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Is the study of compounds that contain and do not contain carbon in chemistry when studying the composition, properties and chemical response of substances.
What is the molar mass of potassium sulfate (K2SO4)?
The coldest conceivable temperature, zero on the Kelvin scale, or approximately 273.15 °C, 459.67 °F; entire lack of heat; temperature at which all molecules stop moving.
A 1 L container of gas at 25Â°C and 1 atm is compressed to 0.5 L while the temperature is held constant. What is the final pressure of the gas?
All of the following are examples of Dalton's theories of atomic structure and reactivity EXCEPT:
The origins of atomic theory may be traced back to ancient Greek and Hellenistic Egyptian intellectuals.
A component of a material system characterized by chemical composition and/or physical condition is called a . There are three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gaseous.
At high temperatures and low pressures, liquids behave the best. This is because intermolecular forces will be minimal at these conditions.
The binding strength of an ionic substance is measured by .
Which of the following statements is NOT correct in regards to interference?
The crest is the peak of each wave, and the trough is the valley; the amplitude is the distance between the crest and the x-axis; and the wavelength is the distance between two crests (or two troughs) called 
If the frequency is observed to be 1.00 x 1012 Hz for a microwave signal, what is the wavelength of this radiation in centimeters? (1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 cm = 1.0 x 10-2 m)
Democritus and , ancient Greek philosophers, first recorded the concept of the atomos, an indivisible building block of matter, in the 5th century BCE.
Interference is a phenomenon in which:
 is a phenomenon generated by the superposition of two wave systems, such as a broadcast signal distortion caused by atmospheric or other factors. Interference is a physics phenomena in which two waves superimpose to generate a new wave with a larger or smaller amplitude.
 proposed the law of definite composition based on his studies of chemical compound composition.
If red light has a frequency of 4.28 x 10<sup>14</sup> Hz, what is the wavelength of this light? (1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 nm = 1.0 x 10-9 m)
Boyle's Law states that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional. Which of the following assumptions are NOT required for this relationship to hold?
 is a word that means "moving" or "moving."
The density of liquid benzene, C6H6 , is 0.879 g/cm3 at 15Â°C. How many moles are there in 36.5 mL of benzene at 15Â°C?
The structure of an ionic crystal is:
The products of exothermic reactions have less enthalpy than the reactants, hence an exothermic reaction is said to have a  enthalpy of reaction.
A sample of a certain gas has a volume of 415 mL at 725 mm Hg and 0 Â°C. What would be the volume of this same sample of gas if it were measured at STP?
Photon energy and wave frequency are:
Chemical compounds are composed of a defined ratio of elements as determined by mass, according to the .
What is the molar mass of of CuSO4 â€¢ 5 H2O ?
The best way to determine the heat content of a cookie with a bomb calorimeter is to:
Capillary action acts on:
Which of the following statements accurately describes the locations of the three subatomic particles that make up an atom?
A complex carbohydrate, such as a starch, contains many chemical bonds. This is an example of:
Chemical knowledge extended throughout cultures, and by the mid-eighteenth century, 43 elements had been identified.
The derived unit of force in the International System of Units; the force necessary to propel a mass of one kilogram one meter per second per second; symbol: 
At constant pressure, the following equation is applied:
The  and radius of the bound ions are two major elements that influence the magnitude of the lattice energy.
Which molecule contains at least one double bond?
All of the following are main points of Dalton's Atomic Theory EXCEPT:
A uniform spacing or arrangement of atoms/molecules within a crystal is called a .
Surface tension is responsible for the:
The famous double-slit experiment was carried out by English scientist  in the early nineteenth century, demonstrating that splitting a beam of light into two beams and then recombining them produces interference effects that can only be explained by assuming that light is a wavelike disturbance.
Which of the following pieces of information would be obtained by a mass spectrometer?
The nucleus of the most common isotope of hydrogen, made of two up quarks and a down quark, is a negatively charged subatomic particle that is part of the nucleus of an atom and determines the atomic number of an element.
All of the following were major findings of Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment EXCEPT:
A  rule is the law of various proportions.
Viscosity is a measure of:
The Greeks called these particles atomos, which means "indivisible," from which the current word "atom" is derived. Democritus proposed that the various forms of matter were caused by different sorts and combinations of these particles.
The  describes how matter transitions between solid, liquid, and gas phases.
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe a feature of ionic bonding?
Choose the correct description of endothermic and exothermic processes:
The first law of thermodynamic states that:
Hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for:
The transfer of an electron from a metal atom to a  atom forms an ionic connection.
The rise or fall of liquid in a capillary tube is governed by:
Which property refers to the hypothetical charge that a molecule/compound would have if all bonds were purely ionic?
Which of the following is the correct definition for the Law of Definite Composition?
The periodic table is a systematic organization of chemical elements ordered according to their electron configurations.
Which of the following atoms would be shown with 7 electrons in its Lewis structure?
 is a form of chemical bond in which one atom loses its valence electrons and gains them from another.
Calculate the molar mass of carbon dioxide, CO2 .
If the pressure of a confined gas sample doubled while the volume was held constant, what happened to the temperature?
What is the frequency in megahertz of a radio station that broadcasts at a wavelength of 325 centimeters? (1 MHz = 1.00 x 106 cycles per second; 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 cm = 1.0 x 10-2 M)
To overcome significant coulombic pull, electrically charged ions interact with water via ion-dipole interactions, resulting in an  solution.
Which of the following elements is most likely to participate in the formation of multiple bonds?
What is the sign of the enthalpy change for an exothermic reaction?
 particles contain more energy and, on average, are separated from one another by distances far greater than the size of the atoms/molecules.
The energy of all particles fluctuates based on the temperature of the sample of matter, which defines whether the substance is a solid, , or gas.
Which of the following can be determined from a balanced chemical equation?
A  is a high-frequency electromagnetic radiation with a high energy per photon.
Any of the most basic chemical substances that cannot be degraded in a chemical reaction or by any chemical means and are made up of atoms with the same amount of .
A cathode ray is a beam of which of the following subatomic particles?
Wave motion can be measured in three ways: amplitude, wavelength, and  (the number of vibrations per second). The propagation velocity v determines the relationship between the wavelength (Greek lambda) and frequency of a wave v (Greek nu), such that
Lattice energy is:
Which gas law states that at a given temperature and pressure all gases will contain the same number of molecules?
A  is a monatomic element that is inert or non-reactive, with very few exceptions, and belongs to group 18 of the periodic table.
A chemical substance created as a result of a chemical reaction is referred to as a .
An , which occurs when water solvates ions in solution, is another common example of these forces at work.
All of the following are true about combustion analysis EXCEPT:
What is the volume occupied by 1.80 grams of sulfur dioxide gas at a pressure of 2.60 atm and a temperature of 25.0 Â°C?
The  is the emission of electrons from a material's surface as a result of electromagnetic radiation absorption.
Chemical energy is a sort of energy that is released when chemical bonds are broken and can be used in metabolic activities.
A 5.10 g sample of iron is heated from 36.0Â°C to 75.0Â°C. The amount of energy required in 89.5 J. What is the specific heat capacity of iron?
Which region of the spectrum and matching description is NOT accurate?
Which of the follow equations can be used to calculate the percent yield of a chemical reaction
A process that transfers heat into its surroundings is known as an  reaction.
1.92 gram sample of an unknown gas occupies a volume of 673 mL at STP. The molar mass of the unknown gas is:
The net potential energy liberated or absorbed during the course of a chemical reaction is known as .
What types of orbitals does the central carbon in acetone, CH2O , use to form bonds with the hydrogen atoms?
According to the kinetic molecular theory, which observable property of matter is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in it?
 consists of constantly moving particles.
Newton's theories were not widely accepted for most of the nineteenth century, but his concepts have now been accepted, with changes addressing subatomic particles and energy and mass interconversion.
The science of energy conversions between heat and other types of energy is known as .
A chemical reaction that emits heat energy into its surroundings is described as .
Mendeleev's periodic chart has been updated to include a total of 128 elements. The atomic number is the number above the symbol in the periodic table that represents the number of protons in the nucleus. The sum of neutrons and protons determines the atomic mass.
Heat capacity (C) is the:
Which of the following produces radiation with the highest frequency?
What is the volume occupied by 0.212 moles of oxygen gas at a pressure of 555 mm Hg and a temperature of 55.0 Â°C?
The  is the range of all electromagnetic radiation frequencies.
Wave motion arises when:
If light were merely a particle, it would not display the interference pattern exhibited in  experiment.
The molar mass of MgSO4 â€¢ 7 H2O is:
A local radio station has a frequency of 98.6 megahertz (MHz). What is the wavelength of this station in centimeters? (1 MHz = 1.00 x 106 cycles per second; 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; Speed of light =3.0 x 108 m/s; 1 nm = 1.0 x 10-9 m)
Thermal work, in the context of an enclosed chemical system, is defined as the:
Which of the following correctly describes the bond in hydrogen gas?
Lattice energies _____________.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the relative masses of the three subatomic particles?
A simplified model of an atom was proposed by Neils Bohr, with a central nucleus surrounded by electrons in specified energy levels.
The Aufbau principle outlines the filling of orbitals and the construction of atoms with known electronic configurations in a step-by-step manner.
 is a quality of objects that may be transmitted from one object to another or converted into new forms, but it cannot be generated or destroyed.
High-velocity electrons flow in straight lines through an empty cathode ray tube, striking the tube's glass wall and causing excited atoms to fluoresce or glow.
A coordination number corresponds to the number of:
To form a solution, there are two conceptual processes, each corresponding to one of the two opposing forces that determine .
One of the three classical states of matter is a gas (the others being liquid and solid ).
The attractive and repulsive interactions between molecules are called .
 is the energy that an object possesses as a result of its position (in a gravitational or electric field) or its state (as a stretched or compressed spring, as a chemical reactant, or by having rest mass).
Which of the following statements represents the BEST first step for attempting to draw a Lewis structure?
The  states that reactants will always combine in whole number proportions.
Molar ratios can be used to determine all of the following EXCEPT:
A 350.0g sample of metal is heated to 100.0Â°C, then dropped into 400.0g of water at 21.4Â°C. The temperature of the water rises to 28.0Â°C. Assuming there is no heat lost to the surroundings, what is the heat capacity of the metal? (specific heat of water = 4.184 J/g Â°C)
Which of the following terms mean "of or relating to motion"?
A  is a device that measures atmospheric pressure.
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy from its environment is described as .
What is the average atomic mass of a bromine atom given the following information: the two major isotopes of bromine are bromine-79 with an abundance of 50.69% and bromine-81 with an abundance of 49.31%.
What is the molar mass of ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3)?
The  is the tiniest unit of substance that preserves its identity as a chemical element, and is now known to consist of a nucleus surrounded by electrons.
An atom or group of atoms with an electrical charge, such as sodium and chlorine atoms in a salt solution, is referred to as an .
What is the pressure in atmospheres of a gas mixture that consists of 8.80 grams of nitrogen and 8.80 grams of carbon dioxide in a 2.01 liter container at 27Â°C?
In his book The Sceptical Chymist, published in , Boyle discussed atoms. However, according to his book A New System of Chemical Philosophy, English chemist and meteorologist John Dalton is credited with developing the first modern atomic theory.
British scientist William Crookes and others were able to evacuate rarefied tubes to a pressure of less than 106 atm in the 1870s. Crookes tubes were the name for these.
The molar mass of aluminum acetate (C6H9AlO6) is:
The group VII elements (helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe) and radon (Rn)) exist as monatomic gases at standard temperature and pressure (STP) and are called the noble gases.
When using these equations to calculate wavelength, frequency, or velocity by manipulating the equation, keep in mind that wavelengths are measured in meters, centimeters, nanometers, and so on; and frequency is usually measured in or .
Any of two or more forms of an element where the atoms have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons within their nuclei:
A regular spacing or arrangement of geometric points, is called a
Which of the following combinations of two elements is most likely to produce highly ionic bonds?
The Lewis structure of HCN contains:
Johann Hittorf, an American physicist, was the first to notice that something had to be traveling in straight lines from the cathode to cast the shadows in 1869. They were given the term cathode rays by Eugene Goldstein.
A sample of a certain gas has a volume of 222 mL at 695 mm Hg and 0Â°C. What would be the volume of this same sample of gas if it were measured at 333 mm Hg and 0Â°C?
Joseph Proust and others experimented with the Law of Definite Proportions at the turn of the nineteenth century.
The unpredictability or spread-outness of a set of molecules is referred to as . Increasing the level of randomness is beneficial.
What periodic trend would be most useful in determining the ionic bond character of a bond?
What are the three measurable properties of wave motion?
What is the molar mass of disulfur decafluoride (S2F10)?
The  is a discrete particle with zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an endless lifetime that is used to describe light and other electromagnetic energy.
The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration is known as .
 proposed that light's energy is related to its frequency, demonstrating that light is made up of discrete energy quanta.
The number of vibrations per second is known as .
A negatively charged ion is known as an .
Gases have no definite shape or volume.
The greatest value of the variable in either direction is called .
All of the following physical properties can be explained by the covalent bonding model EXCEPT:
Diffraction and  are terms that describe how a wave interacts with something that modifies its amplitude, such as another wave.
When a periodic disturbance of some kind is propagated through a , wave motion occurs.
Calculate the number of atoms in 72 g of aluminum chloride, AlCl3 .
The chemist  is credited with discovering the law of conservation of mass.
A collective oscillation of charge carriers in bulk material is known as  (plasma oscillation). The oscillation of electrons in an antenna is a good example.
Which of the following has the longest wavelength?
Motionless particles make up matter.
Cathode rays are named after the positive electrode, or cathode, in a vacuum tube, which emits them.
Which of the following ionic formulas is INCORRECT?
One photon of light carries exactly:
Which statement most accurately describes hydrogen bonding?
The energy of  particles is the lowest, whereas the energy of gas particles is the highest.
The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself is known as .
Planck postulated that the energy of light is:
If a substance's boiling point is greater than 273 K, it will be in gaseous form at STP.
A dipole is:
The volume of a certain gas sample is 1150 mL at a temperature of 25Â°C. At what temperature would that same gas sample have a volume of 1.53 L at constant pressure and mass?
Chemical energy is found in the molecules of gasoline (octane, the chemical formula given). This energy is converted to kinetic energy, which enables a car to race on a track.
The number of electron shells in elements of the same period is the same.
The modern hunt for a universal remedy and the philosopher's stone is known as alchemy. Chemistry emerged as a result of the process.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the relative charges of the three subatomic particles?
Ionic crystals have the following properties.
Potential energy is the energy associated with moving objects.
A bomb calorimeter measures:
A 1.92 gram sample of an unknown gas occupies a volume of 673 mL at STP. The molar mass of the unknown gas is:
Calculate the number of moles in 12 grams of lithium chloride, LiCl.
Three physical properties of electromagnetic waves are:
In a thermodynamic process occurring at constant volume,
The intermolecular interactions between molecules in the gas phase are minimal.
All particles have energy, but it differs depending on whether the substance is a solid, liquid, or gas; solid particles have the least energy, while gas particles have the most.
Dispersion forces are caused by:
A number of scientists and thinkers, including Galileo, Newton, Boyle, Lavoisier, and Dalton, expanded on and examined the concept of an .
All of the following are properties of a mole EXCEPT:
In 1 mole of malic acid, C4H6O5, how many molecules are there?
Which of the following gases would have the greatest density at STP?
Wave motion can take many forms, including pressure variations in the air, transverse motions along a guitar string, and variations in the intensities of local electric and magnetic fields in space, which make up .
Which of the following facts about Lewis structures is FALSE? Lewis structures _________.
Fill in the blank. For a given sample of gas molecules, the average kinetic energy depends only on the value of the ________.
Avogadro stated that equal volumes of gases under the same temperature and pressure have equal:
The distance traveled by the wave in a full period (1/frequency) is called the .
To form a solution, solute and  molecules must be more attracted to each other than they are to each other.
If the molecular weight of water (H<sub>2</sub>O) is 18.015 g/mol, what is the mass of 1 mole of water?
Which of the following atom pairs include atoms that won't satisfy the octet rule?
Wavelength and wave frequency are:
An ion-dipole force is a result of the interaction between:
Why don't covalent solids conduct electricity?
The cold content of a system under constant pressure is known as its enthalpy.
An  is an ionic chemical that dissolves in water and allows the solution to conduct electricity.
Which of the following is the correct definition of the law of multiple proportions?
A positively charged ion is referred to as a .
A compound consisting of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with molecular weight 90.12 g/mol is subjected to combustion analysis and found to contain 53.3% carbon and 11.2% hydrogen by mass. What is the molecular formula of this compound?
What is the frequency in megahertz of a radio set that is broadcasting at 99.9 meters? (1 Hz = 1 cycle per second; speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s; 1nm = 1.0 x 10-9 m)
Which of the following are emitted from matter due to the photoelectric effect?
Michael Faraday saw a peculiar light arc with its beginning at the cathode (negative electrode) and ending almost at the anode (positive electrode) when he sent a current through a rarefied air-filled glass tube in 1848. (positive electrode).
Which of the following best describes the variation of the electronegativity of the elements with respect to their position on the periodic table?
Which of the following is the correct definition for the Law of Conservation of Mass as expressed by Lavoisier in 1789?
Which of the following is an indicator of the degree of oxidation an atom in a chemical compound ?
Energy is required for organisms to survive, grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce, and carry out all other biological processes.
A slinky at the top of a staircase has:
 is the breaking up of an electromagnetic wave when it travels through a geometric structure (such as a slit), followed by interference reconstruction of the wave.
Surface tension is:
The average  energy of the particles is measured by the temperature of a substance.
A sample of Ne gas is contained in a 265 mL flask at 0.0 Â°C at a pressure is 432 mm Hg. If the gas is transferred to a new flask at 25.0 Â°C, and its pressure is now 355 mm Hg, what is the volume of the new flask?
The  holds that mass cannot be generated or destroyed; it can only be rearranged.
Diffraction is described as:
The stabilizing interactions that happen when ions dissolve in water produce energy known as the "."
Which statement regarding the relationship between work and heat is accurate?
A  is a form that alternates between two maximum points in two different directions.
Two examples of closest packing in crystals are:
One liter of substance X requires 10 J of heat to achieve a Î”T= 100K, how much heat does two liters require?
When a solution is generated, it increases in , which is one of the many driving forces in this process.
The building blocks of matter are .
Charles' Law states that __________.
What is the sign of the enthalpy change for an endothermic reaction?
Which of the following pairs of atoms is likely to form a covalent bond?
For what purpose is the method of x-ray crystallography used?
Based on his work with atmospheric gases, , an English scientist and meteorologist, is credited with developing the first modern atomic theory.
A reaction that releases heat to its surroundings are:
A 6.75 g sample of gold (specific heat capacity = 0.13 J/g Â°C) is heated using 50.6 J of energy. If the original temperature of the gold is 25 Â°C, what is its final temperature?
How many moles are 132 g of pure CaCl2 ?
Any of the individuals present at the onset of a chemical reaction is referred to as a . A molecule before it undergoes a chemical transformation.
Young's double slit experiment showed that:
What is the pressure in atmospheres of a gas mixture that consists of 0.200 moles of nitrogen and 0.300 moles of oxygen in a 1250 mL container at 0Â°C?
Potential energy is linked not just to the location of matter, but also to the  of matter.
The volume of a certain gas sample is 235 mL at a temperature of 25Â°C. At what temperature would that same gas sample have a volume of 310 mL at constant pressure and mass?
The amount of force delivered across a certain area divided by the area's size is known as .
Draw the Lewis structure for nitrate (NO3-) . How many lone pairs does it have?
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