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Refers to the branch of science that treats micro-organisms while Parasitology refers to the branch of biology involved in the study of parasitic organisms.
He was a German biologist. His classification of bacteria into four groups based on shape (sphericals, short rods, threads, and spirals) is still in use today.
Are especially important for defense against infectious microbes that are pathogenic for humans (i.e., capable of causing disease) and may have evolved to resist innate immunity.
8. Infection of the middle ear.
Physicians have unique responsibilities for the prevention and control of hospital infections: by providing direct patient care using practices which minimize infection
8. It is a gram-positive rod that can be a commensal bacterium as part of the normal microbiota of healthy individuals.
It is a superficial inflammation of the bladder and urethra which leads to urinary frequency, painful urination, a feeling of fullness following voiding, and suprapubic discomfort.
Inadequate cleaning, lack of basic hygiene measures and accumulation of resistant microbes and dirt in the environment may increase the risk of infections and carrier state. Quality of cleaning is highly vulnerable when hospitals are going to save money.
1. It is a condition characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva, often accompanied by a discharge of sticky fluid (described as acute purulent conjunctivitis).
2. It is another superficial infection caused by S. aureus that is most commonly seen in young children, especially infants. Bacterial exotoxins first produce erythema (redness of the skin) and then severe peeling of the skin, as might occur after scalding.
It is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA
Every microorganism has an optimum growth temperature – the temperature at which the organism grows best.
It prefers cold temperatures. They thrive in cold ocean water. At high altitudes, algae (often pink) can be seen living on snow.
4. Diagnosis of gonorrhea is based on microscopic examination of exudate, culturing of the organism, and rapid methods such as antigen or nucleic acid detection.
It is mediated by proteins called antibodies, which are produced by cells called B lymphocytes
6. Gram-positive Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. are not responsible for many of the most common skin infections.
6. The skin infection causes the formation of vesicles, pustules, and possibly bullae, often around the nose and mouth. Bullae are large, fluid-filled blisters that measure at least 5 mm in diameter.
Biofilms will not produce foodborne diseases because they colonize the surfaces of food and food-processing equipment. True or False?
9. One of the most ubiquitous skin conditions. It afflicts nearly 80% of teenagers and young adults, but it can be found in individuals of all ages. Higher incidence among adolescents is due to hormonal changes that can result in overproduction of sebum.
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells both use deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the basis for their genetic information.True or False
9. Pathogenicity and virulence are terms that refer to an organism's ability to cause disease.
Ribosomes facilitate RNA translation and the creation of protein, which is essential to the functioning of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
There are more than 400 types of bacteria in your intestine right now, but they are not making you sick. These bacteria help keep you healthy and are a natural part of your digestive system.
1. It is an epidemic affecting or attacking the population of an extensive region, country, or continent.
It may be defined as a class of living biological agents used with an intention of creating a state of war by causing disease to humans, plants, and animals. It is used to kill or harm other life forms.
It is the branch of science that studies matter and change. It deals with the study of the composition and the properties of matter (which is basically any macroscopic substance that we can observe).
Biotechnological techniques have been used to pick the genes found in spiders and their infusion in goats to produce the silk proteins in their milk.
It is an object such as a piece of clothing, a door handle, or a utensil that can harbor an infectious agent and is capable of being a means of transmission.
2. Staphylococcal food poisoning is one form of food intoxication. When Staphylococcus aureus grows in food, it may produce enterotoxins that, when ingested, can cause symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, cramping, and vomiting within one to six hours.
This is a structure where both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bear a lipid bilayer, which is an arrangement of phospholipids and proteins that acts as a selective barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell.
Antimicrobial agents of synthetic origin useful in the treatment of microbial or viral disease. Examples are sulfonilamides, isoniazid, ethambutol, AZT, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol.
This will destroy all microorganisms, with the exception of heavy contamination by bacterial spores.
It is defined as resistance to disease, specifically infectious disease.
In these process of inactivates most microbes on the surface of a fomite by using antimicrobial chemicals or heat.
It refers to the cleansing of fomites to remove enough microbes to achieve levels deemed safe for public health.
How an organism can be transferred in the environment: by vector or without vector.
He established that microbes can cause disease. He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis.
Routine cleaning is not necessary to ensure a hospital environment which is visibly clean, and free from dust and soil.
These are a biological and taxonomic enigma because they are neither typical fungi nor typical protozoa. During one of their growth stages, they are protozoa-like because they lack cell walls, have amoeboid movement, and ingest particulate nutrients.
11. The diagnosis of a urinary tract infection is confirmed by culturing the organism from feces.
It represents a form of symbiosis, namely, an association of two different organisms wherein each benefits. It consists of a photosynthetic microbe (an alga or a cyanobacterium) growing in an intimate association with a fungus.
Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bear a lipid bilayer, which is an arrangement of phospholipids and proteins that acts as a selective barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell.True or False?
9. When certain bacteria, such as Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium species, and Treponema vicentii, are involved and periodontal disease progresses, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or trench mouth, also called Vincent’s disease, can develop.
Bacilli are rod-shaped.
All living cells do not contain dissolved sugar, salts, and other substances that give a certain osmotic pressure to the fluid.
It refers to the ongoing, usual, or constant presence of a disease in a community or among a group of people; a disease is said to be endemic when it continually prevails in a region.
It will occur when the red cells rupture and hemoglobin and other intracellular components spill into the serum.
A peptidoglycan cell wall is a common feature among eubacteria. This cell wall envelops the bacteria cell, providing strength and preventing rupture in changing environments.
5. A condition that results in ulcers of the mucous membranes inside the mouth.
It is the direct and immediate transfer of an infectious agent from one person to another. It requires physical contact between an infected host and a susceptible person, and the physical transfer of a pathogen.
Any time a foreign object is introduced into human tissues; the immune system is not stimulated to attack the invader.
It is the ability of a microbe to cause disease and inflict damage upon its host
Microbiologists do not traditionally rely on culture, staining, and microscopy.
6. Oral rehydration therapy with electrolyte solutions is not an essential aspect of treatment for most patients with GI disease, especially in children and infants.
There are two additional types of isotopes in nature: heavy isotopes, and radioisotopes.
Bacteria cells are not similar to our cells but still there’s distinct differences.
In primary prevention they are not preventing the disease or disorder before it happens. Health promotion, health education, and health protection are three main facets of primary prevention.
10. In primary prevention they are not preventing the disease or disorder before it happens. Health promotion, health education, and health protection are three main facets of primary prevention.
Bacteria have a nucleus and complex organelles within their cells.
Pre-microbiology, the possibility that microorganisms existed was discussed for many centuries before their actual discovery in the 17th century.True or false?
6. Bacillus cereus, commonly found in soil, is a gram-positive endospore-forming bacterium that can sometimes cause foodborne illness. B. cereus endospores can survive cooking and produce enterotoxins in food after it has been heated; illnesses often occur after eating rice and other prepared foods left at room temperature for too long.
10. The lesions of herpes simplex initially begin as small papules that develop into extremely painful vesicles or ulcers.
6. Propagated epidemics arise from infections transmitted from one infected person to another. Transmission can occur through direct or indirect routes.
It is the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microbes as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host.
It is the most common mechanism of cell replication in bacteria. Before dividing, the cell grows and increases its number of cellular components.
Hospital-acquired infections will not add to functional disability and emotional stress of the patient and may, in some cases, not lead to disabling conditions that reduce the quality of life.
It involves finding and quantifying associations, testing hypotheses, and identifying causes of health-related states or events.
They are the simplest infectious agents which is smaller than the virus. Like viruses they are obligate parasites, but they possess no genetic material.
3. Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum occurs as a result of the passage of the newborn through the birth canal of infected mothers.
Chemicals that can be used to achieve sterilization.
It occurs when droplets or dust particles carry the pathogen to the host and cause infection (e.g., respiratory viruses, pertussis, pneumococcal, pneumonia, diphtheria, rubella).
Overcrowding and understaffing are not associated with increased number of Hospital Acquired Infections, especially among children and patients with immunodeficiency, often with repeated outbreaks in neonatal wards and in overcrowded departments.
14. It is an inflammation of bone tissues most commonly caused by infection. These infections can either be acute or chronic and can involve a variety of different bacteria. The most common causative agent is S. aureus
1. Agents of infectious disease may be bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and molds.
It is defined as the basic unit of a chemical element. A fundamental piece of matter. Plain simple and basic chemistry concept.
Spirilli are spiral-shaped.
It is the most abundant antibody isotype in the blood (plasma), accounting for 70-75% of human immunoglobulins (antibodies)
It is the study of microscopic or small organisms that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope.
It is the medium in which the biochemical reactions of the cell take place, of which the primary component is cytosol.
Most prokaryotes are made up of just a single cell (unicellular) but there are a few that are made of collections of cells (multicellular).True or False?
Forests and other environments could not function without the action of decomposer microbes. Microbes have important roles in ecosystems
Microorganisms, especially bacteria, are ideally suited for use in studies of the basic metabolic reactions that occur within cells.
Genetic engineering will normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that will use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process.
Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as rotifers and planarians. True or false?
Chemical bonding is determined by the outermost shell of electrons, called the valence electrons (VE), of an atom.
He was one of the first people to observe microorganisms, using a microscope of his own design, and made one of the most important contributions to biology.
In order to replicate, viruses introduce their genetic material into the host cell, tricking the host's cellular machinery into using it as blueprints for viral proteins.
Are proteins that catalyze (speed up or accelerate) the rate of biochemical reactions.
In this processes, the primary lethal process is considered to be oxidation of cell constituents. It requires a higher temperature than moist heat and a longer exposure time.
Are even simpler than viruses. They are small, circular, single-stranded molecules of infectious RNA lacking even a protein coat.
Under favorable conditions, phytoplankton can reproduce very quickly.
Reduces microbial load on skin or tissue through gentle to firm scrubbing and the use of mild chemicals
Is an individual exposed to the antigens of a microbe mounts an active response to eradicate the infection and develops resistance to later infection by that microbe.
Are obligate parasites; that is, they lack metabolic machinery of their own to generate energy or to synthesize proteins, so they depend on host cells to carry out these vital functions.
2. It arises from parameningeal suppuration, foreign bodies or haematogenous spread from distant sepsis. Infection is polymicrobial with anaerobic cocci, Prevotella spp., staphylococci, streptococci (S. anginosusIS. Constellatus group) and Enterobacteriaceae.
Is an organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus (that holds DNA in the form of chromosomes) as well as membrane-bound organelles.
It is a medical field which focuses on the utilization of the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
8. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the most common causes of otitis media, followed by Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus.
The ability of the agent to enter, survives, and multiplies inside the host, and what rate of infection it causes.
Are molecules produced by microbes that are subsequently modified by an organic chemist to enhance their antimicrobial properties or to render them unique for a pharmaceutical patent.
9. It is a serious infection often associated with poor sanitation, especially following natural disasters, because it is spread through contaminated water and food that has not been heated to temperatures high enough to kill the bacteria.
It is a defense against such intracellular microbes, because it is mediated by cells, which are called T lymphocytes
It is abundant in serum, nasal mucus, saliva, breast milk, and intestinal fluid, accounting for 10-15% of human immunoglobulins.
7. Mumps virus is not totally transmitted through respiratory droplets or through contact with contaminated saliva, making it quite contagious so that it can lead easily to epidemics.
Bacteria (eubacteria and archaea)
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).True or False
The time span between first exposure of infective agent and the first appearance of symptoms in the host body.
2. The host is a human or an animal that is susceptible to the disease (e.g., health care workers, patients, unvaccinated individuals)
They are eukaryotes and, like plants, contain the green pigment chlorophyll, carry out photosynthesis, and have rigid cell walls.
It is an organism made up of cells that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane encased organelles.
13. Cavities of the teeth, known clinically as dental caries, are microbial lesions that will not cause damage to the teeth.
3. It is a serious infection often associated with poor sanitation, especially following natural disasters, because it is spread through contaminated water and food that has not been heated to temperatures high enough to kill the bacteria.
3. If a microbe is able to gain entrance into our bodies, it may not cause an infection
It is defined as the study of how microbial cell structures, growth and metabolism function in living organisms. It covers the study of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.
It is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in human populations and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems.
A typical eukaryotic cell is not surrounded by a plasma membrane and not contains many different structures and organelles with a variety of functions.True or False?
It is very similar to shigellosis, including its pathogenesis of intracellular invasion into intestinal epithelial tissue. This bacterium carries a large plasmid that is involved in epithelial cell penetration.
5. It is caused by a variety including herpes virus and arbovirus. Patients are febrile with headache, neck stiffness and impaired consciousness. Focal neurological signs may develop; convulsions are common.
4. Are gram-positive cocci with a microscopic morphology that resembles chains of bacteria.
Matter does not occupy space and has no mass.
4. Mumps virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets or through contact with contaminated saliva, making it quite contagious so that it can lead easily to epidemics.
11. Staphylcoccus spp. and Streptococcus spp. can also infect and cause inflammation in the tissues surrounding the heart, and this disease is marked by chest pain, difficulty breathing, and a dry cough.
It is a human or an animal that is susceptible to the disease (e.g., health care workers, patients, unvaccinated individuals)
Inflammation can be controlled by nervous stimulation and chemical substances.
It is the scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system.
It refers to the cleansing of fomites to remove enough microbes to achieve levels deemed safe for public health
4. It is a generally mild foodborne disease that is associated with undercooked meats and other foods, a gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming anaerobic bacterium that is tolerant of high and low temperatures.
Biological agents that can be used during war and for terrorism should not be detected accurately and reliably so that damage and further spread of these agents cannot be controlled.
Elements don’t have unique physical and chemical properties and are substances that cannot easily be transformed either physically or chemically into other substances.
It is the use of biological systems found in organisms or the use of the living organisms themselves to make technological advances and adapt those technologies to various different fields.
It is a group of antiviral substances produced by body cells in response to the presence of viruses.
1. Streptococcal infections that start in the skin can sometimes spread elsewhere, resulting in a rare but potentially life-threatening condition called necrotizing fasciitis, sometimes referred to as flesh-eating bacterial syndrome.
5. Infection with H. pylori may actually protect against some cancers, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
15. Treponema pallidum can be grown in vitro.
These cells secrete interleukin 2 (I-2) which stimulates cell division of T cells and B cells. In other words, these cells recruit even more cells to help fight the pathogen
3. Salmonella is not a part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many individuals.
8. Epidemiology does not involve the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in human populations, and also the application of this study to prevent and control health problems.
Microorganism that grows best at high temperatures. It can be found at hot springs, compost pits, and silage as well as in and near hydrothermal vents at the bottom of the ocean.
Reduces microbial load on skin or tissue through application of an antimicrobial chemical
5. The yeast Candida is part of the normal human microbiota, but overgrowths, especially of Candida albicans, can lead to infections in several parts of the body.
In germline gene therapy (GGT), germ cells (sperm or egg cells) are not modified by the introduction of functional genes into their genomes.
It is a group of atoms bound together. It’s the next level of chemical complexity.
It involves the administration of drugs with selective toxicity against pathogens involved in infections, not host cells.
It involves characterization of the distribution of health-related states or events.
__ is the medium in which the biochemical reactions of the cell take place, of which the primary component is cytosol.
1. Some viruses are associated with encephalitis after a systemic infection has resolved known as post infectious encephalitis (e.g., measles, varicella, zoster, rubella, EBV, mumps and influenza).
He expanded upon Spallanzani’s findings by exposing boiled broths to the air in vessels that contained a filter to prevent all particles from passing through to the growth medium.
An infection acquired in hospital by a patient who was admitted for a reason other than that infection.
It refers to all the anabolic reactions that are occurring in a cell.
Bacteria don’t have a variety of shapes, including spheres, rods, and spirals.
The strongest chemical bond between two or more atoms. These bonds form when an electron is shared between two atoms, and these are the most common form of chemical bond in living organisms.
Every organisms will not requires a source (or sources) of energy, a source (or sources) of carbon, and additional nutrients to build necessary cellular materials.
6. Infection with the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis causes this disease, a zoonotic infection in humans.
It’s a means by which microorganisms can be grouped together.
It is a process in which one set of chemical compounds are transformed into another.
It is necessary for the complete destruction or removal of all microorganisms (including spore-forming and non-spore forming bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa) that could contaminate pharmaceuticals or other materials and thereby constitute a health hazard.
5. It is due to bacterial invasion of the renal tissue with inflammation and swelling, leading to fever, back pain, and sometimes renal dysfunction.
Are chemicals that stimulate the body’s immune system to better fight pathogens when they attack the body. They achieve this by inserting attenuated (weakened) versions of the disease into the body’s bloodstream.
14. Bacteria can enter the circulatory and lymphatic systems through acute infections or breaches of the skin barrier or mucosa.
It focuses on developing genetically modified plants for the purpose of increasing crop yields or introducing characteristics to those plants that provide them with an advantage growing in regions that place some kind of stress factor on the plant namely weather and pests.
It is the capacity to produce disease.
4. The aim of the third level of prevention is to allow the progression of a disability, condition, or disorder in order to keep it from advancing and requiring excessive care.
8. Toxins and other virulence factors cannot produce gastrointestinal inflammation and general symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting.
7. Streptococcal infections that start in the skin can sometimes spread elsewhere, resulting in a rare but potentially life-threatening condition.
The relative disease causing ability of a microorganism, which may differ from species to species.
7. Vector is an invertebrate animal (e.g., tick, mite, mosquito, bloodsucking fly) that transmits infection by conveying the infectious agent from one host to another.
Sterilization protocols are not generally reserved for laboratory, medical, manufacturing, and food industry settings, where it may be imperative for certain items to be completely free of potentially infectious agents.
It is organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus (that holds DNA in the form of chromosomes) as well as membrane-bound organelles.
For many clinical purposes, aseptic technique is necessary to prevent contamination of sterile surfaces.
8. Bacteria are the most common pathogens associated with the development of sepsis, and septic shock.
Infection control is very expensive for the hospital, patients and the society. Hospital infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infections, wound infections, etc. lead to prolonged stay
The death causing ability of an organism. It varies from organism to organism and the virulence factor present in them.
12. When plaque accumulates on the teeth, bacteria colonize the gingival space. As this space becomes increasingly blocked, the environment becomes anaerobic.
2. Keratitis can have many causes, but bacterial keratitis is most frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and/or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Genetic engineering is not needed in applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and microorganisms.
Biofilms will not produce foodborne diseases because they colonize the surfaces of food and food-processing equipment.True or False?
13. It is characterized by the appearance of white patches and pseudomembranes in the mouth and can be associated with bleeding. The infection may be treated topically with nystatin or clotrimazole oral suspensions, although systemic treatment is sometimes needed.
Are bacteria that thrive at moderate temperatures, growing best between 20° and 45 °C. These temperatures align with the natural body temperatures of human.
He found that boiling broth would sterilize it and kill any microorganisms in it. He also found that new microorganisms could settle only in a broth if the broth was exposed to the air.
It facilitates RNA translation and the creation of protein, which is essential to the functioning of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
It is an epidemic affecting or attacking the population of an extensive region, country, or continent.
9. Proper hygiene is not important to prevent these types of skin infections or to prevent the progression of existing infections.
2. Its gram-positive cocci with a microscopic morphology that resembles chains of bacteria.
It is a nonspecific response to any trauma occurring to tissues. It is accompanied by signs and symptoms that include heat, swelling, redness, and pain.
These are a biological and taxonomic enigma because they are neither typical fungi nor typical protozoa.
It occurs when an agent is transferred or carried by some intermediate item, organism, means, or process to a susceptible host, resulting in disease.
When microorganisms are cultured in the laboratory, they often change the pH value of the culture media by the production of acidic or basic metabolic waste products that eventually interfere with their own growth.
10. Inflammation of the gums that can lead to irritation and bleeding.
3. It is characterized by the appearance of white patches and pseudomembranes in the mouth and can be associated with bleeding. The infection may be treated topically with nystatin or clotrimazole oral suspensions, although systemic treatment is sometimes needed.
10. Despite the presence of saliva and the mechanical forces of chewing and eating, some microbes thrive in the mouth. These microbes can cause damage to the teeth and can cause infections that have the potential to spread beyond the mouth and sometimes throughout the body.
Antiseptics are antimicrobial chemicals that are not safe for use on living skin or tissues.
Ribosomes facilitate RNA translation and the creation of protein, which is essential to the functioning of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.True or False
Disinfection removes microorganisms without complete sterilization to prevent transmission of organisms between patients.
The importance of hands in the transmission of hospital infections has been well demonstrated, and can be minimized with appropriate hand hygiene.
15. It is a superficial inflammation of the bladder and urethra which leads to urinary frequency, painful urination, a feeling of fullness following voiding, and suprapubic discomfort.
3. The genomes of most pathogenic bacteria typically contain multiple PAIs that can account for up to 10 - 20% of the bacterium's genome.
The therapeutic genes are transferred into any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte, or undifferentiated stem cell.
10. It is caused by a variety including herpes virus and arbovirus. Patients are febrile with headache, neck stiffness and impaired consciousness. Focal neurological signs may develop; convulsions are common.
A naïve individual receives antibodies or cells (e.g., lymphocytes, feasible only in animal experiments) from another individual already immune to an infection.
It is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA.
Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as rotifers and planarians.
Electrons make up a cloud (orbitals, or areas in which the probability of finding an electron is high) around the nucleus.
It is the occurrence of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health-related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy in a community or region.
It is the habitat (living or nonliving) in or on which an infectious agent lives, grows, multiplies, and on which it depends for its survival in nature.
Cocci are sphere-shaped.
9. Infections of the lower respiratory tract are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a major cause of death in children under 5 years.
Most bacteria are affected by minor changes in barometric pressure. Some thrive at normal atmospheric pressure (about 14.7 pounds per square inch [psi]).
4. Bacteria invade the urinary tract by ascending or hematogenous routes. The ascending route is the most common, with hematogenous spread causing kidney abscesses.
It refers to all the catabolic reactions that are occurring in a cell.
It is a list or arrangement of all known chemical elements. These are organized in a way that it allows grouping elements with similar atomic structure, and therefore, similar properties.
It refers to all the chemical reactions that occur within any cell.
Is the use of biological systems found in organisms or the use of the living organisms themselves to make technological advances and adapt those technologies to various different fields.
It is always present in healthy individuals, prepared to block the entry of microbes and to rapidly eliminate microbes that do succeed in entering host tissues.
3. It is one form of food intoxication. When S. aureus grows in food, it may produce enterotoxins that, when ingested, can cause symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, cramping, and vomiting within one to six hours.
7. Stridor and drooling are usually not present in acute epiglottitis.
Biotechnology is not particularly vital when it comes to the development of miniscule and chemical tools as many on the tools biotechnology uses exist at the cellular level. In a bid to understand more regarding biotechnology, here are its types, examples and its applications.
The patient is not exposed to a variety of microorganisms during hospitalization.
4. It is an inflammation of bone tissues most commonly caused by infection. These infections can either be acute or chronic and can involve a variety of different bacteria.
It is the use of living cells and other cell materials for the purpose of bettering the health of humans. Essentially, it is used for finding cures as well as getting rid of and preventing diseases.
It is a defense against such intracellular microbes, because it is mediated by cells, which are called T lymphocytes.
5. A bulging fontanelle in a neonate will not indicate raised intracranial pressure.
Plasma membranes are common throughout other living cells; these membranes are not a feature of bacteria.
It is defined as the basic unit of a chemical element.
Microbiology does not study all these microorganisms too small to be seen by the naked eye.True or false?
Is an organisms made up of cells that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane encased organelles.
12. This is a common condition seen in community practice. Patients have fever and a painful, infected throat that may have visible pus or exudate. Regional lymph nodes may be painful and enlarged.
7. Folliculitis generally presents as bumps and pimples; it’s not itchy, red, and/or pus-filled.
10. Cooked foods should not generally be reheated to at least 60 °C (140 °F) for safety and most raw meats should be cooked to even higher internal temperature.
2. Bacteria are not the most common pathogens associated with the development of sepsis, and septic shock.
1. The pathogenicity of staphylococcal infections is often enhanced by characteristic chemicals secreted by some strains.
Health care settings are an environment where both infected persons and persons at increased risk of infection congregate.
5. The agent is the cause of the disease.
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