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Delves into various research methodologies and statistical analyses used in psychological research, providing students with hands-on experience in conducting.

It allows researchers to make the causal inference that the independent variable caused the observed changes in the dependent variable.

- experimental elimination
- experimental co-variation
- experimental variables
**experimental control**

It is a statistic that represents the ratio of between-group variation to within-group variation in the data.

- Multiple analysis of variance
- Analysis of variance
- Independent t-test
**F-test**

This central tendency simply indicates the score in the frequency distribution that occurs most often.

- Standard Deviation
- Mean
- Median
**Mode**

Identify the three factors that determine the power of a statistical test.

- pobability
- size of the treatment effect
- null hypothesis testing
- sample size
**level of statistical significance**- statistical treatment

These are the major descriptive techniques for correlational data.

- inferential statistics
- scatter plot
- Pearson correlation coefficient
**correlation coefficient**

Your presentation must have a vague structure

- True
**False**

It presents that as the value of one measure increases, the value of the other measure decreases.

- positive correlation
- zero correlation
**negative correlation**- correlation coefficient

It relies on direct observation and experimentation for answering questions, was critical for developing the science of psychology.

**Empirical Approach**- Skeptical Attitude
- Subjective Approach
- Social and Cultural Context

What are the methods of observation with intervention.

- field experiment
- sampling behavior
- naturalistic observation
- participant observation
- direct observation
**structured observation**- indirect observation

It exists when evidence falsely indicates that two or more variables are associated.

- selective survival
- selective deposit
- archival records
**spurious relationships**

What are the goals of scientific method?

- prediction
- observation
- explanation
- elimination
- description
**application**- conceptualization

The appropriate inferential test when comparing two means obtained from the same subjects is a repeated measures f-test.

- True
**False**

Identify the ways/tips that must be considered to writing an effective research report.

- Be concise
- Use complicated and intellectual words
- Write clearly
- Follow grammatical rules
- Plagiarize other research reports
- Identify your purpose
- Be precise
- Be innovative in creating your own format
- Write fairly
- Be creative
- Know your Audience
**Write an interesting report**

It is chosen from the sampling frame, or set of all members of the same interest.

- random sampling
- population
**sample**- representative

It allows researchers to gain more control over how the survey is administered.

**Personal Interviews**

Identify the four research situations using ANOVA to test the null hypothesis.

- two-factor analysis for mixed designs
- single-factor analysis for repeated measures designs
- two-factor analysis for dependent groups designs
- two-factor analysis for independent groups designs
**single-factor analysis of independent groups designs**- multiple-factor analysis for mixed designs
- single-factor analysis of dependent groups

It refers to the rights of individuals to decide how information about them is to be communicated to others.

**Privacy**- Confidentiality
- Free will
- Consent

The title must not only be informative, but it should also be brief.

**True**- False

It asks the question “Is it worth it?”

- determining risk
- minimal risk
**risk/benefit ratio**- dealing with risk

This is the Greek letter that represents mean.

- σ
- ρ
**μ**- α

Long introductions are important in research presentation.

- True
**False**

It should be numbered consecutively in the text and placed on a separate page following the References section.

**Footnotes**

It is a process of “re-expression”

**transforming data**- exploratory stage
- analysis and interpretation
- confirming process

It balances subject characteristics and potential confoundings that occur during the time in which the experiment is conducted, and it creates groups of equal size.

- internal validity
**block randomization**- random assignment
- random sampling

It is a concise one-paragraph summary of the content and purpose of the research report.

**Abstract**

It is the assumption that the independent variable has had no effect.

**null hypothesis**- alternative hypothesis
- type I error
- type II error

This central tendency is defined as the middle point in the frequency distribution.

- Mean
- Standard Deviation
- Mode
**Median**

It is important to give the audience/panel a copy of your work or atleast a handout for reference.

**True**- False

When delivering your presentation before a “real” audience, be sure to leave time for questions.

**True**- False

It describes the relationship between the two sets of scores.

- correlation coefficient
- p-value
- null hypothesis
**scatter plot**

It is easier to start the research report with the abstract.

- True
**False**

It is the probability we elect to use to indicate an outcome is statistically significant.

**level of significance**- probability
- null hypothesis
- hypothesis testing

It describe the characteristics of people who are surveyed.

- Transcribed Interview
- Self-report
**Demographic Variables**- Respondent's Profile

It answers the questions you raised in your Introduction.

**Results**

It involves dimensions for which there is an agreed-upon standard and an instrument for doing the measuring.

- Psychological Measurement
**Physical Measurement**- Research Instrument
- Questionnaire

It may be calculated for a single population mean or population mean difference.

- central tendency
- covariance
- coefficient
**confidence interval**

It allows researchers to describe the characteristics of a population or the differences between two or more populations.

- Longitudinal Design
**Cross-sectional Design**- Successive Independent Samples Design
- Survey Research Design

It is an efficient, low-cost method for obtaining survey responses from large, potentially diverse and underrepresented samples.

**Internet Surveys**

It tells us how likely we are to “see” an effect that is there and is an estimate of the study’s replicability.

- significance
- strength
**power**- error

It is an abstract concept that refers to the ways in which questions are asked and the logic and methods used to gain answers.

- Psychological Research
- Contexts of Science
- Data Collection Method
**Scientific Method**

It draws out the implications of your research, emphasizes particular results that support your hypothesis and comment critically on any results that do not support it.

**Discussion**

A good oral presentation provides a succinct overview of the problem, the methodology, major results, and conclusions.

**True**- False

You may read your presentation all through out the oral defense.

- True
**False**

Reporting of psychological findings should be done in a manner that gives appropriate credit to the individuals who contributed to the project.

**True**- False

It informs participants about the nature of the research and their role in the study and educates them about the research process.

- Rapport
- Briefing
**Debriefing**- Informed Consent

When using PowerPoint, make sure that you are in control and will not experience any technical (computer) problems during your presentation.

**True**- False

Once you are satisfied with your written presentation, the next step is to rehearse it aloud to yourself so that you become familiar with what you will be saying and can stay within your time limit.

**True**- False

It is a good sense to send your paper and hand-out to yourself by email for preventive measures.

**True**- False

It indicates that, as the values for one measure increase, the values for the other measure also increase.

- zero correlation
- negative correlation
- correlation coefficient
**positive correlation**

It is a quantitative index of the direction and magnitude of a predictive relationship.

- correlational research
**correlation coefficient**- coefficient
- correlational significance

Answer 1

**References**

It describes the number and nature of the participants that took part in your study, the particular materials, instrumentation, or apparatus that was used, as well as exactly how you carried out the study.

**Method**

It is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon. it is often stated in the form of a prediction together with an explanation for the predicted outcome.

- Scientific Method
**Hypothesis**- Research Problem
- Scientific Theory

What are the levels of quantitative measures?

- nominal
- interval
- rating
- ratio
- rank
- grade
**ordinal**

It may be used to create comparable groups when there are too few subjects available for random assignment to work effectively.

- random groups design
- natural groups design
- independent groups design
**matched groups design**

As a writer you should also strive to choose words and use constructions that acknowledge people fairly and without bias.

**True**- False

These are used frequently for brief surveys.

**Telephone Interviews**

If the outcome resulted to the rejection of the null hypothesis, it said to be statistically significant.

**True**- False

This is also called the "effect of magnitude".

**effect size**- Range
- Standard error of the mean
- Cohen's d

Report specific statistical outcomes of the study/research.

- True
**False**

It is determined by subtracting the lowest score in the distribution from the highest score.

- mode
- Cohen's d
- standard deviation
**range**

The raw data of your study (e.g., individual scores) should always be included in the Results section.

- True
**False**

Present a clear argument with a clear conclusion.

**True**- False

What are the three modes of summarizing data?

- verbally
- statistically
- numerically
- figuratively
- non-verbally
**pictorially**

Articulate clearly, and do not mumble during the research defense.

**True**- False

Because of limited time, you need to speak fast and do it in a quick pace.

- True
**False**

It introduces the problem being studied, summarizes briefly the relevant background literature related to the study and to describe the theoretical implications of the study, and describes the purpose, rationale, and design of the present study with a logical development of the predictions or hypotheses guiding the research

**Introduction**

It is a concept or idea; psychological examples of it include intelligence, depression, aggression, and memory.

- hypothesis
**construct**- reliability
- validity

It is one that may be summarized by a straight line.

- nonlinear relationship
- outliers
**linear trend**- scatter plot

It is an inferential statistics test used to determine whether an independent variable has had a statistically significant effect on a dependent variable.

- independent t-test
**Analysis of variance**- F-test
- Multiple Analysis of variance

It is a person’s explicitly expressed willingness to participate in a research project based on a clear understanding of the nature of the research, of the consequences for not participating, and of all factors that might be expected to influence that person’s willingness to participate.

- verbal consent
- confidential form
**informed consent**- personal interview

It involves studying behavior in different locations and under different circumstances and conditions.

- setting sampling
- time sampling
**situation sampling**- sampling behavior

In psychological research, it occurs when researchers withhold information or intentionally misinform participants about the research.

- manipulation
- withdrawal
- privacy
**deception**

It occurs when the procedures used to select a sample result in the over representation or under representation of some segment(s) of the population.

- subjectivity
- representativeness
**selection bias**- sample bias

Be defensive or aggressive in answering questions during the oral presentation

- True
**False**

These are remnants, fragments, and products of past behavior.

**physical traces**- archival records
- products
- evidences

It is intended for a published article, and can be on a separate manuscript page, and they appear at the end of the paper. It is also identified by letter.

**Appendices**

It is used to assess people’s thoughts, opinions, and feelings. It can be specific and limited in scope or more global in their goals.

- quantitative research
- qualitative research
- correlational research
**survey research**

It is a measurement that indicates consistency.

- Validity
**Reliability**- Construct
- Hypothesis

What are examples of random groups design?

- Holding Conditions Constant
- Deception
- Random Sampling
- Balancing
- Placebo Control
- Double-blind Experiment
**Manipulation**

These are used to distribute self-administered questionnaires that respondents fill out on their own.

**Mail Surveys**

It refers to researchers choosing time intervals for making observations either systematically or randomly.

**time sampling**- situation sampling
- sampling behavior
- random sampling

What are the three stages of data analysis?

- Gather data
- Confirm the data revealed
- Summarize the data
**Know the data**- Analyze the data
- Create a hypothesis

What are the classification of observational methods?

- indirect observation
- participant observation
**direct observation**- scientific observation
- structured observation

To protect participants from social risks, information they provide should not be anonymous.

- True
**False**

Power can also be defined as 1 minus the probability of a Type I error.

- True
**False**

In conducting a research defense, it is important to use the written style instead of the oral style.

- True
**False**

It indicates what the research is about, who did the research, where the research was done, a brief heading to indicate to readers what the article is about, and an author note.

**Title Page**

It is made under precisely defined conditions, in a systematic and objective manner, and with careful record keeping.

- scientific research
**scientific observation**- scientific theory
- scientific method

It uses human observer as a form of instrument.

- Questionnaire
**Psychological Measurement**- Physical Measurement
- Experiment

The time allowed for the presentation is usually no more than 10 to 15 minutes.

**True**- False

It refers to the “truthfulness” of a measure.

- construct
- reliability
- hypothesis
**validity**

It tells you approximately how far on the average a score are from the mean.

- range
- Cohen's d
**standard deviation**- mode

Identify three ways when reporting reports in comparing two means.

- commentary
- graphical presentation
- statistical analysis
- vocabulary study
- numerical analysis
**power analysis**

This organization formulated an Ethics Code that guide individual psychologists in making ethical decisions.

- American Psychosocial Association
- Association of American Psychologist
- America's Psychological Association
**American Psychological Association**

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