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The necessary skills to conduct relevant research in the field of accounting, enabling them to contribute to the advancement of accounting knowledge.
Systematic organizationrefers to proper and accurate tabulation of data as well as presenting them instatistical tables ready for interpretation.
a. Directiveresearch determines what should be done based on the findings. This is toremedy an unsatisfactory condition if there is any.
Inaccurate observation, this is describing wrongly what is actuallyobserved.
The questionnaire can be used with those who cannot read nor write well, especially those who are totally illiterate.
As much as possible, place all spaces for replies at the right side of the questionnaire for easy tabulation. The spaces should be in straight horizontal column.
Hypotheses help the researcher in designing hisstudy: what methods, research instruments, sampling design, and statisticaltreatments to be use, what data to be gather, and etc.
Hypotheses are formulated from the specificquestions upon which they are based.
Chi-square, analysis ofvariance, correlation are examples of inferential statistics that used to test hypothesis.
Objectivity means that thereshould be no bias or partiality in treating the results of the inquiry. Theresults should not be tampered with, whatever they may be.
Generally, there should be a general statement of the problem and thenthis should be broken up into as many sub problems or specific questions as necessary.
Statistical measures are thebases for making inferences, interpretation, conclusions or generalization.
The only sources of related literature and studies are Books, Encyclopedias, and Almanacs.
Semistandardized interview is a type of interview wherein the interviewer is required to ask a number of specific major questions, and beyond these he is free to probe as he chooses
is also called depth interview. This is similar to the non standardized interview in which no required questions should be asked by the interviewer.
Foreign data or extraneous to the study or topic should not be gathered by the instrument.
These data refer to the manipulative skills of the individual and his activities that involve his five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch.
These are recollections, observations, and perceptions of respondents about themselves and of other people
A conceptual framework is the researcher’s idea or expectation of what asituation should be but he is proving his idea or expectation to be true.
is a this type of interview wherein the interviewee or subject is not allowed andeven encouraged to express his feelings without fear of disapproval.
is a type of interview wherein the interviewer has complete freedom to develop each interview in the most appropriate manner for each situation.
Hypotheses are usually stated in the null form because testing a nullhypothesis is easier than a hypothesis in the operational form
The interviewer cannot affect amodification of the interview or any question if there is a need so that thedesired information can be gathered.
It is customary to state a specific sub problems not in the interrogative form.
Sometimes, selected respondents are hard to contact or cannot be contactedat all because of the distance of their place or due to some other reasons.
The fourth principle refers to the setting up of standards or principleswhich serves as bases for evaluating the findings of a study.
Quantitative research,this is research in which the use of quantity or statistic is practically nil.
Clerical tools are used when the researcher studies people and gathersdata on the feelings, emotions, attitudes and judgment of the subjects
These are the respondent’s ideas and thoughts about the research topic,and his personal feelings about the worth of the item being investigated.
This is also called the open form,open-ended, subjective, unrestricted, essay, and unguided response type. The respondent answers the question in his own words and in his own way.
The interview can be used with all kinds of people, whether literate or illiterate, rich or poor, laborer or capitalist, etc.
The responses may be inaccurate if the interviewee has no time to consult hid records especially if the needed data involve numerals
A survey or review of related literature and studies is very important because such reviewed literature and studies serve as a foundation of the proposed study.
These data include the respondent’s idea or opinion about, or his actual behavior, in a given situation.
The aim or purpose of the problem for investigation is to answers the question "What'?
is a type of interview wherein the interviewer are not allowed to changethe specific wordings of the questions in the interview schedule.
The sources of related literature and studiesare located in the following places: Libraries, either government, school, orprivate libraries, Government and private offices, The National Library, The Library of the Department of Education.
The title is formulated before the start ofthe research. It may be revised by the researcher later if there is a need torevise.
You cannot assume that your population is typical. This point is to be made under Results and Discussions..
Dry run is the process of measuring theeffectiveness, validity, and reliability of the questionnaire, and determiningthe clarity of the items, the difficulty of answering the questions.
The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible. This is important because of the rapid social, economic, scientific, and technological changes.
In decelopmental research, all possible courses of action are specified and identified and the researcher tries to find the most advantageous.
One of the characteristics of good research is that, it is systematic.It follows the scientific method of research which includes the followingsequential steps.
The equipmentand instruments for research should always available and can give valid reliable results.
Variables are those things that vary in quantity and quality which areto be manipulated by the researcher.
Related studies, on the hand, are studies, inquiries, or investigationsalready conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has somebearing or similarity
This is very important data especially in psychology and in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences.
This is also called the closed form or restricted type. The respondent is guided in making his reply.
A respondent may leave some or many questions unanswered because nobodyurges him to do so or he may not understand the significance of the informationhe gives.
If a respondent gives wrong information, it can still be corrected.
If there is no assumption, expressed or implicit, there can be specific question.
An instrument is valid if it collects data which are intended for it to collect and long enough to be able to collect adequate information to completethe study or investigation.
If the title contains more than one line, it must be written all words in small letters.
Statistical method helps the researcher in making his research design,particularly in experimental research.
You cannot assume the value of your study.Such as argument should have been made under the section, significance of thestudy.
Research is a process of gathering data or information to solve a particular orspecific problem in a scientific manner.
A list of planned written questions related to a particular topic, with space provided for indicating the response to each question, intended for submission to a number of persons for reply; commonly used in normative survey studies and in the measurement of attitudes and opinion.
The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself.This is to avoid blaming others or offering excuses for any obstacleencountered
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