theory

is the most general statement of discipline and functions as a framework in which the more restricted structures of conceptual models develop.

  • METAPARADIGM

“What nursing has to do… is put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him.”

  • Nightingale

Founded by Brother Juan Clemente and was administered for many years by the Hospitalliers of San Juan de Dios; built exclusively for patients with leprosy.

  • . Santo Tomas
  • Hospital de Indios
  • San Lazaro Hospital
  • Hospital de aguas Santas

The four main concepts common to nursing that appear in each of the current conceptual models are:

  • 3,4,5 and 6
  • 1,2,3 and 4
  • 1,2,3 and 6
  • 1,2,3 and 5

The "humanistic science of nursing" was explained by:

  • Rogers (1970)
  • Nightingale (1860)
  • Ida Orlando (1960)
  • Neuman (1972)

States in her theory that nursing care is required if the client is unable to fill biological, psychological, developmental, or social needs

  • Dorothea Orem

Theories will be tested to describe or predict client outcomes is an example of

  • Concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions
  • Nursing will base client care on the practice of other sciences
  • Addressing nursing as a science or as evidenced-based practice.
  • One theory will guide nursing practice

Caring highlighted humanistic aspects of nursing

  • Jean Watson

Although the nursing process is central to nursing, it is not a theory. The nursing process provides a:

  • Foundation for acquiring knowledge
  • Systematic process for the delivery of nursing care
  • . The knowledge component of the discipline
  • A basis for theories

Which of the following theory has used "General Systems Theory" as a framework for its development?

  • Hildegard E. Peplau's Psychodynamic Nursing Theory
  • Florence Nightingale's Environment Theory
  • Neuman's model
  • Martha E.Roger’s: Science of Unitary Human Beings

According to Hildegard Peplau’s theory, there are how many phases of the Nurse-Patient Relationship?

  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6

Self-Transcendence Theory

  • Pamela G Reed

Nursing is a process of action, reaction. And interaction whereby nurse and client share information about their perceptions in the nursing situation

  • King

. Different types of theories may be used by nurses seeking to study the basis of nursing practice. When the goal of a theory is to speculate on why phenomena occur, it is termed a:

  • . Middle-range theory
  • . Grand theory
  • Descriptive theory

__________________ theories address nursing interventions for a phenomenon and __________________the consequence of a specific nursing intervention.

  • . Prescriptive theories/predict the consequence
  • . Descriptive theories/ speculate the consequences.
  • Reflective theories/explain the consequences

The nursing paradigm identifies four linkages of interest to the nursing profession. These four linkages are:

  • . The individual, groups, situations, and interests specific to nursing
  • The person, health, environment/situation, and nursing
  • . Concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions
  • Description, explanation, prediction, and prescription of an interrelationship of nursing.

Stress reduction is the goal of the system model of nursing practice

  • Betty Neuman

To practice in today's health care environment, nurses need a strong scientific knowledge base in nursing and other disciplines, such as the physical, social, and behavioral sciences. This relates to which of the following?

  • Health and wellness model
  • . Developmental theories
  • . Interdisciplinary theories
  • Systems theories

Which one of the four linkages of interest in the nursing paradigm refers to factors in the home or school?

  • Environment/situation
  • Health
  • Nursing care
  • Person

The Behavioral System Model

  • DOROTHY JOHNSON

A community health nurse is working with a variety of clients and decides to use a Systems theory approach to assist them to meet their health care needs. In using the Systems theory, the nurse focuses on the:

  • Hierarchy of the client’s human needs
  • Client’s interaction with the environment
  • Response of the client to the process of growth and development
  • Client’s attitudes toward health behaviors

Nursing continues to grow as a profession. Theories generate nursing knowledge and are used to prescribe specific interventions to improve client outcomes. The overall goal of nursing knowledge is to explain the practice of nursing as

  • . A set of complex theories
  • The nursing process
  • . A phenomenon
  • . Different and distinct from the practice of medicine, psychology, and social work

is a group of related ideas, statements, or concepts. It is often used interchangeably with the conceptual model and with grand theories.

  • CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The environment has physical, chemical and biological features. It includes the family, culture and community

  • Orem

In preparing to review different theories, the nurse reviews basic information to assist in understanding the material. Theories are defined as:

  • . Mental formulations of objects or events
  • Statements that describe concepts or connect concepts
  • . Concepts or propositions that project a systematic view of phenomena
  • Concepts or propositions that project a systematic view of phenomena

Beliefs and values that define a way of thinking and are generally known and understood by a group or discipline.

  • PHILOSOPHY

Theory of goal attainment to Nurse-patient relationship

  • Imogene King

Which of the following statements is related to Florence Nightingale?

  • The role of nursing is to facilitate "the body’s reparative processes" by manipulating client’s environment.
  • Nursing care becomes necessary when client is unable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental, or social needs.
  • Nursing is the science and practice that expands adaptive abilities and enhances person and environment transformation
  • Nursing is therapeutic interpersonal process.

"The practice of activities that individual initiates and perform on their own behalf in maintaining life, health and well being" is:

  • Therapeutic self care demand
  • Nursing systems
  • Self care
  • Self care agency

She considers nursing to be a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process

  • Peplau

“The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or recovery (or to peaceful death)”, is the theory of:

  • Faye Abdellah
  • Virginia Henderson
  • Dorothea Orem
  • Florence Nightingale

. A similarity in the theories of Leininger and Benner and Wrubel is:

  • The client’s adaptation to demands
  • . Caring as a central focus
  • . Dynamic interpersonal communication
  • An emphasis on the maximum level of wellness

The Intersystem Model

  • BARBARA ARTINIAN

A ________________________ is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that:

  • . A theory formulates legislation.
  • . A theory reflects the domain of nursing.
  • A theory explains a phenomenon
  • A theory measures nursing functions

Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment and Transactional Process

  • IMOGENE KING

Health is being structurally and functionally whole or sound

  • Orem

The nurse is working within a health care system that uses Neuman’s theory. A client is having difficulty breathing and requires oxygen and medication. Within Neuman’s theory, the nurse approaches the client to:

  • Promote attainment of biologic self-care requisites
  • Assist in physiological adaptation to internal changes
  • Strengthen the line of defenses at the secondary level of prevention
  • Achieve the 14 basic needs

. Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. Health has different meanings for each client and is

  • Dependent on the medical profession for definition
  • Different in the clinical setting
  • . Static dependent on the nursing profession
  • Dynamic and continuously changing

Nursing is a unique profession, Concerned with all the variables affecting an individual’s response to stressors, which are intra, inter and extra personal in nature.

  • Watson
  • Parse
  • Neuman
  • Johnson

If the nurse wanted to apply a theory that focused on stress reduction, a theory proposed by which one of the following individuals should be selected?

  • . Neuman
  • Parse
  • . Orlando
  • . Peplau

The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery or to peaceful death, that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge”

  • VIRGINIA HENDERSON

Different types of theories may be used by nurses seeking to study the basis of nursing practice. When the goal of a theory is to speculate on why phenomena occur, it is termed a:

  • Descriptive theory
  • Grand theory
  • Middle-range theory
  • . Prescriptive theory

The theory that involves care and helps the client attain total self-care is

  • . Leininger's Theory
  • Roger's Therory
  • Nightingale's Theory
  • . Orem's Theory

The phenomena within this theory tend to cross different nursing fields and reflect a wide variety of nursing care situations, such as uncertainty, incontinence, social support, quality of life and caring. Mishel's theory provides a basis to assist clients in coping with uncertainty and the illness response. This is an example of what theory?

  • Mid-ranged
  • . Descriptive
  • . Prescriptive
  • Grand

According to Roy's adaptation theory, which subsystem responds through four cognitive responds through four cognitive-emotive channels (perceptual and information processing, learning, judgment, and emotion)?

  • Self Concept-Group Identity Mode
  • Cognator Subsystem
  • Regulator Subsystem
  • Physiologic Mode

. Although the nursing process is central to nursing, it is not a theory. The nursing process provides a:

  • . The knowledge component of the discipline
  • Systematic process for the delivery of nursing care
  • . A basis for theories
  • Foundation for acquiring knowledge

The nursing process is an example of an open system. An open system

  • . Interacts with the environment by exchanging information
  • Is universal and dynamic
  • . Represents a relationship between two concepts
  • . Does not interact with the environment.

Transcultural Model of Nursing was proposed by:

  • Rosemarie Rizzo Parse
  • Ida Jean Orlando
  • Joyce Travelbee
  • Madeleine Leininger

She stated that “maintaining a supportive environment conducive for health is one of the elements of her 14 activities for client assistance

  • Henderson

Caring means that person, events, projects and things matter to people. It reveals stress and coping options. Caring creates responsibility. It is an inherent feature of nursing practice. It helps the nurse assist clients to recover in the face of the illness.

  • . Leininger
  • .Benner
  • Swanson
  • . Watson

Typology of twenty one Nursing problems were explained by:

  • Faye G.Abedellah
  • Imogene King
  • Lydia E. Hall
  • Virginia Henderson’s

Joyce travelbee developed the CARE< CURE CORE THEORY.

  • True
  • False

Watson's carative factors include all the following, EXCEPT:

  • Strengthening flexible lines of defense
  • Instilling faith-hope
  • Cultivating sensitivity to self and others
  • Forming humanistic-altruistic value system

For her, Nursing is a theoretical system of knowledge that prescribes a process of analysis and action related to care of the ill person

  • King
  • Roy
  • Henderson
  • Leininger

. Evidence-based nursing practice is the end result of

  • Use of practical knowledge
  • . Prescriptive theory
  • Application of theoretical knowledge
  • Theory-generating and theory-testing research
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