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Inorganic and Organic Chemistry

Is the study of compounds that contain and do not contain carbon in chemistry when studying the composition, properties and chemical response of substances.

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What is the molar mass of potassium sulfate (K2SO4)?

  • 158.260 g/mol
  • 135.161 g/mol
  • 213.357 g/mol
  • 174.259 g/mol

The coldest conceivable temperature, zero on the Kelvin scale, or approximately 273.15 °C, 459.67 °F; entire lack of heat; temperature at which all molecules stop moving.

  • True
  • False

A 1 L container of gas at 25°C and 1 atm is compressed to 0.5 L while the temperature is held constant. What is the final pressure of the gas?

  • 100 kPa
  • 2 atm
  • 50 kPa
  • 0.5 atm

All of the following are examples of Dalton's theories of atomic structure and reactivity EXCEPT:

  • Atoms are indestructible.
  • The fundamental structure of atoms can change during chemical reactions.
  • All atoms of a given element are identical.
  • The atoms of different elements differ in mass and size.

The origins of atomic theory may be traced back to ancient Greek and Hellenistic Egyptian intellectuals.

  • True
  • False

A component of a material system characterized by chemical composition and/or physical condition is called a [1]. There are three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gaseous.

  • thermodynamic

At high temperatures and low pressures, liquids behave the best. This is because intermolecular forces will be minimal at these conditions.

  • True
  • False

The binding strength of an ionic substance is measured by [1].

  • ionic charge

Which of the following statements is NOT correct in regards to interference?

  • Constructive interference is when a crest of one wave meets a trough of another wave.
  • Destructive interference occurs when the difference is Ï€, 3Ï€, 5Ï€, etc.
  • Destructive interference occurs a crest of one wave meets a trough of another wave.
  • Constructive interference occurs when the phase difference between the waves is a multiple of 2Ï€.

The crest is the peak of each wave, and the trough is the valley; the amplitude is the distance between the crest and the x-axis; and the wavelength is the distance between two crests (or two troughs) called [1]

  • horizontal

If the frequency is observed to be 1.00 x 1012 Hz for a microwave signal, what is the wavelength of this radiation in centimeters? (1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 cm = 1.0 x 10-2 m)

  • 3.34 cm
  • 3340 cm
  • 3.00 x 10-4 cm
  • 3.00 x 10-2 cm

Democritus and [1], ancient Greek philosophers, first recorded the concept of the atomos, an indivisible building block of matter, in the 5th century BCE.

  • Leucippus

Interference is a phenomenon in which:

  • waves bounce of each other and interfere in each other's paths.
  • waves superimpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude.
  • particles crash into each other.
  • waves encounter an obstacle.

[1] is a phenomenon generated by the superposition of two wave systems, such as a broadcast signal distortion caused by atmospheric or other factors. Interference is a physics phenomena in which two waves superimpose to generate a new wave with a larger or smaller amplitude.

  • Interference

[1] proposed the law of definite composition based on his studies of chemical compound composition.

  • Joseph Proust

If red light has a frequency of 4.28 x 10<sup>14</sup> Hz, what is the wavelength of this light? (1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 nm = 1.0 x 10-9 m)

  • 700 nm
  • 65.0 nm
  • 0.650 nm
  • 2.10 nm

Boyle's Law states that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional. Which of the following assumptions are NOT required for this relationship to hold?

  • The gas must be diatomic.
  • Temperature must be held fixed.
  • No molecules of gas can be added or removed.
  • The gas must be ideal.

[1] is a word that means "moving" or "moving."

  • MOVES

The density of liquid benzene, C6H6 , is 0.879 g/cm3 at 15°C. How many moles are there in 36.5 mL of benzene at 15°C?

  • 0.411 mol
  • 0.467 mol
  • 2.43 mol
  • 0.532 mol

The structure of an ionic crystal is:

  • an amorphous solid and tend to be hard and have high melting points.
  • crystal lattice and tend to be soft and have low melting points.
  • an amorphous solid and tend to be soft and have low melting points.
  • a crystal lattice and tend to be hard and have high melting points.

The products of exothermic reactions have less enthalpy than the reactants, hence an exothermic reaction is said to have a [1] enthalpy of reaction.

  • Enthalpy

A sample of a certain gas has a volume of 415 mL at 725 mm Hg and 0 °C. What would be the volume of this same sample of gas if it were measured at STP?

  • 301 mL
  • 435 mL
  • 581 mL
  • 396 mL

Photon energy and wave frequency are:

  • inversely proportional.
  • exponentially related.
  • not related.
  • directly proportional.

Chemical compounds are composed of a defined ratio of elements as determined by mass, according to the [1].

  • Law of Definite Composition

What is the molar mass of of CuSO4 • 5 H2O ?

  • 233.686 g/mol
  • 249.685 g/mol
  • 313.231 g/mol
  • 181.656 g/mol

The best way to determine the heat content of a cookie with a bomb calorimeter is to:

  • Measure the oxygen consumed during combustion
  • Measure the change in volume of the water after combustion
  • Calculate the sum of the heat gained by the water
  • Calculate the heat of reaction from the change in temperature of the water

  • 87.3%
  • 58.2%
  • 23.6%
  • 137.1%

Capillary action acts on:

  • convex menisci to pull the liquid up, increasing the contact area between liquid and container.
  • concave menisci to pull the liquid up, increasing the contact area between liquid and container.
  • concave menisci to pull the liquid down, reducing the amount of contact area.
  • convex menisci to pull the liquid up, reducing the amount of contact area.

Which of the following statements accurately describes the locations of the three subatomic particles that make up an atom?

  • The protons and neutrons are in the nucleus, while the electrons orbit the nucleus.
  • The neutrons and electrons are in the nucleus, while the protons orbit the nucleus.
  • The protons, neutrons and electrons are all in the nucleus.
  • The protons and electrons are in the nucleus, while the neutrons orbit the nucleus.

A complex carbohydrate, such as a starch, contains many chemical bonds. This is an example of:

  • potential energy in the form of chemical energy
  • kinetic energy in the form of structural energy
  • kinetic energy only
  • thermal energy only

Chemical knowledge extended throughout cultures, and by the mid-eighteenth century, 43 elements had been identified.

  • True
  • False

The derived unit of force in the International System of Units; the force necessary to propel a mass of one kilogram one meter per second per second; symbol: [1]

  • N

At constant pressure, the following equation is applied:

  • ΔH=ΔU+w=ΔU+PΔV
  • ΔU=Δq+Δw
  • ΔH=ΔU+w=ΔU+P
  • ΔH=ΔU=ΔU+PΔV

The [1] and radius of the bound ions are two major elements that influence the magnitude of the lattice energy.

  • Charge

Which molecule contains at least one double bond?

  • CO2
  • CH3Cl
  • H2O
  • All of the answers

All of the following are main points of Dalton's Atomic Theory EXCEPT:

  • Compound are produced through different whole-number combinations of atoms.
  • The atoms of different elements differ in size and mass.
  • Equal mass quantities of two different compounds should have the same number of atoms.
  • All atoms of an element are identical.

A uniform spacing or arrangement of atoms/molecules within a crystal is called a [1].

  • lattice

Surface tension is responsible for the:

  • curvature of the surfaces of air/liquid & the shape of the interface between two immiscible liquids.
  • curvature of the surfaces of solid/air & the shape of the interface between two immiscible liquids.
  • curvature of the surfaces of solid/air & the shape of the interface between two miscible liquids.
  • curvature of the surfaces of air/liquid & the shape of the interface between two miscible liquids.

The famous double-slit experiment was carried out by English scientist [1] in the early nineteenth century, demonstrating that splitting a beam of light into two beams and then recombining them produces interference effects that can only be explained by assuming that light is a wavelike disturbance.

  • Thomas Young

Which of the following pieces of information would be obtained by a mass spectrometer?

  • When ionized, acetic acid forms acetate anion, with a pKb of 4.75.
  • When ionized, acetic acid forms acetate anion, with a mass to charge ratio of ~59 atomic mass units.
  • A sample of acetic acid has a boiling point of 118 degrees Celsius.

The nucleus of the most common isotope of hydrogen, made of two up quarks and a down quark, is a negatively charged subatomic particle that is part of the nucleus of an atom and determines the atomic number of an element.

  • True
  • False

All of the following were major findings of Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment EXCEPT:

  • There are particles smaller than atoms, termed subatomic particles.
  • The charge of an electron is approximately 1.6x10<sup>-19</sup> C.
  • Charge can be quantized.
  • The charge of a proton and an electron is of equivalent magnitude but of the opposite s

A [1] rule is the law of various proportions.

  • the law of variable proportions

Viscosity is a measure of:

  • the resistance of a fluid that is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress.
  • the resistance of a fluid that is being deformed only by shear stress but not tensile stress.
  • the conformance of a fluid that is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress.
  • the resistance of a fluid that is being deformed by only tensile stress but not by shear stress.

The Greeks called these particles atomos, which means "indivisible," from which the current word "atom" is derived. Democritus proposed that the various forms of matter were caused by different sorts and combinations of these particles.

  • True
  • False

The [1] describes how matter transitions between solid, liquid, and gas phases.

  • PHASES OF MATTER

Which of the following does NOT accurately describe a feature of ionic bonding?

  • Ionic compounds form crystal lattices.
  • Ionic bonds form because of differences in electronegativity.
  • Ionic bonds involve attractive electrostatic forces.
  • Electrons are shared in ionic bonds.

Choose the correct description of endothermic and exothermic processes:

  • endothermic: absorb energy, non-spontaneous and have a positive change in enthalpy.
  • exothermic: absorb energy, non-spontaneous and have a positive change in enthalpy.
  • endothermic: release energy, non-spontaneous and have a negative change in enthalpy.
  • exothermic: release energy, non-spontaneous and have a positive change in enthalpy.

The first law of thermodynamic states that:

  • energy can be transferred and destroyed, but may not be transformed.
  • energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transferred or transformed.
  • energy can be created, destroyed, transferred, and transformed.
  • energy in the universe is constant; therefore, destroying it would lead to its re-creation.

Hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for:

  • primary, secondary and quaternary structures.
  • secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures.
  • primary, secondary and tertiary structures.
  • primary, tertiary and quaternary structures.

The transfer of an electron from a metal atom to a [1] atom forms an ionic connection.

  • non-metal

The rise or fall of liquid in a capillary tube is governed by:

  • suction and cohesive forces.
  • adhesion and temperature.
  • the surface tension and cohesive forces.
  • the surface tension and adhesive forces.

Which property refers to the hypothetical charge that a molecule/compound would have if all bonds were purely ionic?

  • Polarity
  • Oxidation Number
  • Dipole Moment
  • Dipole

Which of the following is the correct definition for the Law of Definite Composition?

  • Atoms always combine in the same constant and defined ratio when forming compounds.
  • Elements can mix in any ratio to form chemical compounds.
  • The composition of a compound can always be explicitly defined.
  • Chemical compounds are formed of constant and defined ratios of elements, as determined by mass.

The periodic table is a systematic organization of chemical elements ordered according to their electron configurations.

  • True
  • False

Which of the following atoms would be shown with 7 electrons in its Lewis structure?

  • beryllium (Be)
  • hydrogen (H)
  • sulfur (S)
  • None of these answers

[1] is a form of chemical bond in which one atom loses its valence electrons and gains them from another.

  • Ionic

Calculate the molar mass of carbon dioxide, CO2 .

  • 44.01 g
  • 28.00 g
  • 28.00 g/mol
  • 44.01 g/mol

If the pressure of a confined gas sample doubled while the volume was held constant, what happened to the temperature?

  • This cannot be determined with the information given.
  • It doubled.
  • It halved.
  • It went up by a factor of four.

What is the frequency in megahertz of a radio station that broadcasts at a wavelength of 325 centimeters? (1 MHz = 1.00 x 106 cycles per second; 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 cm = 1.0 x 10-2 M)

  • 108 MHz
  • 67.1 MHz
  • 22.1 MHz
  • 92.2 MHz

To overcome significant coulombic pull, electrically charged ions interact with water via ion-dipole interactions, resulting in an [1] solution.

  • Aqueous

Which of the following elements is most likely to participate in the formation of multiple bonds?

  • S
  • Na
  • Cl
  • H

What is the sign of the enthalpy change for an exothermic reaction?

  • It depends on the temperature.
  • This cannot be determined from the information given.
  • negative
  • positive

[1] particles contain more energy and, on average, are separated from one another by distances far greater than the size of the atoms/molecules.

  • Gas

The energy of all particles fluctuates based on the temperature of the sample of matter, which defines whether the substance is a solid, [1], or gas.

  • liquid

Which of the following can be determined from a balanced chemical equation?

  • The stoichiometric ratio of the reactants and products
  • All of these answers
  • The molar ratio of the reactants and products
  • The mass ratio of the reactants and products

A [1] is a high-frequency electromagnetic radiation with a high energy per photon.

  • Ultraviolet light

Any of the most basic chemical substances that cannot be degraded in a chemical reaction or by any chemical means and are made up of atoms with the same amount of [1].

  • chemical bonds

A cathode ray is a beam of which of the following subatomic particles?

  • Protons.
  • Electrons.
  • Neutrons.
  • Electrons and protons.

Wave motion can be measured in three ways: amplitude, wavelength, and [1] (the number of vibrations per second). The propagation velocity v determines the relationship between the wavelength (Greek lambda) and frequency of a wave v (Greek nu), such that

  • amplitude

Lattice energy is:

  • released when two ions join and is the sum of all the interactions within in the crystal.
  • released when two ions join and breaks apart the interactions within in the crystal.
  • absorbed when two ions join and is the sum of all the interactions within in the crystal.
  • absorbed when two ions join and breaks apart the interactions within in the crystal.

Which gas law states that at a given temperature and pressure all gases will contain the same number of molecules?

  • Boyle's Law
  • Charles' Law
  • Gay-Lussac's Law
  • Avogadro's Law

A [1] is a monatomic element that is inert or non-reactive, with very few exceptions, and belongs to group 18 of the periodic table.

  • Nobles

A chemical substance created as a result of a chemical reaction is referred to as a [1].

  • PRODUCT

An [1], which occurs when water solvates ions in solution, is another common example of these forces at work.

  • ion-dipole interaction

All of the following are true about combustion analysis EXCEPT:

  • Combustion analysis is used to determine the empirical formula of an organic compound
  • The amount of carbon dioxide produced is used to determine the amount of carbon in the sample
  • The amount of water produced is used to determine the amount of hydrogen in the sample
  • The mass of H2O and CO2 produced are each equal to the mass of the starting sample

What is the volume occupied by 1.80 grams of sulfur dioxide gas at a pressure of 2.60 atm and a temperature of 25.0 °C?

  • 264 L
  • 0.264 L
  • 28.1 L
  • 0.0222 L

The [1] is the emission of electrons from a material's surface as a result of electromagnetic radiation absorption.

  • photoelectric effect

Chemical energy is a sort of energy that is released when chemical bonds are broken and can be used in metabolic activities.

  • True
  • False

A 5.10 g sample of iron is heated from 36.0°C to 75.0°C. The amount of energy required in 89.5 J. What is the specific heat capacity of iron?

  • 0.450 J/g °C
  • 0.900 J/g °C
  • 17800 J/g °C
  • 11.7 J/g °C

Which region of the spectrum and matching description is NOT accurate?

  • high-energy gamma rays - creation of particle - antiparticle pairs
  • radio - plasma oscillation
  • visible - excitation of molecular and atomic valence electrons
  • x-rays - excitation and ejection of core atomic electrons

Which of the follow equations can be used to calculate the percent yield of a chemical reaction

  • (actual yield)/(theoretical yield)*100
  • (actual yield)/(theoretical yield)
  • (theoretical yield)/(actual yield)
  • (theoretical yield)/(actual yield)*100

A process that transfers heat into its surroundings is known as an [1] reaction.

  • Exothermic

1.92 gram sample of an unknown gas occupies a volume of 673 mL at STP. The molar mass of the unknown gas is:

  • 351 g/mole
  • 112 g/mole
  • 57.7 g/mole
  • 63.9 g/mole

The net potential energy liberated or absorbed during the course of a chemical reaction is known as [1].

  • chemical energy

What types of orbitals does the central carbon in acetone, CH2O , use to form bonds with the hydrogen atoms?

  • sp2 and p
  • sp2
  • sp3 and p
  • sp3

According to the kinetic molecular theory, which observable property of matter is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in it?

  • volume
  • temperature
  • fluorescence
  • pressure

[1] consists of constantly moving particles.

  • Matter

Newton's theories were not widely accepted for most of the nineteenth century, but his concepts have now been accepted, with changes addressing subatomic particles and energy and mass interconversion.

  • True
  • False

The science of energy conversions between heat and other types of energy is known as [1].

  • thermodynamics

A chemical reaction that emits heat energy into its surroundings is described as [1].

  • Exothermic

Mendeleev's periodic chart has been updated to include a total of 128 elements. The atomic number is the number above the symbol in the periodic table that represents the number of protons in the nucleus. The sum of neutrons and protons determines the atomic mass.

  • True
  • False

Heat capacity (C) is the:

  • amount of energy required to change a substance's pressure by a given amount.
  • amount of energy required to change a substance's temperature by a given amount.
  • amount of work required to change a substance's temperature by a given amount.
  • amount of work required to change a substance's pressure by a given amount.

Which of the following produces radiation with the highest frequency?

  • radar
  • AM radio
  • FM radio
  • microwave oven

What is the volume occupied by 0.212 moles of oxygen gas at a pressure of 555 mm Hg and a temperature of 55.0 °C?

  • 0.0103 atm
  • 1.31 L
  • 0.730 L
  • 7.82 L

Exothermic reactions:

  • Have a positive change in enthalpy
  • Require external energy input
  • Release energy
  • Cool down their environment

The [1] is the range of all electromagnetic radiation frequencies.

  • Electromagnetic waves

Wave motion arises when:

  • a periodic disturbance is propagated through a medium.
  • a non-periodic disturbance is propagated through a medium.
  • a periodic disturbance occurs in the absence of a medium.
  • when a medium is disturbed by anything.

If light were merely a particle, it would not display the interference pattern exhibited in [1] experiment.

  • interference pattern

The molar mass of MgSO4 • 7 H2O is:

  • 246.47 g/mol
  • 126.11 g/mol
  • 120.36 g/mol
  • 138.38 g/mol

A local radio station has a frequency of 98.6 megahertz (MHz). What is the wavelength of this station in centimeters? (1 MHz = 1.00 x 106 cycles per second; 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; Speed of light =3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 nm = 1.0 x 10-9 m)

  • 3.00 MHz
  • 299 MHz
  • 33.3 MHz
  • 15.7 MHz

Thermal work, in the context of an enclosed chemical system, is defined as the:

  • change in the volume within the system multiplied by a pressure variable.
  • change in the temperature within the system multiplied by a pressure variable.
  • change in the volume within the system multiplied by a temperature variable.
  • change in the temperature within the system multiplied by a volume variable.

Which of the following correctly describes the bond in hydrogen gas?

  • 1s atomic orbital overlaps with 1s atomic orbital to form a pi bond
  • 1s atomic orbital overlaps with 2s atomic orbital to form a pi bond
  • 1s atomic orbital overlaps with 2s atomic orbital to form a sigma bond
  • 1s atomic orbital overlaps with 1s atomic orbital to form sigma bond

Lattice energies _____________.

  • are determined experimentally by isolating gas-phase ions
  • are described mathematically by the Carnot cycle
  • are correlated with the charge and radius of the component ions
  • estimate the strength of covalent bonds

Which of the following statements correctly describes the relative masses of the three subatomic particles?

  • Neutrons and electrons weigh the same, protons weigh much less.
  • Protons and electrons weigh the same, neutrons weigh much less.
  • Protons and neutrons weigh the same, electrons weigh much less.
  • Protons, neutrons and electrons all weight the same.

A simplified model of an atom was proposed by Neils Bohr, with a central nucleus surrounded by electrons in specified energy levels.

  • True
  • False

The Aufbau principle outlines the filling of orbitals and the construction of atoms with known electronic configurations in a step-by-step manner.

  • True
  • False

[1] is a quality of objects that may be transmitted from one object to another or converted into new forms, but it cannot be generated or destroyed.

  • energy

High-velocity electrons flow in straight lines through an empty cathode ray tube, striking the tube's glass wall and causing excited atoms to fluoresce or glow.

  • True
  • False

A coordination number corresponds to the number of:

  • spheres within the crystalline structure that touch the unit cell that is being evaluated.
  • spheres within the crystalline structure that touch the sphere that is being evaluated.
  • unit cells within the crystalline structure that touch the unit cell that is being evaluated.
  • spheres outside the crystalline structure that touch the sphere that is being evaluated.

To form a solution, there are two conceptual processes, each corresponding to one of the two opposing forces that determine [1].

  • solubility

One of the three classical states of matter is a gas (the others being liquid and solid ).

  • True
  • False

The attractive and repulsive interactions between molecules are called [1].

  • Intermolecular forces

[1] is the energy that an object possesses as a result of its position (in a gravitational or electric field) or its state (as a stretched or compressed spring, as a chemical reactant, or by having rest mass).

  • Potential Energy

Which of the following statements represents the BEST first step for attempting to draw a Lewis structure?

  • Form octets for each atom
  • Form a structure by connecting all the atoms by single bonds
  • Draw Lewis structures of all the individual atoms
  • Make sure the Lewis structure has the correct number of atoms

The [1] states that reactants will always combine in whole number proportions.

  • law of multiple proportions

Molar ratios can be used to determine all of the following EXCEPT:

  • the relative amount of each product that will be formed in a given transformation
  • how many moles of product are formed from a certain amount of reactant.
  • how much of a reactant is needed to completely react with a certain amount of another reactant.
  • the absolute amount of each product that will be formed in a given transformation

A 350.0g sample of metal is heated to 100.0°C, then dropped into 400.0g of water at 21.4°C. The temperature of the water rises to 28.0°C. Assuming there is no heat lost to the surroundings, what is the heat capacity of the metal? (specific heat of water = 4.184 J/g °C)

  • 0.336 J/g °C
  • 6.60 J/g °C
  • 39.9 J/g °C
  • 0.438 J/g °C

Which of the following terms mean "of or relating to motion"?

  • amorphous
  • hydrogen bond
  • kinetic
  • crystal lattice

A [1] is a device that measures atmospheric pressure.

  • barometer

A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy from its environment is described as [1].

  • endothermic

What is the average atomic mass of a bromine atom given the following information: the two major isotopes of bromine are bromine-79 with an abundance of 50.69% and bromine-81 with an abundance of 49.31%.

  • 79.99 amu
  • 80.01 amu
  • 160 amu
  • 79,990 amu

What is the molar mass of ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3)?

  • 78.05 g/mol
  • 112.09 g/mol
  • 96.09 g/mol
  • 88.05 g/mol

The [1] is the tiniest unit of substance that preserves its identity as a chemical element, and is now known to consist of a nucleus surrounded by electrons.

  • Atom

An atom or group of atoms with an electrical charge, such as sodium and chlorine atoms in a salt solution, is referred to as an [1].

  • ion

What is the pressure in atmospheres of a gas mixture that consists of 8.80 grams of nitrogen and 8.80 grams of carbon dioxide in a 2.01 liter container at 27°C?

  • 2.45 atm
  • 3.85 atm
  • 0.971 atm
  • 6.30 atm

In his book The Sceptical Chymist, published in [1], Boyle discussed atoms. However, according to his book A New System of Chemical Philosophy, English chemist and meteorologist John Dalton is credited with developing the first modern atomic theory.

  • Democritus

British scientist William Crookes and others were able to evacuate rarefied tubes to a pressure of less than 106 atm in the 1870s. Crookes tubes were the name for these.

  • True
  • False

The molar mass of aluminum acetate (C6H9AlO6) is:

  • 102.0 g/mol
  • 77.1 g/mol
  • 86.0 g/mol
  • 204.1 g/mol

The group VII elements (helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe) and radon (Rn)) exist as monatomic gases at standard temperature and pressure (STP) and are called the noble gases.

  • True
  • False

When using these equations to calculate wavelength, frequency, or velocity by manipulating the equation, keep in mind that wavelengths are measured in meters, centimeters, nanometers, and so on; and frequency is usually measured in or [1].

  • wave per second

Any of two or more forms of an element where the atoms have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons within their nuclei:

  • Natural abundance
  • Isotope
  • Hydride
  • Allotrope

A regular spacing or arrangement of geometric points, is called a

  • crystal structure
  • lattice
  • reflection
  • coordination number

Which of the following combinations of two elements is most likely to produce highly ionic bonds?

  • nitrogen and fluorine
  • lithium and fluorine
  • nitrogen and oxygen
  • boron and nitrogen

The Lewis structure of HCN contains:

  • one triple bond and one single bond
  • two double bonds
  • two single bonds
  • one double bond and one single bond

Johann Hittorf, an American physicist, was the first to notice that something had to be traveling in straight lines from the cathode to cast the shadows in 1869. They were given the term cathode rays by Eugene Goldstein.

  • True
  • False

A sample of a certain gas has a volume of 222 mL at 695 mm Hg and 0°C. What would be the volume of this same sample of gas if it were measured at 333 mm Hg and 0°C?

  • 894 mL
  • 657 mL
  • 463 mL
  • 359 mL

Joseph Proust and others experimented with the Law of Definite Proportions at the turn of the nineteenth century.

  • True
  • False

The unpredictability or spread-outness of a set of molecules is referred to as [1]. Increasing the level of randomness is beneficial.

  • measure of spread

What periodic trend would be most useful in determining the ionic bond character of a bond?

  • electronegativity
  • melting point
  • atomic radius
  • ionization energy

What are the three measurable properties of wave motion?

  • frequency, vibration and speed
  • wavelength, pressure and volume
  • amplitude, velocity and speed
  • amplitude, wavelength and frequency

What is the molar mass of disulfur decafluoride (S2F10)?

  • 127.05 g/mol
  • 222.04 g/mol
  • 358.60 g/mol
  • 254.10 g/mol

The [1] is a discrete particle with zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an endless lifetime that is used to describe light and other electromagnetic energy.

  • photon

The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration is known as [1].

  • diffusion

[1] proposed that light's energy is related to its frequency, demonstrating that light is made up of discrete energy quanta.

  • Max Planck

The number of vibrations per second is known as [1].

  • frequency

A negatively charged ion is known as an [1].

  • anion

Gases have no definite shape or volume.

  • True
  • False

The greatest value of the variable in either direction is called [1].

  • variables

All of the following physical properties can be explained by the covalent bonding model EXCEPT:

  • Electrical conductivity
  • Bond length
  • Boiling point
  • Electronegativity

Diffraction and [1] are terms that describe how a wave interacts with something that modifies its amplitude, such as another wave.

  • Interference

When a periodic disturbance of some kind is propagated through a [1], wave motion occurs.

  • period t

Calculate the number of atoms in 72 g of aluminum chloride, AlCl3 .

  • 4.3x1025 atoms
  • 3.3x1023 atoms
  • 4.4x1023 atoms
  • 6.9x1023 atoms

The chemist [1] is credited with discovering the law of conservation of mass.

  • Antoine Lavoisier

A collective oscillation of charge carriers in bulk material is known as [1] (plasma oscillation). The oscillation of electrons in an antenna is a good example.

  • Radio

Which of the following has the longest wavelength?

  • red light
  • green light
  • yellow light
  • blue light

Motionless particles make up matter.

  • True
  • False

Cathode rays are named after the positive electrode, or cathode, in a vacuum tube, which emits them.

  • True
  • False

Which of the following ionic formulas is INCORRECT?

  • CaCl
  • KBr
  • NaF
  • MgI2

One photon of light carries exactly:

  • 10 quanta of energy.
  • zero quantum of energy.
  • 2 quanta of energy.
  • one quantum of energy.

Which statement most accurately describes hydrogen bonding?

  • A hydrogen bond is a weak intermolecular force created by hydrogen and an electronegative atom.
  • A hydrogen bond is a strong intermolecular force created by hydrogen and an electropositive atom.
  • A hydrogen bond is a strong intramolecular force created by hydrogen and an electronegative atom.
  • A hydrogen bond is a strong intermolecular force created by hydrogen and an electronegative atom.

The energy of [1] particles is the lowest, whereas the energy of gas particles is the highest.

  • Solid

The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself is known as [1].

  • electronegativity

Planck postulated that the energy of light is:

  • exponentially related to frequency.
  • not related at all to frequency.
  • inversely proportional to the frequency.
  • proportional to the frequency.

If a substance's boiling point is greater than 273 K, it will be in gaseous form at STP.

  • True
  • False

A dipole is:

  • two negative charges closely spaced to each other.
  • two opposite charges closely spaced to each other.
  • two opposite charges spaced far apart from each other.
  • two positive charges closely spaced to each other.

The volume of a certain gas sample is 1150 mL at a temperature of 25°C. At what temperature would that same gas sample have a volume of 1.53 L at constant pressure and mass?

  • -49.1 ºC
  • 124 ºC
  • 397 ºC
  • 248 ºC

Chemical energy is found in the molecules of gasoline (octane, the chemical formula given). This energy is converted to kinetic energy, which enables a car to race on a track.

  • True
  • False

The number of electron shells in elements of the same period is the same.

  • True
  • False

The modern hunt for a universal remedy and the philosopher's stone is known as alchemy. Chemistry emerged as a result of the process.

  • True
  • False

Which of the following statements correctly describes the relative charges of the three subatomic particles?

  • Neutrons are positive, electrons are neutral, protons are negative.
  • Protons are positive, neutrons are neutral, electrons are negative.
  • Electrons are positive, protons are neutral, neutrons are negative.
  • Protons and neutrons have a charge of +1, while electrons have a much smaller charge.

Ionic crystals have the following properties.

  • Amorphous
  • Made up of neutral molecules
  • None of the answers
  • Long range order

Potential energy is the energy associated with moving objects.

  • True
  • False

A bomb calorimeter measures:

  • pressure of a reaction.
  • electrical energy of a reaction.
  • volume of a reaction.
  • heat of combustion of a reaction.

A 1.92 gram sample of an unknown gas occupies a volume of 673 mL at STP. The molar mass of the unknown gas is:

  • 351 g/mole
  • 112 g/mole
  • 63.9 g/mole
  • 57.7 g/mole

Calculate the number of moles in 12 grams of lithium chloride, LiCl.

  • 0.51 mol
  • 1.7 mol
  • 0.34 mol
  • 0.28 mol

Three physical properties of electromagnetic waves are:

  • frequency, wavelength and velocity
  • wavelength, vibration and photon energy
  • frequency, wavelength and photon energy
  • frequency, radiation and photon energy

In a thermodynamic process occurring at constant volume,

  • work is performed; the energy of the system is dependent on work and heat.
  • work is performed; the change in the internal energy of the system is solely dependent on the work, or enthalpy.
  • no work is performed, and the change in internal energy of the system is equal to the heat gained or lost by the system.
  • work is performed; the energy of the system is solely dependent on the heat, or enthalpy.

The intermolecular interactions between molecules in the gas phase are minimal.

  • True
  • False

All particles have energy, but it differs depending on whether the substance is a solid, liquid, or gas; solid particles have the least energy, while gas particles have the most.

  • True
  • False

Dispersion forces are caused by:

  • a permanent dipole moment.
  • absence of a dipole moment.
  • an ion-dipole moment.
  • a temporary dipole moment.

A number of scientists and thinkers, including Galileo, Newton, Boyle, Lavoisier, and Dalton, expanded on and examined the concept of an [1].

  • atomic

All of the following are properties of a mole EXCEPT:

  • Each mole of a given pure substance has a definite mass.
  • The number of atoms in one mole of helium is equal to the number of atoms in one mole of oxygen.
  • One mole of a substance contains 6.022x1023 atoms or other particles.
  • The mass of one mole of carbon dioxide is equal to the mass of one mole of water.

In 1 mole of malic acid, C4H6O5, how many molecules are there?

  • 1.27 x 1027 molecules
  • 6.02 x 1023 molecules
  • 1.78 x 1022 molecules
  • 7.53 x 1023 molecules

Which of the following gases would have the greatest density at STP?

  • H2O
  • CO
  • H2
  • CO2

Wave motion can take many forms, including pressure variations in the air, transverse motions along a guitar string, and variations in the intensities of local electric and magnetic fields in space, which make up [1].

  • waves

Which of the following facts about Lewis structures is FALSE? Lewis structures _________.

  • can be used to show elements or molecules
  • only depict valence electrons
  • use lines to show bonding
  • only depict ionic bonds

Fill in the blank. For a given sample of gas molecules, the average kinetic energy depends only on the value of the ________.

  • volume
  • temperature
  • moles
  • pressure

Avogadro stated that equal volumes of gases under the same temperature and pressure have equal:

  • None of the answers
  • molar masses
  • numbers of molecules
  • numbers of grams

The distance traveled by the wave in a full period (1/frequency) is called the [1].

  • wavelength

To form a solution, solute and [1] molecules must be more attracted to each other than they are to each other.

  • Solvent

If the molecular weight of water (H<sub>2</sub>O) is 18.015 g/mol, what is the mass of 1 mole of water?

  • 18.015 g
  • 54.045 g
  • 1.084 g
  • 2.992 g

Which of the following atom pairs include atoms that won't satisfy the octet rule?

  • Na and H
  • K and F
  • K and Br
  • Na and Cl

Wavelength and wave frequency are:

  • inversely proportional.
  • not related.
  • directly proportional.

An ion-dipole force is a result of the interaction between:

  • an ion and a polar molecule; the strength is proportionate to the ion charge
  • an ion and a nonpolar molecule; the strength is proportionate to the ion charge
  • an ion and a polar molecule; the strength is inversely proportionate to the ion charge
  • an ion and a polar molecule; the strength is proportionate to the size of polar molecule.

Why don't covalent solids conduct electricity?

  • Because there are de-localized electrons.
  • Because covalent bonds are extremely strong.
  • Because there are no de-localized electrons.
  • Because the bonds are hard to rearrange.

The cold content of a system under constant pressure is known as its enthalpy.

  • True
  • False

An [1] is an ionic chemical that dissolves in water and allows the solution to conduct electricity.

  • Electrolyte

Which of the following is the correct definition of the law of multiple proportions?

  • If two elements can form multiple compounds, the ratios of the masses of the two elements in those compounds can be expressed as a ratio
  • In any given reaction, the ratio of the masses of the two reacting components can always be expressed as a small whole number.
  • The same atoms cannot combine in multiple proportions.
  • The same compound can be formed by the combination of the same atoms in multiple different proportions, which can be expressed as a ratio of two small whole numbers.

A positively charged ion is referred to as a [1].

  • cation

A compound consisting of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with molecular weight 90.12 g/mol is subjected to combustion analysis and found to contain 53.3% carbon and 11.2% hydrogen by mass. What is the molecular formula of this compound?

  • C4H10O2
  • C2H5O
  • C4H10O
  • C4H10

What is the frequency in megahertz of a radio set that is broadcasting at 99.9 meters? (1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1nm = 1.0 x 10-9 m)

  • 3.00 MHz
  • 299 MHz
  • 33.3 MHz

Which of the following are emitted from matter due to the photoelectric effect?

  • Protons
  • Electrons
  • Neutrons
  • Atoms

Michael Faraday saw a peculiar light arc with its beginning at the cathode (negative electrode) and ending almost at the anode (positive electrode) when he sent a current through a rarefied air-filled glass tube in 1848. (positive electrode).

  • True
  • False

Which of the following best describes the variation of the electronegativity of the elements with respect to their position on the periodic table?

  • increases across a period; decreases down a group
  • increases across a period; increases down a group
  • decreases across a period; decreases down a group
  • decreases across a period; increases down a group

Which of the following is the correct definition for the Law of Conservation of Mass as expressed by Lavoisier in 1789?

  • Mass is conserved during a chemical reaction except when a gas is produced.
  • Despite chemical reactions or physical transformations, mass is conserved within an isolated system.
  • The mass that is lost during a chemical reaction is a result of phase changes during the reaction.
  • Mass is conserved within an isolated system except during chemical reactions.

Which of the following is an indicator of the degree of oxidation an atom in a chemical compound ?

  • Dipole
  • Dipole Moment
  • Polarity
  • Oxidation Number

Energy is required for organisms to survive, grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce, and carry out all other biological processes.

  • True
  • False

A slinky at the top of a staircase has:

  • kinetic energy
  • potential energy
  • chemical energy
  • thermal energy

[1] is the breaking up of an electromagnetic wave when it travels through a geometric structure (such as a slit), followed by interference reconstruction of the wave.

  • Diffraction

Surface tension is:

  • a retractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to conform to an external force.
  • a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to conform to an external force.
  • a retractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force.
  • a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force.

The average [1] energy of the particles is measured by the temperature of a substance.

  • Kinetic

A sample of Ne gas is contained in a 265 mL flask at 0.0 °C at a pressure is 432 mm Hg. If the gas is transferred to a new flask at 25.0 °C, and its pressure is now 355 mm Hg, what is the volume of the new flask?

  • 295 mL
  • 8060 mL
  • 238 mL
  • 352 mL

The [1] holds that mass cannot be generated or destroyed; it can only be rearranged.

  • The Law of Conservation of Mass

Diffraction is described as:

  • the apparent straightening of waves and compression of waves past small openings.
  • the apparent bending of waves around small obstacles and spreading out of waves past small openings.
  • a phenomenon in which two waves superimpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude.
  • a phenomenon that only happens with light waves.

The stabilizing interactions that happen when ions dissolve in water produce energy known as the "[1]."

  • hydrogen bond

Which statement regarding the relationship between work and heat is accurate?

  • Work can be converted into heat, but heat cannot be converted into work.
  • Work can be completely converted into heat, but heat can only be partially converted into work.
  • Work cannot be converted into heat, but heat can be converted into work.
  • Work can be partially converted into heat, but heat can only be completely converted into work.

A [1] is a form that alternates between two maximum points in two different directions.

  • waveform

Two examples of closest packing in crystals are:

  • octagonal, which has 8 atoms per unit cell, and quadric, which has 4 atoms per unit cell.
  • cubic, which has 8 atoms per unit cell, and hexagonal, which has 4 atoms per unit cell.
  • octagonal, which has 8 atoms per unit cell, and cubic, which has 4 atoms per unit cell.
  • hexagonal, which has 8 atoms per unit cell, and cubic, which has 4 atoms per unit cell.

One liter of substance X requires 10 J of heat to achieve a ΔT= 100K, how much heat does two liters require?

  • 100 J
  • 15 J
  • 20 J
  • 10 J

A+B→C,ΔH=100kJ

  • The reaction is endothermic; the value of ΔH depends on reactant and product concentration.
  • The reaction is exothermic; the value of ΔH depends on reactant and product concentration.
  • The reaction is exothermic; the value of ΔH does not depend on reactant and product concentration.
  • The reaction is endothermic; the value of ΔH does not depend on reactant and product concentration.

When a solution is generated, it increases in [1], which is one of the many driving forces in this process.

  • Entropy

The building blocks of matter are [1].

  • MOLECULE

Charles' Law states that __________.

  • the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional at constant temperature
  • the ratio of volume to temperature of a gas is constant at constant pressure
  • the pressure and temperature of a gas are directly proportional at constant volume
  • the ratio of the pressure to temperature of a gas is constant at constant volume

What is the sign of the enthalpy change for an endothermic reaction?

  • Negative
  • Can't be determined from the information given.
  • Positive
  • Depends on the temperature.

Which of the following pairs of atoms is likely to form a covalent bond?

  • Li and I
  • Se and O
  • Mg and Ca
  • Rb and Br

For what purpose is the method of x-ray crystallography used?

  • To determine the impurities within a crystal.
  • To determine the arrangement of atoms within the molecules making up a crystal.
  • To determine the structure of a molecule with impurities in solution.
  • To determine the arrangement of atoms in solution.

Based on his work with atmospheric gases, [1], an English scientist and meteorologist, is credited with developing the first modern atomic theory.

  • John Dalton

A reaction that releases heat to its surroundings are:

  • exothermic and have a positive enthalpy of reaction.
  • endothermic and have a negative enthalpy of reaction.
  • endothermic and have a positive enthalpy of reaction.
  • exothermic and have a negative enthalpy of reaction.

A 6.75 g sample of gold (specific heat capacity = 0.13 J/g °C) is heated using 50.6 J of energy. If the original temperature of the gold is 25 °C, what is its final temperature?

  • 82.7 °C
  • 42.4 °C
  • 24.4 °C
  • 57.7 °C

How many moles are 132 g of pure CaCl2 ?

  • 4.49 moles
  • 4.24 moles
  • 1.19 moles
  • 7.98 moles

Any of the individuals present at the onset of a chemical reaction is referred to as a [1]. A molecule before it undergoes a chemical transformation.

  • reactant

Young's double slit experiment showed that:

  • two slits in a screen are capable of changing the wavelength of light.
  • light shined at two slits in a screen produces an interference pattern characteristic of waves.
  • shining light through two slits causes the waves to turn into particles.

What is the pressure in atmospheres of a gas mixture that consists of 0.200 moles of nitrogen and 0.300 moles of oxygen in a 1250 mL container at 0°C?

  • 8.97 atm
  • 1.79 atm
  • 0.897 atm
  • 0.00897 atm

Potential energy is linked not just to the location of matter, but also to the [1] of matter.

  • kinetic

The volume of a certain gas sample is 235 mL at a temperature of 25°C. At what temperature would that same gas sample have a volume of 310 mL at constant pressure and mass?

  • 120 ºC
  • 69.4 ºC
  • -47 ºC
  • 33.1 ºC

The amount of force delivered across a certain area divided by the area's size is known as [1].

  • Pressure

Draw the Lewis structure for nitrate (NO3-) . How many lone pairs does it have?

  • 16
  • 2
  • 4
  • 8
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