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Anatomy and Physiology

Learn about the structure of the body and how it functions. Gain an understanding of the causes and treatment of disease on different parts of the body.

respiratory system

human movement

heart

reproductive system

nurses

nursing

biology

pharmacy

digestive system

laboratory

therapists

It is the process of producing offspring for the survival of the species, and passing on hereditary traits from one generation to the next. The male and female reproductive systems contribute to the events leading to fertilization?

  • Sexual reproduction

It regulates the chemical composition of body fluids by removing metabolic wastes and retaining the proper amounts of water, salts, and nutrients. Components of this system in vertebrates include the kidneys, liver, lungs, and skin?

  • Excretory system

Comprise approximately 8% of all epidermal cells. These cells produce a group of pigments known as melanin which are responsible for skin, hair and eye color?

  • Melanocytes

It controls the rate at which glucose is burned and converted to body heat and chemical energy – also important for normal tissue growth and development, especially in the reproductive and nervous systems?

  • Thyroid hormone

Points of synaptic connections?

  • Dendrites

Increases heart rate?

  • Sympathetic

It is the middle part of the uterine tube, contains smooth muscle to move the egg?

  • ampulla

Cells that produce androgen (sex hormones), mostly testosterone?

  • Leydig cells

Endocrine organs are prodded into action by other hormones – hormones release promoted by this mechanism tends to be rhythmic, with hormone blood levels rising and falling again and again.

  • Hormonal stimulus

It responds to the commands of the control center by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus?

  • Effector

It is the pressure within the pleural cavity?

  • Intrapleural pressure

The secretory products of endocrine glands?

  • Hormones

This is known as the “true skin,” this is the layer beneath the epidermis. Its major parts are collagen, reticular fibers, and elastic fibers?

  • Dermis

These are hormones that are unable to enter the target cells and instead bind to receptors situated on the target cells’ plasma membrane?

  • [No Answer]

It is the center of the cell because it contains genetic material (DNA)?

  • Nucleus

Branch of science which focuses on the study of how organisms perform their vital functions?

  • Physiology

It acts through chemical messengers called hormones that influence growth, development, and metabolic activities?

  • Endocrine system

This is made up of the brain and spinal cord. This is where the control happens?

  • Central nervous system

Cornerstone of human physiology; it is the study of the functions of cells?

  • Cell physiology

What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?

  • Stratum basale

It do not have ducts to carry their product to a surface?

  • Endocrine glands

Nerve fibers that stimulate hormone release.

  • Neural stimulus

Bones that are found in the hands, wrists, feet, ears and knees. These small, round bones are embedded in tendons and protect them from the great pressure and force they encounter?

  • Sesamoid bones

It occur at intervals in the course of the lymphatic vessels. They are masses of reticular tissues wrapped in a capsule of fibrous tissue figure. They contain lymphocytes, plasma cells and fixed macrophages?

  • Lymphatic Nodes

It is a hollow muscular organ in front of the rectum and behind the urinary bladder?

  • Uterus

The membrane around the muscle cell?

  • Sarcolemma

It is a thick walled organ that lies between the esophagus and the first part of the small intestine?

  • Stomach

It is where the larger pieces of food get broken down into smaller pieces while being prepared for chemical digestion and it starts in the mouth and continues in to the stomach?

  • Mechanical Digestion

This is everything outside of the CNS (i.e. nerves). The main purpose of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs?

  • Peripheral nervous system

They are plates of hard, tightly packed keratinized cells of epidermis?

  • nail

Unit of muscle contraction?

  • Motor unit

Hormones that stimulates the production of milk?

  • Prolactin

Pump blood?

  • Ventricles

It includes all aspects of the function of the body systems, such as cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, reproductive physiology etc?

  • [No Answer]

A response is to amplify the change in the variable. This has a destabilizing effect, so does not result in homeostasis?

  • Positive feedback

It is also known as the subcutaneous tissue attaches the skin to underlying bones and muscles and also supplies it with blood vessels and nerves?

  • Hypodermis

Pumps in the sarcoplasmic ret that pumps ca from the cytoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and is bound by a protein?

  • Calsequesterin

High point in the sleeping cycle?

  • REM sleep

It is made from cholesterol including sex hormones made by gonads and the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex?

  • Steroids

A molecule is a particle composed of two or more joined atoms?

  • Molecule

What is the largest component of the lymphatic system?

  • Spleen

The remaining 126 bones and it includes the arms, legs, shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. The lower portion of the appendicular skeleton protects the major organs associated with digestion and reproduction and provides stability when a person is walking or running?

  • Appendicular skeleton

It is a large molecule.

  • Macromolecules

How many bones does an infant have?

  • 300

These are self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules. They appear to help in organizing cell division, but aren't essential to the process?

  • Centrioles

It is based molecules – proteins, peptides and amines?

  • Amino acid

Small organ of a cell, which performs a particular function (cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus)?

  • Organelles

Is a group of specialized muscle cells that do not contract?

  • Pacemaker

Is made of specialized cardiac muscle tissue that allows it to act as a pump within the circulatory system?

  • Heart

It is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the throat to the stomach?

  • Esophagus

It is lymphatic organ that lies in the supper chest near the neck. It is prominent in children but begins to degenerate in early childhood. It “educates” the lymphocytes in the fetus to distinguish body cells from foreign cells?

  • Thymus

This outermost layer is thick with rows of dead cells. These cells contain soft keratin, which keeps the skin elastic and protects underlying cells from drying out?

  • Stratum corneum

In a general sense refers to stability or balance in a system. It is the body's attempt to maintain a constant internal environment. Maintaining a stable internal environment requires constant monitoring and adjustments as conditions change?

  • Homeostasis

A reaction in which the system responds in such a way as to reverse the direction of change. Since this tends to keep things constant, it allows the maintenance of homeostasis?

  • Negative feedback

It is made from highly active lipids found in the cell’s plasma membrane?

  • Prostaglandins

This is located directly above the medulla and regulates relaxation?

  • Pons

Is a large molecule?

  • Macromolecules

Based on a network of interconnected neurons, located primarily in the brain stem - reticular formation. It interconnects with the hypothalamic and thalamic stems?

  • Reticular activating system

Comprise approximately 90% of all epidermal cells. These cells produce a protein mixture known as keratin which helps waterproof and protect the skin?

  • Keratinocytes

It is the study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions?

  • Pathophysiology

The smallest particle of an element or a molecule?

  • Atom

Feedback that causes the stimulus to decline or end.

  • Negative feedback

Bones that are found in the wrists and ankles and are about equal in their length, width and thickness?

  • Short bones

It is the pressure of the air outside the body?

  • Atmospheric pressure

Consists of a cup-shaped capsule containing capillaries and the glomerulus, and a long renal tube?

  • nephron

It is an organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands?

  • integumentary system

It's a network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm. It provides the cell with an internal framework. For example, microfilaments and microtubules?

  • Cytoskeleton

Have many mitochondria and they don't fatigue as easily. They contract very rapidly (fast twitch)?

  • Fast phasic oxidative

It is a coiled tube next to each testis, receives sperm from the seminiferous tubules?

  • epididymis

Receive blood?

  • Atria

A myofibril is made up of Answer

  • [No Answer]

It decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be deposited in the bones – acts antagonistically to parathyroid hormone?

  • Calcitonin

Master endocrine gland – all are proteins or peptides, act through second-messenger systems, and are regulated by hormonal stimuli and in most cases negative feedback?

  • Anterior pituitary

The part of the neuron that is most like other cells. It has the nucleus, genetic machinery, and is where many of the metabolic processes happen?

  • Soma

Several different enzymes break down macromolecules into smaller molecules that can be more efficiently absorbed. It also starts with saliva and continues into the intestines?

  • Chemical Digestion

It can be a thick hard armor or a flexible paper-thin covering.

  • Chitin

It is the process of letting air out of the lungs during the breathing cycle?

  • Expiration

It is a colourless, mobile fluid connective tissue. It is, in fact the tissue fluid that slowly drains into the lymphatic capillaries from the intercellular spaces?

  • Lymph

It is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants?

  • Respiratory system

The boutons of the motor neuron sits in a depression of the muscle?

  • Gutter

Bones that make up the skull, shoulder blades, sternum and ribs. These curved, thin bones protect internal organs and provide an anchor for muscles?

  • Flat bones

It is made up of bones, ligaments, cartilage, tendons, and other tissues?

  • Skeletal system

It is the study of functions of the human body.

  • Human physiology

Study of the functions of specific organs?

  • Special Physiology

Hormones that causes the ejection of milk?

  • oxytocin

Study of functions of the human body?

  • Human physiology

Provides blood flow between the heart and lungs?

  • Pulmonary circuit

The structures that provide energy for the sperm, it is also tightly spiraled around the axial filaments of the flagellum?

  • mitochondria

It is the site where most of the chemical and mechanical digestion is carried out?

  • Small intestine

It allows blood to flow to and from the rest of the body?

  • Systemic circuit

It permeates the entire body. It comprises of a colorless fluid, the lymph a network of fine channels, the lymphatic capillaries, tubes of varied sizes, the lymphatic vessels, and the lymph nodes?

  • lymphatic system

This varies between having few mitochondria and no mitochondria. It is primarily anaerobic, so its energy comes from carbohydrates through anaerobic metabolism?

  • Fast phasic

Changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients stimulates hormone release.

  • Humoral stimulus

It contains 80 bones, including the skull, spine and rib cage. It forms the central structure of the skeleton, with the function of protecting the brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs?

  • Axial skeleton

It includes all aspects of the function of the body systems, such as cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, reproductive physiology etc

  • Homeostasis

What do you call the pigments in the skin?

  • Melanin

It assume responsibility for the developing human, birth, and nursing?

  • Stomach

It causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the forming urine and as a result, urine volume decreases and blood volume increases – also increases blood pressure by causing constriction of the arterioles?

  • Antidiuretic hormone

It strictly provides blood to the heart?

  • Coronary circuit

It is composed of compound coiled tubular glands that usually open into hair follicles superficial to the opening of sebaceous glands?

  • [No Answer]

It is composed of stratified squamous epithelium and is separated from the dermis by a thin basement membrane. It is not as thick as the dermis and varies in thickness from approximately 0.3 mm on the eyelids to 1.5 mm on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet?

  • Epidermis

This system consists of a pair of testes and a network of excretory ducts, seminal vesicles, the prostate, the bulbourethral glands, and the penis?

  • Male reproductive system

It receives and processes information from the receptor?

  • Control center

It is next to the motor cortex and is crucial to developing finely tuned movements. The primary motor cortex will send the signals out, but it will go through the motor association area?

  • Motor association area

It is the barrier for cell contents. It consists of double phospholipid layer and monolayer of protein scattered around phospholipid layer?

  • Plasma membrane

It is composed of simple coiled tubular glands that open directly onto the surface of the skin through sweat pores. These glands are most numerous on the palms of the hands & the soles of the feet?

  • Eccrine sweat glands

Is a network consisting of blood, blood vessels, and the heart. This network supplies tissues in the body with oxygen and other nutrients, transports hormones, and removes unnecessary waste products?

  • Circulatory system

At the end of the bronchioles are air sacs called Answer

  • [No Answer]

By product of protein metabolism. Amino groups are removed from amino acids prior to energy conversion. The NH2 (amino group) combines with a hydrogen ion (proton) to form ammonia (NH3)?

  • Nitrogen wastes

Also known as breathing, involves both bringing air into the lungs (inhalation) and releasing air to the atmosphere (exhalation)?

  • External respiration

It causes the pituitary to release two more hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). FSH causes the primary oocyte within the follicle to develop into a secondary oocyte?

  • [No Answer]

These cells arise from the bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. These cells play an important role in the immune response. This helps the immune system by processing antigens?

  • Langerhans cells

Dorsal outgrowth of the medulla. It is involved in the control of movement?

  • Cerebellum

It is the pressure inside the alveoli of the lungs?

  • Intraalveolar

There is a protein that lays right over the binding site, making the binding site unavailable?

  • Tropomyosin

Decreases heart rate?

  • Parasympathetic

What is the high point in the sleeping cycle?

  • REM sleep

It regulates the hormonal activity of the gonads?

  • [No Answer]

It is the study of the functions of specific organs.

  • Special physiology

It is the active phase of ventilation because it is the result of muscle contraction?

  • Inspiration

It is a thick jelly like fluid. It represents the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane?

  • Cytoplasm

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the cells and blood vessels?

  • Internal respiration

Female gonads which are located on each side of the uterus in the pelvic cavity?

  • Ovaries

A myofibril is made up of ______.

  • Sacromeres

A phasic muscle cell is one that is designed to contract with strength but not for a long time. Has a relatively slow onset of contraction?

  • Slow phasic

Bones that are found in the arms, legs, fingers and toes. These bones are longer than they are wide and are cylindrical. They move when the muscles around them contract, and they are the most mobile parts of the skeleton?

  • Long bones

Bones that are small, flat, irregularly shaped bones that form between the flat bones in the skull?

  • Sutural bones

This neuron has one axon and numerous dendrites?

  • Multipolar Neuron

It receives information that something in the environment is changing?

  • Receptor

It is the process of air flowing into the lungs during inspiration (inhalation) and out of the lungs during expiration (exhalation)?

  • Pulmonary ventilation

Bones that are in the spinal cord and face, which, because of their unique dimension, don't fit in any of the other shape categories?

  • Irregular bones

It secretes estrogen and progesterone (hormone that stimulates endometrium thickening). These hormones complete the endometrium development and maintain the endometrium for 10 to 14 days?

  • corpus luteum

Male gonads that are located within the scrotum is necessary for the production of viable sperm?

  • Testes

It have ducts that carry their secretory product to a surface. These glands include the sweat, sebaceous, and mammary glands and, the glands that secrete digestive enzymes?

  • Exocrine glands

Each muscle cell has a single motor end plate. These muscle cells have a membrane that generates an all or nothing muscle impulse?

  • Monoterminal

It is composed of layers of protein and a tough polysaccharide?

  • Exoskeleton

Also known as female sex cells?

  • ovum
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