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# Psychological Statistics

Psychological Statistics is the application of statistical methods in the field of psychology for the analysis of data and interpretation of results.

## data

A two proportion z test always yields a two tailed graph.

• True
• False

To reject the null hypothesis, the p value must greater than α.

• True
• False

The standard score is the same as the ______________________.

• F Score
• Population Mean
• Z Score
• T Score

Select one:

• Select one:
• All of the answers are correct
• Accept the alternative hypothesis and claim that there is a significant difference in the factors
• Accept the null hypothesis and claim that there is a significant difference in the factors

When the researcher does not reject the null hypothesis when in fact it is false this is caleed a ________________.

• Type 2 error
• H0
• Type 1 error
• P value

What is a property of a test statistic?

• All of the answers are correct
• Standardized value
• Determines when null hypothesis can be rejected

What is the mean of the following numbers 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 13?

• 12
• 10
• 13
• 11

A type 2 error is the probability of accepting a true alternative hypothesis.

• A type 2 error is the probability of accepting a true alternative hypothesis.
• Select one:
• True
• False

A student answered 77 out of 100 in a test. What percentage did he answer incorrectly?

• 30%
• 77%
• 33%
• 70%

For the hypothesis , the researcher randomly sampled 19 participants from the first group and 10 participants from the second group. What is the degrees of freedom?

• 9
• 27
• 18

What is the percentage of the following students? Student A 60/65 Student B 45/65

• 92% and 69%
• 93% and 49%
• 98% and 59%
• 91% and 48%

The alternative hypothesis is the educated outcome guess of a researcher.

• True
• False

A distribution is a ________________.

• Pool of random numbers
• Record of all data in a study
• Summary of all the data
• Analyzed data in a study

What is the range of the following numbers 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 13?

• 1
• 0
• 2
• 3

The p value gives you the _____________________.

• One-tailed or two-tailed graph
• Both one-tailed/two-tailed graph and value of test statistic
• Value of test statistic
• Level of significance

Use the data set given below to solve for the Mean Absolute Deviation. Data Set: 76 80 56 63 45 88 75 89 86 58

• 12.88
• 14.88
• 15.88
• 13.88

The normal curve is characteristically ______________.

• Asymmetrical/unequal on both sides
• Symmetrical/equal on both sides
• Unpredictable
• Can be established even in skewed distributions

A chi square test is done with ______________ data.

• Assigned
• Random
• Ordinal
• Categorical

The statistical value of p should be greater than the significance level for you to reject the null hypothesis.

• True
• False

If the z score is 4.12, what is the value of the z score to make is a normal distribution?

• -4.12
• -4.11
• -4.10
• -4.13

Which of the following is not useful in doing an ANOVA?

• Same participants across conditions
• Different participants assigned in each condition
• More than 2 independent variables being measured
• Same dependent variable being measured

A sample contains all the data of the group that a researcher is studying.

• True
• False

Depending on the alternative hypothesis, the answer when comparing means can be a one tailed graph.

• True
• False

Statistics is used to prove the hypothesis of a research to be right or wrong.

• True
• False

A teacher in statistics gave out practice problems for students to answer at home. Each student spent some minutes answering these as recorded below. Determine the mode.

• 22
• 14
• 15
• 17

An alternative hypothesis means _______________.

• There is a difference between the two sample groups
• There is no difference between the two sample groups
• The p value is insignificant
• The significance level of the test statistic is negligible

What is the median of the given data?

• 76
• 45
• 66
• 87

Compute for the percentage and proportion. Type the answer on the space provided. 6,874 pens out of 10,000

• 68%

To compare populations, data must come from random samples.

• True
• False

The range is a measure of where the data is ranked.

• True
• False

The null hypothesis in comparing two populations would postulate that the two populations would have no difference.

• The null hypothesis in comparing two populations would postulate that the two populations would have no difference.
• Select one:
• True
• False

A group of researchers tested the before and after effects of social media on a group of 50 teenagers. To test the hypothesis , we use the data _______________.

• Z distribution
• Standard deviation of less than 50
• T distribution with 50 degrees of freedom
• T distribution with 49 degrees of freedom

The p value of 0.04 means that there is a 4% chance of it to likely happen.

• True
• False

Rejecting the null hypothesis means that there is a difference in the variables of the study.

• True
• False

The variance is computed by getting the square of the ___________________.

• Range
• Population Mean
• Standard Deviation
• Mean Absolute Deviation

Out of 1050 students, 544 students passed the exam. What is the percentage of passing?

• 40%
• 62%
• 51%
• 49%

Statistics is important as it gives an objective way of summarizing and studying data.

• True
• False

The graph below shows a:

• Alternative hypothesis with a two tailed graph
• Null hypothesis with a positive one tailed graph
• Null hypothesis with a negative one tailed graph

The z score is the distance from the ____________________.

• Standard Deviation
• Variance
• Mean
• Range

It is important to note that multivariate statistics can well complement descriptive statistics when presenting the results.

• True
• False

Univariate statistics can deal with up to two variables being studied.

• True
• False

The greater the standard deviation number, the ________________ the dispersion.

• narrower
• no analysis can be drawn
• smaller
• wider

What is the percentage of the following students? Student A 50/65 Student B 32/65

• 78% and 50%
• 77% and 49%
• 50% and 49%
• 80% and 48%

Use the data set given below to solve for the Standard Deviation. Data Set: 76 80 56 63 45 88 75 89 86 58

• 14.53
• 14.45
• 14.50
• 14.33

The researcher is trying to find out the effects of stress on heart beats per minute. The dependent variable is ____________.

• Heart beat
• Both Heart and Stress
• Heart
• Stress

When the Pearson and Spearman correlation values equals a +1, it means ______________.

• That when one variable decreases, the other variable decreases as well
• That when one variable increases, the other variable decreases
• That when one variable increases, the other variable increases as well
• That when one variable decreases, the other variable increases

What is the mean for the given data?

• 45.22
• 64.22
• 53.22
• 57.22

The mu is a greek symbol for ________________.

• A lot of other statistical values
• Mean
• Median
• Mode

The mean is the best value to describe an entire set of data.

• True
• False

What should be included in reporting ANOVA?

• Mode
• Z score
• F statistic
• Histogram

A one tailed t test finds out if ________________.

• There is a significant difference specified in one direction
• There is a significant relationship specified in one direction
• There is a significant relationship specified in both directions
• There is a significant difference specified in both directions

Depending on the null hypothesis, the answer when comparing means can be a one tailed graph.

• True
• False

Gender is an example of nominal data.

• True
• False

A one sample t test is ___________________.

• The variance of two compared means
• Compares two means to a population
• Is known as a matched pairs t test
• A test of the sample mean

A t test is used to compare 3 groups and their mean differences.

• True
• False

An alternative hypothesis for 2 independent population means is __________.

• Question text

The sample size is taking all members of the group being studied and getting data from them.

• True
• False

Including graphs in descriptive statistics complicates the interpretation of the data at hand.

• True
• False

Descriptive statistics is a direct interpretation of the data and may not be stretched to further conclude generalizations about the population.

• True
• False

The Chi Square Goodness of Fit shows ____________________.

• If data comes from the population or not
• If 2 subsets belong to the same population
• If 2 variables are related to one another

The z score is obtained so that __________________.

• The researcher has a standardized reference
• The distribution becomes a normal curve
• Errors can be identified

The degrees of freedom is denoted by n-10.

• True
• False

In a univariate study, a researcher looks at _____ variable/s in different scenarios

• Zero
• One
• Two
• Several

When hypothesis testing the means of 2 independent populations, our data should be _______________.

• At least 1,000 participants
• Assigned
• Standard deviation of at least 15
• Must be from a normal distribution

Smaller samples give smaller variability measures.

• True
• False

A researcher may opt to test the whole population to get better results in the study.

• True
• False

675 cars were seen to have defects from the factory production last Wednesday. The total production for that day was 921. What is the percentage of cars with defects?

• 1.36%
• 100%
• 73%
• 75%

The median is easily swayed by big and small values in the data set.

• True
• False

A correlation tells you the relationship or association of two variables being studied.

• True
• False

INSTRUCTION: Customer service centers are being improved in the country. With this effort, a local firm recorded the number of minutes it takes for call center agents to resolve a complaint. Below is the data. Determine the median.

• 17
• 16
• 14
• 19

Compute for the percentage and proportion. Type the answer on the space provided. 3 balls out of 10

• 30%

Quantitative statistics are always of numerical value while qualitative statistics are always of an assigned label or name.

• True
• False

Type 2 Error is when the researcher ________________.

• Does not reject the null hypothesis when in fact it is false
• Rejects the null hypothesis when in fact it is true
• Does not reject the null hypothesis when in fact it is true
• Rejects the null hypothesis when in fact it is false

The probability of a Type 1 error is denoted by ___________.

• Question text

A chi square test does not measure the __________________.

• Relationship/non-relationship of variables
• Both relationship/non-relationship of variables and predictability
• Predictability

The mean of 15,17,19 and 20 is 17.5.

• True
• False

Which bar graph of Gender vs Total Participants per Gender best represents the data above.

• Question text

The graph below shows that:

• Spearman coefficient still stays at +1
• Pearson coefficient is positive but less than 1
• Pearson coefficient is positive but less than one, while the Spearman coefficient still stays at +1

The population is the representative sample of an identified group.

• True
• False

Compute for the percentage and proportion. Type the answer on the space provided. 82 mugs out of 165

Quantitative data is represented by ________________.

• Numerical data
• Both numerical and non-numerical data
• non-numerical data

The area of the normal curve is equal to ________________.

• 0
• Depends on the z score and p value
• 10

______________________ is the method by which survey respondents are chosen without bias and with equal ability to be participants in the study.

• Random Sampling
• Sample size
• Inferential Statistics
• Descriptive Statistics

In a normal distribution the pre-calculated area of a z score can be found in the __________________.

• Variance table
• Square root of the mean table
• Square root of the mean absolute deviation table
• Standard normal distribution table

If r2 = -0.92, it means that _________________.

• A weak positive linear relationship
• A weak negative linear relationship
• A strong negative linear relationship
• A strong positive linear relationship

The two statistical methods are best combined in a research to give an accurate picture and generalization of the problem at hand.

• True
• False

A type 2 error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is in fact true.

• True
• False

In the equation of the best fitting line, Y = mx + b, m refers to the ________________.

• Intercept
• Dependent Variable
• Slope
• Independent Variable

Which of the following is different from all the others?

• There is an unlimited number of normal distributions
• It is impossible to have a z score of 15.5 for a normal distribution
• The area of a normal curve is always equal to 10
• A normal curve always goes to the positive area only

For the hypothesis , the researcher randomly sampled 40 participants from the first group and 20 participants from the second group. What is the degrees of freedom?

• 58
• 60
• 48

What does ANOVA calculate for?

• T score
• F ratio
• Z score
• Regression

This method of statistics infers or generalizes obtained data from the sample size to the population.

• Inferential Statistics
• Random Sampling
• Descriptive Statistics
• Sample size

The t test has various thresholds/significance levels.

• True
• False

Use the data set to solve for the range. Data Set: 76 80 56 63 45 88 75 89 86 58

• 44
• 47
• 45
• 46

The alternative hypothesis for a chi square is __________________.

• H1 : Oi > Ei
• H1 : Oi < Ei
• H1 : Oi Ei
• All of the choices are correct

A 2 independent samples proportion test is also called a ____________________.

• Two sample t-test
• Paired sample t-test
• Independent samples t-test
• Two proportion z-test

Inferential Statistics infers or generalizes data from _______________ to the ____________________.

• Population, sample size
• Null, alternative
• Sample size, population
• Sampling, population

What is the median of the following numbers 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 13?

• 13
• 10
• 12
• 11

Measures of central tendency revolve around three areas namely the range, mean and median.

• True
• False

The null hypothesis means is stated as _____________.

• Question text

It is important to also report and know measures of dispersion because it ___________________ .

• Shows that each participant was selected through random sampling
• Identifies which factors should be studied
• One can opt to not report measures of dispersion
• Shows the variability or commonality of the data compared to the mean

A z-score is the same as the p value.

• True
• False

The hypothesis of a study must always be formed at the beginning of the research.

• True
• False

The t Test is characteristically used to compare ______________.

• 3 groups and the differences of their means
• The sample of a population
• 2 groups and the differences of their means

What is the mean of the given data?

• 66.5
• 67.5
• 64.5
• 65.5

The mode is a measure of dispersion.

• True
• False

The average or the mean is the midpoint of a data set.

• True
• False

If r2 = 0.43, it means that _________________.

• A strong positive linear relationship
• A weak negative linear relationship
• A weak positive linear relationship
• A strong negative linear relationship

The z score table _________________.

• Both choices are correct
• Has both positive and negative values
• For standard normal distributions

Qualitative variables are assigned names to certain objects or characteristics of a study.

• True
• False

A student for a score of 27 out of 30 in an exam. This means that the student answered 90% of the questions correctly.

• True
• False

The mean absolute deviation is also known as the ______________________.

• Population Mean
• Mean deviation from the mean
• Standard Deviation
• Variance

Significance levels in a research study normally fall in these values.

• 100%, 95%, 90%
• 99%, 95%, 90%
• 16%, 15%, 10%
• 20%, 60%, 80%

A one sample t test is ____________________.

• The variance of two compared means
• Compares two means to a population
• A test of the sample mean
• Is known as a matched pairs t test

The Chi Square Test of Homogeneity shows ____________________.

• If data comes from the population or not
• If 2 subsets belong to the same population
• If 2 variables are related to one another

What is the mode of the following numbers 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 13?

• 13
• 10
• 11
• 12

A variable is an identified characteristic in a research that the researcher wants to take a closer look at.

• True
• False

The degrees of freedom for a sample size of 501 is _________________.

• 549
• 449
• 499
• 500

The null hypothesis means ______________.

• There is a difference between the two sample groups
• There is no difference between the two sample groups
• When one variable increases, the other variable decreases
• Indicates the relationship that the researcher is trying to confirm or debunk

Out of 1040 students, 654 students passed the exam. What is the percentage of passing?

• 40%
• 62%
• 77%
• 64%

The alternative hypothesis means that there is no difference between two sample groups.

• True
• False

For the hypothesis the researcher randomly sampled 19 participants from the first group and 10 participants from the second group. What is the degrees of freedom?

• 9
• 18
• 27

Random sampling is getting qualified research respondents with each being chosen with the same probability.

• True
• False

This method of statistics is a direct interpretation of the obtained data.

• Sample size
• Random Sampling
• Inferential Statistics
• Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics on the other hand is a/an __________________ interpretation from the data gathered.

• Proven
• Hypothesized
• Direct
• Inferred

A research problem does not always need to have a null hypothesis because it is mostly rejected.

• True
• False

Which is not a Chi Square Test?

• Test of Independence
• Test of Homogeneity
• Goodness of Fit test

When comparing two populations, it is assumed that both have normal distributions.

• True
• False

In descriptive statistics, the main objective is to ____________.

• Predict behavior of population
• Describe data on hand
• Compute for central tendency

The strength of a correlation is determined by _________________.

• Coefficient of determination
• Coefficient of correlation
• Coefficient of variance

A percentage and proportion is related to each other such that __________.

• A percentage is 100 times the proportion
• A percentage is the difference of two proportions
• A percentage is the sum of proportions
• A ppercentage is a fraction of the population

What is the proportion equivalent proportion if a factory worker accomplishes 82% of his work?

• 0.82
• 0.0082
• 0.00082
• 0.082

ANOVA calculates for the __________________.

• t score
• F ratio
• Both the F ratio and T Score

Use the data set given to answer the following question. From the Z Table, p(z>a) = __________?

• 0.6591
• 0.6772
• 0.6554
• 0.6808

The probability of a Type 1 error is denoted by ________________.

• Alpha
• P value
• H0
• Beta

Descriptive statistics all except ________________.

• Range
• Variance
• Z Test
• Mean

The range is computed by _________.

• Largest value minus the smallest value.
• Absolute value of the smallest value minus the largest value.
• Question text

If the p value is lesser than 0.05, it means that _________.

• There is no difference between means
• Accept the null hypothesis
• Reject the null hypothesis

Comparing two populations mean that you can get data from any two sample sizes from any population.

• True
• False

A pooled variances test is used to know the variance of two groups that are assumed to be alike.

• True
• False

Hypothesis testing is done to _______________.

• Find the significance level of the test statistic
• Gather data that would confirm or debunk the research problem
• Define the problem the researcher is trying to solve
• Compute for the appropriate value

An identified representative group or subset of the whole is called a ______________.

• Sample
• Representation
• Size
• Population

Compute for the percentage and proportion for each. Type the answer on the space provided. 175 employees out of 1,078

• 16%

The Chi Square Test of Independence shows ____________________.

• If data comes from the population or not
• If 2 subsets belong to the same population
• If 2 variables are related to one another

Compute for the percentage and proportion. Type the answer on the space provided. 65 boxes out of 120

• 54%

The population is a representative group of the whole.

• True
• False

A researcher is studying the effect of mefenamic acid on headache disappearance in young female adults. Choose the correct hypothesis.

• H1: There is no effect of mefenamic acid on headache disappearance
• H0: There is an adverse effect of mefenamic acid on headache disappearance
• H0: There is no effect of mefenamic acid on headache disappearance
• H0: There is a significant effect of mefenamic acid on headache disappearance

The whole group of the study which the sample reflects is called the ________________.

• Sample
• Population
• Representation
• Size

Which scatter plot of Gender vs English Grade best represents the data above?

• Question 1
• Correct
• Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
• Not flaggedFlag question

The class for Statistics has a population of 35 students. The passing rate for the exam is at 50%. In the last exam, 23 students got 8 and above out of the total score of 15. All the rest got 6 and below. What is the percentage of the population that passed the exam?

• 65%
• 35%
• 50%
• 98%

A researcher is studying the effect of energy drinks on sports performance in young male adults. Choose the correct hypothesis.

• H1: There is no effect of energy drinks on sports performance
• H0: There is no effect of energy drinks on sports performance
• H0: There is a significant effect of energy drinks on sports performance
• H0: There is an adverse effect of energy drinks on sports performance

Descriptive statistics is important because it describes the data in a simpler interpretation of the data.

• True
• False

A p value of 0.07 has a stronger ability to debunk the null hypothesis than a p value of 0.03.

• True
• False

A t-test with two samples is most commonly used when there are small sample sizes used in the study.

• True
• False

Which of the following is false for an alternative hypothesis?

• Question text

Which line graph of Age and Gender best represents the data above?

• Question text

What is the mode of the given data?

• 65
• 55
• 67
• 87

When the researcher does not reject the null hypothesis when in fact it is false this is called a ________________.

• H0
• Type 2 error
• P value
• Type 1 error

When making use of the same subjects testing the before and after effects, we would need data to be___________________.

• Dependent
• Unrelated
• Independent
• Equal

If the Spearman coefficient is equal to 1, it means that ______________.

• The Pearson coefficient is positive but can be less than 1
• The Pearson coefficient is negative but can be less than 1
• The Pearson coefficient is positive but can be greater than 1
• The Pearson coefficient is negative but can be greater than 1

IINSTRUCTION: Customer service centers are being improved in the country. With this effort, a local firm recorded the number of minutes it takes for call center agents to resolve a complaint. Below is the data. Determine the mode.

• 14
• All of the given choices are correct
• 10
• 20

INSTRUCTION: Determine the median of the table below:

• 4.4
• 4.5
• 7.7
• 5.5

To test interaction effects, the researcher uses ___________________.

• ANOVA
• Two proportion z test
• Correlation
• Regression

Descriptive statistics are used to infer generalizations to the whole population.

• True
• False

When comparing two population means, the = sign always appears in the __________________.

• Null Hypothesis
• Alternative Hypothesis
• Both the Null and Alternative Hypotheses

In testing means of populations, which of the following data is required?

• Random sampling from 2 populations
• Z statistic
• Standard deviation is lesser than 15.
• P value

What symbol is used to represent Chi square?

• Y
• X2
• X

All are properties of a regression line except ____________________.

• b0 is equal to the y intercept of the line
• A standard deviation change in x is equal to r multiplied to one standard deviation change in y
• If R2 is equal to 0.45, it means that 45% is predictable
• The value of r is always related to the value of b where r would have the same sign as b.

A regression line may be plotted to show where predicted values may fall in a graph based on the independent variable. It is also called a _________________________.

• Positive relationship line
• Best line
• Best fitting line
• Prediction line

A regression analysis shows ____________________.

• Predictability
• The variance of two compared means
• Compares two means to a population
• A test of the sample mean

A matched pairs t test ________________.

• Compares 2 paired scores and its effects on the independent variable
• Looks for the relationship of the dependent and independent variables
• Compares scores of 2 independent samples
• Looks for the central value

Comparing 2 population proportions starts with having ________________ data that are taken from 2 separate unique groups.

• Ordinal
• Categorical
• Ranked
• Nominal

There are two types of statistical hypotheses normally crafted in research called the ______________.

• Negligible and Alternative Hypothesis
• Null and Altered Hypothesis
• Null and Changed Hypothesis
• Null and Alternative Hypothesis

A regression cannot predict the outcome of a study given the best fitting line.

• True
• False

When reporting results, it is enough to rely on measures of central tendency to accept the alternative hypothesis.

• True
• False

When making use of the same subjects testing the before and after effects, we would need to employ the ___________________.

• Regression Analysis
• Paired Samples t Test
• Two proportion z test
• Central Tendency Test

State the null hypothesis of the problem below. Two groups of honor students are being studied. The researcher is trying to determine if the method of memorization is effective in getting good grades versus a group who does hands on practice.

• H1: The number of honor students who will get high grades using memorization is higher than the hands on approach.
• H0: The number of honor students who will get high grades using memorization and hands on approach have no difference.
• H0: The number of honor students who will get high grades using memorization is higher than the hands on approach.
• H1: The number of honor students who will get high grades using memorization and hands on approach have no difference.

The mean of the sample or population is highly dependent on N.

• True
• False

What is the mode for the given data?

• 57
• 45.22
• 45
• 64

Use the data set given below to answer the question. Data Set: 1111 Standard Deviation: 209 Mean: 1026 p(Z > a) = 1 - p(Z < a) equals ____________

• 0.3192
• 0.3228
• 0.3409
• 0.3446

A student who got a score of 9 out of 10 in a test is an example of inferential statistics.

• True
• False

R squared is a measure of __________________.

• Correlation of X and Y
• Total Sum of squares
• Variance in Y
• Variance of squares

Significance levels of a research are always at a 90%, 95% and 99% level.

• Significance levels of a research are always at a 90%, 95% and 99% level.
• Select one:
• True
• False

A negative one tailed graph would have the two ends of the normal curve graph shaded.

• A negative one tailed graph would have the two ends of the normal curve graph shaded.
• Select one:
• True
• False

Studying the before and after effects is also known as ____________________.

• Matched pairs t test
• A paired sample t test
• A paired sample t test and matched pairs t test

Numbers represent quantitative variables always.

• True
• False

A group of researchers tested the before and after effects of television on a group of 25 children. To test the hypothesis we use the data _______________.

• T distribution with 25 degrees of freedom
• Z distribution
• T distribution with 24 degrees of freedom
• Standard deviation of less than 10

The degrees of freedom for a sample size of 50 for the first group and 49 for the second group is _________________.

• 50
• 49
• 97
• 99

Independent t test is used when there are different subjects in the study.

• True
• False

INSTRUCTION: Determine the mode from the table below:

• 2
• 3
• 4
• 10

A dependent means t test is also known as ____________________.

• Uses different samples in the t test
• A paired sample t test and a matched pairs t test
• A paired sample t test
• Matched pairs t test

When doing random sampling, it means that one person may be selected twice in a study.

• True
• False

The mode is the number that is most frequently seen in a data set.

• True
• False

Use the data set given below to solve for the Variance. Data Set: 76 80 56 63 45 88 75 89 86 58

• 211.4
• 205.4
• 210.4
• 209.4

In a research problem, there are always two kids of hypothesis - the null hypothesis and the altered hypothesis.

• In a research problem, there are always two kids of hypothesis - the null hypothesis and the altered hypothesis.
• Select one:
• True
• False

In ANOVA, treatment is another word for ________________.

• Different levels of a factor
• Factor
• Experimental changes