Ctrl + F is the shortcut in your browser or operating system that allows you to find words or questions quickly.
Ctrl + Tab to move to the next tab to the right and Ctrl + Shift + Tab to move to the next tab to the left.
On a phone or tablet, tap the menu icon in the upper-right corner of the window; Select "Find in Page" to search a question.Share Us
Sharing is Caring
It's the biggest motivation to help us to make the site better by sharing this to your friends or classmates.
A course that equips students with essential mathematical and statistical tools for data analysis, and problem-solving in various fields of study and research.
What is the purpose of a goodness-of-fit test?
Nominal comes from the Latin root ‘name’ meaning nomen.
An ANOVA test is a way to find out if survey or experiment results are significant
Non parametric assume that the data is normally distributed
The straight line equation y=b0 + b1x is an example of a linear relationship. This means that the changes in one variable are accompanied by the proportional linear changes in another variable. If you increase one variable by 1 and the other by 0.5, this is a linear change.
A bell shaped curve to a scatter graph would suggest what?
You cannot use a Pearson's correlation to understand whether there is an association between exam performance and time spent revising
Which of the following indicates the strongest relationship?
Methods of correlation and regression cannot be used in order to analyze the extent and the nature of relationships between different variables
The number of rows in which total variance in a one way ANOVA partitioned is..
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was designed just for linear relationships. Technically, if we get a low value, or a zero value, it does not mean that there is no relationship. It just means that there is no linear relationship.
Confidence interval estimation for a population standard deviation of a normal distribution from a sample standard deviation.
Valid for both non-Normally distributed data and Normally distributed data
It is a branch of science that deals with the collection, organization, analysis of data and drawing of inferences from the samples to the whole population.
Use this test instead of a one-way ANOVA to find out if two or more medians are different.
What is the median of the scores of the subject Science?
The central tendency of the ordinal scale is _______________________________.
It is the most frequently occurring variable in a distribution.
Conducting multiple t-tests increases the likelihood of which of the following?
It has have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories.
If correlation is found between two variables it means that when there is a systematic change in one variable, there is also a systematic change in the other
This test is used to test for differences between groups with ordinal dependent variables
A one way ANOVA will tell you that at least two groups were different from each other.
The _________________ must have sufficient size to warrant statistical analysis.
A researcher finds a correlation of .40 between personal income and the number of years of college completed. Based upon this finding he can conclude that…
It can perform well with skewed and non-normal distributions.
The intent is to determine whether there is enough evidence to "reject" a conjecture or hypothesis about the process. The conjecture is called the ______________________
Parametric test is mainly based on differences in medians
This sampling method is usually employed in studies that are not interested in the parameters of the entire population.
The degrees of freedom for k columns of size n will be..
It is a software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and geo referenced data.
If there is correlation found, depending upon the numerical values measured, this can be either positive or negative.
In this level of measurement, the numbers in the variable are used only to classify the data.
Classify the level of measurement it belongs: Birth Order
It assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other
The population is not confined to people only, but it may also include animals, events, objects, buildings, etc.
Non Parametric tests can provide trustworthy results when the groups have different amounts of variability
In this level of measurement, the observations, in addition to having equal intervals, can have a value of zero as well.
A Student's t-test will tell you if there is a significant variation between groups.
Analysis of variance is a statistical method of comparing the ________ of several populations.
Achievement is classified under what level of measurement?
What is the null hypothesis in chi-square test?
What does the figure shows?
The company you are working for wants to improve sales. Past sales data indicate that the average sale was P100 per transaction. After training, recent sales data (taken from a sample of 25 salesmen) indicates an average sale of P130, with a standard deviation of P15. Did the training work? Use alpha level at 5%.
It is defined as "the statistical measure that identifies a single value as representative of an entire distribution."
By which other name is the chi-square goodness of fit test known?
All measurements contain some uncertainty and error, and statistical methods help us quantify and characterize this uncertainty.
The characteristic of population based on all units is called parameter while the measure of sample observation is called statistic.
In one-way ANOVA, which of the following is used within the F-ratio as a measurement of the variance of individual observations?
If the sample data are consistent with the null hypothesis, then we do not reject it.
It is calculated by changing lagged data with the formula for the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient.
If you are using interval or ratio scales you use _________________________________.
In ordinal measurement the numerical values just "name" the attribute uniquely.
It varies according to changes in other variables.
What type of relationships does a Pearson's product-moment assess?
The t-test family is not based on the t-distribution, because the difference of mean score for two multivariate normal variables approximates the t-distribution.
In this method, the population is first divided into subgroups (or strata) who all share a similar characteristic.
Which is not a level of measurement in Statistics?
The null hypothesis of the Chi-Square test is that no relationship exists on the categorical variables in the population
What does a Pearson's product-moment allow you to identify?
In ratio scale, variables can be systematically added, subtracted, multiplied and divided.
If correlation is found between two variables it means that when there is _____________ change in one variable, there is systematic change in the other
Parametric statistical procedures are less powerful because they use less information in their calculation.
It gives an indication of how close an individual observation clusters about the mean value
Parametric tests usually have more statistical power than their non-parametric equivalents.
The greater the value of the F ratio,
Individuals are selected at regular intervals from the sampling frame.
It is the measurement of correlation and ranges (depending on the correlation) between +1 and -1. +1 indicates the strongest positive correlation possible, and -1 indicates the strongest negative correlation possible.
Descriptive statistics help us to simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way.
What is the reason why it is not necessary to create a scatter chart?
Measures of central tendency are ways of describing the central position of a frequency distribution for a group of data.
Depending on the statistical test you have chosen, you will calculate a probability of observing your sample results (or more extreme) given that the null hypothesis is true.
As the number of observations increases the t-distribution gets to look more like the standard normal distribution.
It is the event expected to change when the independent variable is manipulated
After we use the original data to calculate the difference scores for a paired t-test, we no longer need the original data for the paired t-test calculations.
A nice thing about the correlated groups design is that it can still be done even if there are an uneven number of observations in the groups.
It is a characteristic that varies from one individual member of population to another individual.
A t-test compares means, while the ANOVA compares variances between populations. You could technically perform a series of t-tests on your data
Descriptive statistics therefore enables us to present the data in a more meaningful way, which allows simpler interpretation of the data
It has an absolute zero.
A correlation coefficient that is applied to ranked variables was introduced by Spearman, whilst Pearson and Fisher introduced independently correlation coefficients that measure the strength of the relationship between non-ranked variables.
Example of this are number of episodes of respiratory arrests or the number of re-intubations in an intensive care unit.
Which of the following is an assumption of one-way ANOVA comparing samples from three or more experimental treatments?
The F ratio is typically used to test differences between
The statistics are presented in a indefinite form so they also help in condensing the data into important figures.
It is the variable whose change isn’t affected by any other variable in the experiment.
Independent and dependent variables always go on the same places in a graph.
Which of the following would most likely cause the confidence interval to become smaller?
Statistics is only the science of uncertainty and not the technology of extracting information from data.
It is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.
It is the process of taking a subset of subjects that is representative of the entire population.
A potential source of confusion in working out what statistics to use in analysing data is whether your data allows for parametric or non-parametric statistics.
You carried out an ANOVA on a preliminary sample of data. You then collected additional data from the same groups; the difference being that the sample sizes for each group were increased by a factor of 10, and the within-group variability has decreased substantially. Which of the following statements is NOT correct.
The chi-square distribution (also called the chi-squared distribution) is a special case of the beta distribution
What is the mean of the scores of the subject Language?
Scientific research rarely leads to absolute certainty.
If we hold all other factors constant, then as the error term of a t-statistic becomes greater
Descriptive Statistics is the branch of statistics that involves organizing, displaying and describing data.
Identify what branch of statistics focus on the measures of central tendency and dispersion.
What is the conventional level of significance typically adopted in psychology?
The critical values for t will always be ______________ the critical values for z:
Homogeneity of variance is the assumption that:
The measures of central tendency are mean, median and mode.
By what alternative name is Pearson's Correlation Analysis also known?
What other solution can you do to compute for the average of the scores?
It is one of the measures of correlation which quantifies the strength as well as the direction of such relationship
Analyze the chart. What is your interpretation of the chart?
It is used to make predictions or comparisons about a larger group (a population) using information gathered about a small part of that population.
Sex or Gender is classified under what level of measurement?
Which of the following may have an adverse effect on a correlation coefficient?
The correlation coefficient is sensitive to outlying points therefore the correlation coefficient is resistant.
The significance of statistical figures can be seen best when validating solid arguments or predictions out of hypotheses or conjectures that may seem overwhelming to a layman.
This method is a non probability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.
The ________ sum of squares measures the variability of the sample treatment means around the overall mean
One-way ANOVA between groups is used when you want to test two groups to see if there's a difference between them.
What should Levene's test be in order to use the 'equal variance assumed' row of a t-test?
When the expected values (E) are obtained by multiplying row totals by column totals
On the negative side, findings of correlation does not indicate causations i.e. cause and effect relationships.
This industry use statistical approaches to estimate the number of depositors and their claims for a certain day
Parametric tests can provide trustworthy results with distributions that are skewed and nonnormal
If your measurement scale is nominal or
In a chi-square test, the "expected" counts are the values we expect if there is an association between the variables.
Comparison is one of the main functions of economics as the absolute figures convey a very less meaning.
Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from ____________________________.
Residual plot in regression analysis is used to mean plot of regressors
When the number of elements of the population is fixed and thus making it possible to enumerate it in totality.
The parametric test is the hypothesis test which provides generalizations for making statements about the ____________________ of the parent population.
The error deviations within the SSE statistic measure distances:
An independent t-test can be used to assess which of the following?
Mean may be influenced profoundly by the extreme variables called _____________________.
It is the average of all the elements of a set
It is commonly used for testing relationships between categorical variables.
These are measurements for which there is no natural numerical scale, but which consist of attributes, labels, or other non numerical characteristics.
The Jerome Light Bulb Company recently conducted a statistical test to determine whether the number of hours that light bulbs last is normally distributed with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 20. A sample of 300 light bulbs was divided into 8 groups to form a grouped data frequency distribution. The degrees of freedom for the test will be 299.
These are the two main branches of statistics
If the independent had more than two levels, then we would use a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
You want to know whether people in different regions of the country are equally likely to vote Democratic, Republican, Independent, or Libertarian in the next election. You would use a
Measures of spread are ways of summarizing a group of data by describing how spread out the scores are
Which among the set is bimodal?
Appropriate use of statistical methodology in data analysis means the data should be analyzed in a way that is both scientifically and statistically unreasonable.
This method is a nonprobability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.
It is a measurement where the difference between two values is meaningful.
Distributions cannot be displayed using percentages
Classify the level of measurement it belongs: Gender
Use this test instead of the sign test when you have two independent samples.
What is the shortcut for getting the standard deviation?
1: Use this test to estimate the median of a population and compare it to a reference value or target value
What is the value of the standard error of the mean?
If we hold all other factors constant, then as the error term of a t-statistic becomes greater,
What is the mode of the scores of the subject Social Science?
The degrees of freedom for a 2 x 2 cross-tabulation table for the chi-square test of independence equal
The randomly selected 100 students for a survey is called a population
Classify the level of measurement it belongs: Score in IQ Test
The main difference between the z and t-tests is that
It is a measure of where the "middle fifty" is in a data set
It is used to compare the mean of a population with a theoretical value.
It comes from the Latin nomen, meaning 'name' and nominal data are items which are differentiated by a simple naming system.
Data collection used for a population.
Numbers can be also used to order.
The two-way ANOVA compares the means between the groups you are interested in and determines whether any of those means are statistically significantly different from each other.
It is important to study statistics in order to formulate well-advance predictions.
How does the shape of the t-distribution change as the sample size increases?
The most complicated distribution would list every value of a variable and the number of persons who had each value
By default, all variables fall in one of the four scales.
Subgroups of the population are used as the sampling unit, rather than individuals
If most points depict a dispersed descending line this would suggest there would be a weak positive relationship
What is the median of the scores of the subject Language?
Use this test to estimate the median of a population and compare it to a reference value or target value
The t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other.
It is used when evaluating Tests of Independence under Chi-Square statistic .
Variance is a square of average distance between each quantity and mean.
It is the scientific study of earthquakes.
T-test can help you to figure out if you need to reject the null hypothesis or accept the alternate hypothesis.
If your results say that the p value is < 0.001 what can you conclude?
If your data isn’t normally distributed, you can’t run the Kruskal-Wallis test., but you can run the nonparametric alternative–the ANOVA
Which of the following findings is not a correlation?
We use statistics when the number of cases that can occur are really small.
Say you want to figure out which brand of microwave popcorn pops the most kernels so you can get the most value for your money. You test different brands of popcorn to see which bag pops the most popcorn kernels. Which among the choices is the independent variable?
The error sum of squares can be obtained from the equation in two way ANOVA
It is the test of association for ranked variables.
It is the difference between lowest and highest value.
It is a method of statistical evaluation used to study the strength of a relationship between two, numerically measured, continuous variables (e.g. height and weight).
These are important in statistics and are often used in the natural and social sciences to represent real-valued random variables whose distributions are not known.
Quota sampling has the advantage of being time-and cost-effective to perform whilst resulting in a range of responses (particularly useful in qualitative research).
Enter the following formula:
Every time you try to describe a large set of observations with a single indicator you run the risk of distorting the original data or losing important detail.
To use a t-test the dependent variable must have
Analysis should reflect the design, and so a matched design should be followed by a matched analysis.
When reporting a Pearson's product-moment in APA format, you would use x.
Significance testing is based on which of the following principles?
Variable that always goes on the x-axis, or the horizontal axis
It is a measure of the strength of a linear association between two variables and is denoted by r.
Enter the following fomula: B9: =average(B3:B7) B10: =count(B3:B7) What does this line does? average(B3:B7)
There is a subtype in ordinal scale with only two categories like one of the nominal scale and is known as dichotomous ordinal scale.
When the number of units in a population are uncountable, and so it is impossible to observe all the items of the universe
Which of the following is not a use for r?
Enter data in A3:B7 the color of 5nips and their total. What are the variables of the activity?
It is the most helpful for exploratory stages of studies such as a pilot survey.
Non-parametric tests are "distribution-free" and, as such, can be used for non-Normal variables
The formula of sample mean is
The Chi Square statistic compares the tallies or counts of categorical responses between two (or more) independent groups.
We use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study
Scientific data rarely lead to absolute conclusions.
This test is used to test for differences between groups with ordinal dependent variables.
A researcher can create a map to represent data relationships visually using this
The gamma distribution describes the square root of a variable distributed according to a chi-square distribution
This is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.
It involves the application of specific statistical techniques to disciplines in biology such as population genetics, epidemiology and public health.
The concept of measurement has been developed in conjunction with the concepts of numbers and units of measurement.
Visually represent the frequencies with which values of variables occur.
We use unplanned comparisons to determine
This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of two groups, and especially appropriate as the analysis for the posttest-only two-group randomized experimental design.
Parametric tests are those that make assumptions about the parameters of the population distribution from which the sample is drawn.
Parametric type of test.
Say youre interested in how rising sea temperatures impact algae life, so you design an experiment that measures the number of algae in a sample of water taken from a specific ocean site under varying temperatures. What is the independent variable?
The parametric test is the hypothesis test which provides generalizations for making statements about the mean of the parent population
Statistical variables do not contain numerical values but rather something __________________________.
Compute the frequency of all nominal variables using what formula?
Which of the following is an appropriate null hypothesis for this study?
It is used to investigate whether distributions of categorical variables differ from one another.
In this, the hypotheses are not about population parameters
The t distribution varies in shape based on:
Percentile is a way to represent position of a values in data set.
Statistics help predicts the future course of action of the phenomena.
When conducting a one-way ANOVA, the _______ the between-treatment variability is when compared to the within-treatment variability, the _______ the value of FDATA will be tend to be.
What name is given to data which can be ranked?
It is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a data sample (a population or a probability distribution).
Which of the following definition defines interval scale?
It is generally assumed that the ANOVA is an 'analysis of dependencies.'
It is often based on statements of statistical significance and probability.
It depends on physically measuring things.
It implies the correlation among the values of the same variables but at various times
What must data be in order for a Pearson's product-moment to be conducted?
A population can be small or large, as long as it includes all the data you are interested in.
A two way ANOVA is used to compare two means from two independent (unrelated) groups using the F-distribution.
Homoscedasticity can be checked using which type of graph?
It refers to the relationship among the values that are assigned to the attributes for a variable.
A low standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range of values.
With this test, you also estimate the population median and compare it to a reference/target value.
It refers to a family of continuous probability distributions described by the normal equation
It is a summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information, while descriptive statistics in the mass noun sense is the process of using and analyzing those statistics
What is commonly used for testing relationships between categorical variables?
One disadvantage of the mean is that a small number of extreme values can distort its value.
These are numerical measurements that arise from a natural numerical scale.
It is the measurement of average distance between each quantity and mean
The ______ sum of squares measures the variability of the observed values around their respective treatment means.
Nominal provides the least amount of detail, and ratio provide the most amount of detail.
This method of sampling is often used by market researchers.
It provides a mechanism for making quantitative decisions about a process or processes.
If the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient shows zero value, this definitely means that there is no relationship between the two variables
To test equality of means of more than 2 populations which of the following techniques is used?
Display the relationship between two quantitative or numeric variables by plotting one variable against the value of another variable
Why, in some cases, is a measure of association needed in addition to a p-value for a statistical test?
When the k population means are truly different from each other, it is likely that the average error deviation:
It involves the examination across cases of one variable at a time.
The number of rows in which total variance in a two way ANOVA partitioned is..
The null hypothesis for all chi-square tests asks whether the observed number of cases in a sample what we expect from knowledge of the population.
It is difficult to do flexible modelling with non-parametric tests, for example allowing for confounding factors using multiple regression.
Create a Scatter Chart of the data. Is it necessary to create a scatter chart?
The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution.
The most popular forms of Chi-Square used in business studies include Pearson product-moment correlation, Spearman Rank correlation and Autocorrelation.
It is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables
The time invested often requires determination of the appropriate methodology to apply in analysis corresponding to the hypothesis and design of the investigation.
It aims to describe various aspects of the data obtained in the study.
One use of chi-square distribution is Confidence interval estimation for a population standard deviation of a normal distribution from a sample standard deviation.
It means a subgroup of the members of population chosen for participation in the study
The main purpose of an ANOVA is to test if two or more groups differ from each other significantly in one or more characteristics.
Which is considered as qualitative data?
A set cannot have more than one mode.
If the true means of the k populations are equal, then MSTR/MSE should be:
This method of sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the assembled sample has the same proportions of individuals as the entire population with respect to known characteristics, traits or focused phenomenon.
Correlation analysis can study a wide range of variables and their interrelations.
It is the science of uncertainty.
Descriptive Statistics are used to present _______________ descriptions in a manageable form.
______________ correlation exists if one variable increases simultaneously with the other, i.e. the high numerical values of one variable relate to the high numerical values of the other.
A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean of the data set.
It is also a logical grouping of attributes.
Examples of ratio level data include distance and area (e.g., acreage).
If the sample means for each of k treatment groups were identical (yes, this is extremely unlikely), what would be the observed value of the ANOVA test statistic?
Conducting a single F test in one-way ANOVA protects us from Type II error.
You obtained a significant test statistic when comparing three treatments in a one-way ANOVA. In words, how would you interpret the alternative hypothesis HA?
What is the value of the perfect positive correlation
Enter the following data in you Microsoft Excel. What are the variables in this analysis?
Those that make assumptions about the parameters of the population distribution from which the sample is drawn
The value of statistics is strong because they can serve as predictions as well as probabilities in certain trends.
If you have parametric data, you can run a Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare means
It is the simplest form of analyzing data. "Uni" means "one", so in other words your data has only one variable.
The nominal scale forms the basis for such analyses as the Chi-Square because those analyses require that some category is compared to at least one other category.
It is referred to as such because it is a test to prove an assumed cause and effect relationships
The ANOVA structural model (X = + + ) maps sample scores in terms of populations, groups, and individual scores.
Construct a conclusion based on the scale below: What is the interpretation of our computation?
The non-parametric test is the hypothesis test which provides generalizations for making statements about the mean of the parent population.
It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known.
In this correlation the correlation coefficient is not robust due to the fact that strong linear relationships between the variables are not recognized
The _______, ___________ and ____________ are the three commonly used measures of central tendency
What is a statistical test which is widely used to compare the mean of two groups of samples. It is therefore to evaluate whether the means of the two sets of data are statistically significantly different from each other?
It is a nominal level variable that can take only two values (yes/no, male/female, Hungarian/non-Hungarian).
It is used to understand the nature of relationships between two individual variables.
What name is given to data which is made up of frequencies?
Why must you review the materials produced using statistics?
It is rare to find perfect correlation (+1 or -1).
If paired scores occupy the same positions within their own distributions (high with high and low with low)
Which is not a level of measurement?
The advantage of using probability sampling is the _______________ of the statistical methods after the experiment
Statisticians assume a cause effect relationship and say that one or more independent, controlled variables (the factors) cause the significant difference of one or more characteristics
What is the formula for Chi-Square Statistics?
It assesses whether an association exists between the two variables by comparing the observed pattern of responses in the cells to the pattern that would be expected if the variables were truly independent of each other
Correlation analysis as a research method offers a range of advantages
7. Now that we have got Excel to calculate the correlation coefficient we need to interpret it to understand its true meaning. The value is always between -1 and +1. What is the value of the perfect negative correlation
If I want to compare the performance of a particular group to an established, accepted average but information about the population standard deviation is not available. I should
What function is use to compute for the average in Excel?
What is a number or attribute computed for each member of a population or a sample?
Qualitative data are variables that cannot be ordered in a logical or natural way.
When the difference between two population averages is being investigated, a t test is used
What type of data do you need for a chi-square test?
Nominal is hardly measurement. It refers to quantity more than quality.
It is an accurate representation of the distribution of numerical data.
One of the reasons that a correlated-groups design is more powerful than an independent-samples design is that in the correlated-groups design
The independent variables are called as predicator variable because independent variables predict or forecast the values of the dependent variable in the model.
If you have categorical data, you'll want to run a non-parametric ANOVA (usually found under a different heading in the software, like "nonparametric tests").
Any difference among the population means in the analysis of variance will inflate the expected values of
Stratified sampling is used when we might reasonably expect the measurement of interest to vary between the different subgroups, and we want to ensure representation from all the subgroups
What assumption(s) must be met to conduct an independent-samples t-test?
Assuming that the null hypothesis being tested by ANOVA is false, the probability of obtaining a Fratio that exceeds the value reported in the F table as the 95th percentile is:
Which of the following would produce related data?
The null hypothesis in analysis of variance asks whether
Pocedure: By now, you should have completed your table. For excel shortcuts:
What is the alternative name for a repeated-measures t-test?
The advantage of using non probability sampling is the accuracy of the statistical methods after the experiment
It is a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information; that is, data identified according to location
Statistics provide a measure of proof that something is true.
The coefficient of determination and the R-squared (R2) are not the same
Measures of central location include the range, quartiles and the interquartile range, variance and standard deviation
It compares the means of two (and only two) groups when the variances are not equal.
The sum of squares due to the column factor for one way analysis of variance is given by
Variables can be defined in terms of measurable factors through a process of _______________________________.
What type of data is required for a Pearson's analysis which does not include a dichotomous variable?
The mean is sensitive to any change in value, unlike the median and mode, where a change to an extreme or uncommon value usually has no effect.
The null hypothesis for the chi-square goodness-of-fit test states that the distribution of
It arise out of the fact that sampling naturally incurs sampling error and thus a sample is not expected to perfectly represent the population
A repeated measures t-test can be used to assess which of the following?
As variability due to chance decreases, the value of F will
A skewed distribution is one reason to run a parametric test.
The chi-square test is used when we have ordinal data.
Non parametric tests are used when your data is normal
Analysis of Variance
As the number of observations increases, the t-distribution looks more like the standard normal distribution.
There are two key variables in every experiment: the dependent variable and the independent variable.
Which is not classified as Nominal?
You obtain a sample chi-square value of X2 = -5.49. On the basis of this value, you know that
The Chi Square statistic is commonly used for testing relationships between categorical variables.
Which of the following is a measure of degree of association?
Procedure Enter the following formula: D9: =sum(D3:D7) then B12: =D9/(B10-1) What are your expected outputs in this number?
In ANOVA, 2 and 2
What is the mode of the scores of the subject Mathematics?
There are four major characteristics of a single variable that we tend to look at
Which of the following is the correct formula for the chi-square goodness-of-fit test?
Which of the following definition defines nominal scale?
It does not only classify and order the measurements, but it also specifies that the distances between each interval on the scale are equivalent along the scale from low interval to high interval.
Which of the following would not allow you to calculate a correlation?
If the sample data are consistent with the null hypothesis, but consistent with the alternative, then we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the alternative hypothesis is true.
All else being equal, as the subjects in a study become more homogenous, the value of the test statistic increases.
The independent variables are called as predicated variable because independent variables predict or forecast the values of the dependent variable in the model.
It is a measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two variables measured on at least an interval scale.
Uses parametric scale
To determine whether the test statistic of ANOVA is statistically significant, it can be compared to a critical value. What two pieces of information are needed to determine the critical value?
It is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position within that set of data.
Display networks of relationships among variables, enabling researchers to identify the nature of relationships that would otherwise be too complex to conceptualize
It provides a visual representation of the data.
C3: = B3-$B$9 Copy the formula up to C7. What is purpose of the $?
With all inferential statistics, we assume the dependent variable fits a normal distribution
How many levels of measurements were discussed?
Every individual in the population have equal chance of being selected as a subject for the research.
It a characteristic or feature that varies, or changes within a study
Interval scales are exactly like ratio scales, except that they have a true zero point
According to the text, which of the following is not another name for the correlated-groups design?
What is the average of scores of the subject Mathematics?
It uses a random sample of data taken from a population to describe and make inferences about the population
You find a statistically significant ANOVA. In order to determine which groups are different, you must conduct
It is the study of how to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret numerical information from data.
The significance of statistical figures can be seen best when invalidating solid arguments or predictions out of hypotheses or conjectures that may seem overwhelming to a layman.
Stratified sampling improves the accuracy and representativeness of the results by reducing sampling bias.
The alternative hypothesis for the test is that the two means are equal.
The only difference between the z and single sample t-test are the size of the samples.
Measures of dispersion aim to provide an accurate description of the entire data
It is a method that allows researchers to infer information about a population based on results from a subset of the population, without having to investigate every individual
It is a variable that goes on the y-axis, or vertical axis.
ANOVA tests in statistics packages are run on parametric data.
It is the non-parametric alternative test to the independent sample t-test.
Age is under what level of measurements?
Which of the following statistics are important when interpreting an independent samples t-test?
Incorrectly rejecting a true null hypothesis is an example of what?
Snowball sampling can be effective when a sampling frame is easy to identify.
Parametric tests have no statistical power
Which is another term for dependent variable?
It gives the ability to quantify and differentiate between options.
Sampling is also done to waste time, money and effort while conducting the research.
What is the result of the calculation?
What is the average of scores of the subject Social Science?
Members of the population do not have equal chance of being selected.
Which is an example of interval scale?
Use when you want to find a correlation between two sets of data.
With descriptive statistics you are simply ________________ what is or what the data shows
The total area under the normal curve is equal to 2.
If the MSE of an ANOVA for six treatment groups is known, you can compute
The Chi-Square statistic is most commonly used to evaluate Tests of Independence when using a what?
If all points cluster in an ascending line this would suggest there would be a strong positive relationship
It is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.
It is the attempt to apply the conclusions that have been obtained from one experimental study to more general populations.
Descriptive Statistics can be used to highlight potential relationships between variables.
Which of the following assumptions of ANOVA can be discarded in case the sample size is large?
The assumptions of this test are that the data from each population is an independent random sample and the population distributions have the same shape.
Uses non parametric scale
Which is classified as Ratio?
The t-statistic rests on the underlying assumption that there is the normal distribution of variable and the mean in known or assumed to be known.
It is used to describe the basic features of the data in a study
A small confidence interval is bad because few values are contained within it.
Since a term including the standard error is added to and subtracted from the mean, if the standard error is smaller a smaller product will be added to and subtracted from the mean.
Variables are central to any analysis and they do not need to be understood well by the researcher.
It tries to describe the relationship between variables in a sample or population and provides a summary of data in the form of mean, median and mode.
T-tests and other significance tests are frequently criticized. Over-representation of statistical significance in research may result in
For an independent t-test, we assume that the populations of individual scores have the same variance.
It is is calculated by taking the ratio of the sample of the two variables to the product of the two standard deviations and illustrates the strength of linear relationships
It is a popular test; it is the test to use when conducting experiments
The more variables, the more complex the study and the more complex the statistical analysis.
Negative IQR is fine, if your data is in descending order
Which is not an importance of levels of measurements?
It is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data.
Descriptive statistics are very important because if we simply presented our raw data it would be hard to visualize what the data was showing, especially if there was a lot of it.
The goal is to apply the ______________ to a more general population, assuming the sample size is large enough and the sample representative enough of the broader public.
The only permissible aspect related to numbers in a nominal scale is “counting.”
The formula for the Chi-Square is a ratio.
Statisticians now believe that if the expected value (E) falls below 5-10 our chi-square test is not valid.
This particular type of analysis is useful when a researcher wants to establish if there are possible connectionsbetween variables.
It is any characteristics, number, or quantity that can be measured or counted
The value of statistics is strong because they cannot serve as predictions as well as probabilities in certain trends.
Although in an interval scale, since there is an absence of the absolute 0 and it works on the principal of an arbitrary 0, the division of variables is not possible.
Which among the data is a sample?
Compute the average of all variables using what formula?
Calculate the correlation coefficient using the CORREL function. What is the format of the CORREL function?
It is commonly used for analyzing experiment results, testing their significance and displaying the results accordingly.
Use this test to compare differences between two independent groups when dependent variables are either ordinal or continuous.
It is defined as the middle of a distribution in a ranked data
Negative correlation exists if one variable decreases when the other increases, i.e. the high numerical values of one variable relate to the low numerical values of the other.
It is used to measure the strength of a linear association between two variables, where the value r = 1 means a perfect positive correlation and the value r = -1 means a perfect negative correlation.
Descriptive Statistics simply summaries about the sample and the measures
We are rarely interested in a significance test alone; we would like to say something about the population from which the samples came, and this is best done with estimates of parameters and confidence intervals.
Statistics are powerful tools, but it's the analysis provided afterwards by inferential statistics that explicitly makes claims about what those results mean, why, and in what context
The degrees of freedom for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test are calculated as N-1.
These are often used to communicate research findings and to support hypotheses and give credibility to research methodology and conclusions.
There are commonly two types of ANOVA tests for univariate analysis - One-Way ANOVA and Two-Way ANOVA.
If data in two way classification id displayed in r rows and k columns, then the degrees of freedom for interaction will be…
In statistics and probability, quartiles are values that divide your data into quarters provided data is sorted in an ascending order.
To keep up this site, we need your assistance. A little gift will help us alot.Donate
- The more you give the more you receive.Related Subject
Discrete Structures 2
Basic Adult Education
Physics For Engineers
Mathematics in the Modern World
Calculus-Based Physics 2
Geographic Information Systems
Thesis Writing 2
Information Assurance and Security 2
Information Assurance and Security 3
Intrusion Detection System
System Analysis Design and Development
Strategic Business Analysis
Reading and Writing Skills
Real Estate Consulting and Investment Analysis
Research in Psychology 2
Introduction to Information Systems
Investment and Portfolio Management
Data Structures and Algorithms
Application Lifecycle Management
Modeling and Simulation
Algorithms and Complexity
Programming Logic and Design
Accounting Research Methods
Quality Assurance Testing
Unified Functional Testing
Introduction to Machine Learning
Signals Spectra and Signal Processing
Social Media Specialist
Inventory Production Control
Mobile Application Design and Development 2
Advanced Database Management Systems
Shopee 3D Floor
Lazada Smart TV Box