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A course that equips students with essential mathematical and statistical tools for data analysis, and problem-solving in various fields of study and research.

What is the purpose of a goodness-of-fit test?

- To assess whether there is a significant difference between a collection of categorical data
- To extract factors from the data
- To find relationships in the data
**To assesses whether the central tendency, variability and distribution of sample is different from that of the population**

Nominal comes from the Latin root ‘name’ meaning nomen.

- True
**False**

An ANOVA test is a way to find out if survey or experiment results are significant

**True**- False

Non parametric assume that the data is normally distributed

- True
**False**

The straight line equation y=b0 + b1x is an example of a linear relationship. This means that the changes in one variable are accompanied by the proportional linear changes in another variable. If you increase one variable by 1 and the other by 0.5, this is a linear change.

**True**- False

A bell shaped curve to a scatter graph would suggest what?

- There would be a non-linear relationship and a Pearson's product-moment should be used
- There is an outlier but a Pearson's product moment can still be used
- There would be a linear relationship and a Pearson's product-moment should be used
**There would be a non-linear relationship and a Pearson's product-moment should not be used**

You cannot use a Pearson's correlation to understand whether there is an association between exam performance and time spent revising

- True
**False**

Which of the following indicates the strongest relationship?

**r = - .6**- r = .5
- r = .09
- r2 = .2

Methods of correlation and regression cannot be used in order to analyze the extent and the nature of relationships between different variables

- True
**False**

The number of rows in which total variance in a one way ANOVA partitioned is..

- 3
- 0
**2**- 4

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was designed just for linear relationships. Technically, if we get a low value, or a zero value, it does not mean that there is no relationship. It just means that there is no linear relationship.

**True**- False

Confidence interval estimation for a population standard deviation of a normal distribution from a sample standard deviation.

- True
**False**

Valid for both non-Normally distributed data and Normally distributed data

- Inferential Statistics
- Descriptive Statistics
- Parametric Test
**Non Parametric Test**

It is a branch of science that deals with the collection, organization, analysis of data and drawing of inferences from the samples to the whole population.

- Quantum Physics
**Statistics**- General Relativity
- Probability

Use this test instead of a one-way ANOVA to find out if two or more medians are different.

- a. Mann-Whitney test
- b. Mood's Median test
- c. Spearman Rank Correlation
**d. Kruskal- Wallis test**

What is the median of the scores of the subject Science?

**a. 3**- b. 1
- c. 2
- d. 5

The central tendency of the ordinal scale is _______________________________.

**a. Median**- b. Range
- c. Mode
- d. Mean

It is the most frequently occurring variable in a distribution.

**a. Mode**- b. Range
- c. Mean
- d. Median

Conducting multiple t-tests increases the likelihood of which of the following?

- a. Type II error
- b. Establishing normality
- c. Homogeneity
**d. Type I error**

It has have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories.

- Ordinal
- Ratio
- nterval
**Nominal**

If correlation is found between two variables it means that when there is a systematic change in one variable, there is also a systematic change in the other

**True**- False

This test is used to test for differences between groups with ordinal dependent variables

- a. Goodman Kruska’s Gamma
**b. Friedman test**- c. 1-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test
- d. 1-sample sign test

A one way ANOVA will tell you that at least two groups were different from each other.

**True**- False

The _________________ must have sufficient size to warrant statistical analysis.

- a. Population Sampling
- b. Sampling
**c. Sample**- d. Population

A researcher finds a correlation of .40 between personal income and the number of years of college completed. Based upon this finding he can conclude that…

- more years of education causes higher income.
**more years of education are associated with higher income.**- a person who attended four years of college will have an annual income of $40,000.
- personal income is a positively skewed variable.

It can perform well with skewed and non-normal distributions.

- Non Parametric Test
- Descriptive Statistics
- Inferential Statistics
**Parametric Test**

The intent is to determine whether there is enough evidence to "reject" a conjecture or hypothesis about the process. The conjecture is called the ______________________

- a. Null
**b. H0**- c. Six
- d. Hypothesis

Parametric test is mainly based on differences in medians

- True
**False**

This sampling method is usually employed in studies that are not interested in the parameters of the entire population.

- a. Probability Sampling
**b. Non Probability Sampling**- c. Sampling
- d. Population Sampling

The degrees of freedom for k columns of size n will be..

- nk-1
**k-1**- k-n
- n-1

It is a software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and geo referenced data.

- Sociograms Programs
**GIS Program**- Scatter Plots Programs
- Histogram Programs

If there is correlation found, depending upon the numerical values measured, this can be either positive or negative.

**True**- False

In this level of measurement, the numbers in the variable are used only to classify the data.

- a. Interval
**b. Nominal**- c. Ordinal
- d. Ratio

Classify the level of measurement it belongs: Birth Order

- Proportion
**Ordinal**- Ratio
- Interval

It assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other

- One Way ANOVA
- Correlation Analysis
- Z-Test
**T-Test**

The population is not confined to people only, but it may also include animals, events, objects, buildings, etc.

**True**- False

Non Parametric tests can provide trustworthy results when the groups have different amounts of variability

- True
**False**

In this level of measurement, the observations, in addition to having equal intervals, can have a value of zero as well.

- a. Nominal
- b. Ordinal
**c. Ratio**- d. Interval

A Student's t-test will tell you if there is a significant variation between groups.

**True**- False

Analysis of variance is a statistical method of comparing the ________ of several populations.

- proportions
- standard deviations
- variances
**means**

Achievement is classified under what level of measurement?

- a. Ordinal
**b. Interval**- c. Ratio
- d. Nominal

What is the null hypothesis in chi-square test?

- The rows and columns are the same
- The rows and columns are not the same
- The rows and columns are associated
**The rows and columns are not associated**

What does the figure shows?

- Smaller Variance
- Bigger Standard Deviation
**Smaller Standard Deviation**- Bigger Variance

The company you are working for wants to improve sales. Past sales data indicate that the average sale was P100 per transaction. After training, recent sales data (taken from a sample of 25 salesmen) indicates an average sale of P130, with a standard deviation of P15. Did the training work? Use alpha level at 5%.

**a. 10**- b. 0.1
- c. 0.96
- d. -11

It is defined as "the statistical measure that identifies a single value as representative of an entire distribution."

**a. Central Tendency**- b. Measures of Location
- c. Measures of Dispersion
- d. Measures of Spread

By which other name is the chi-square goodness of fit test known?

- a. Directional chi-square
**b. One-sample chi-square**- c. Wilcoxon
- d. Two sample chi-square

All measurements contain some uncertainty and error, and statistical methods help us quantify and characterize this uncertainty.

**True**- False

The characteristic of population based on all units is called parameter while the measure of sample observation is called statistic.

**True**- False

In one-way ANOVA, which of the following is used within the F-ratio as a measurement of the variance of individual observations?

- MSE
- SSTR
- MSTR
**SSE**

If the sample data are consistent with the null hypothesis, then we do not reject it.

**True**- False

It is calculated by changing lagged data with the formula for the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient.

**Autocorrelation Coefficient**- Pearson's product-moment coefficient
- Correlation Analysis
- Spearman's Rank

If you are using interval or ratio scales you use _________________________________.

- a. Non Parametric Test
**b. Parametric Test**- c. Inferential Statistics
- d. Descriptive Statistics

In ordinal measurement the numerical values just "name" the attribute uniquely.

- True
**False**

It varies according to changes in other variables.

- Erroneous Variable
**Dependent Variable**- Continuous Variable
- Independent Variable

What type of relationships does a Pearson's product-moment assess?

**It can only assess a linear relationship**- It finds differences not relationships
- Curvilinear relationships
- Quadratic relationships

The t-test family is not based on the t-distribution, because the difference of mean score for two multivariate normal variables approximates the t-distribution.

- True
**False**

In this method, the population is first divided into subgroups (or strata) who all share a similar characteristic.

- a. Systematic Sampling
**b. Stratified Sampling**- c. Clustered Sampling
- d. Simple Random Sampling

Which is not a level of measurement in Statistics?

- a. Nominal
**b. Proportion**- c. Interval
- d. Ordinal

The null hypothesis of the Chi-Square test is that no relationship exists on the categorical variables in the population

**True**- False

What does a Pearson's product-moment allow you to identify?

- Whether there is goodness of fit for one categorical variable
- Whether there is a significant effect and interaction of independent variables
**Whether there is a relationship between variables**- Whether there is a significant difference between groups

In ratio scale, variables can be systematically added, subtracted, multiplied and divided.

**True**- False

If correlation is found between two variables it means that when there is _____________ change in one variable, there is systematic change in the other

- Discrete
**Systematic**- Unsystematic
- No

Parametric statistical procedures are less powerful because they use less information in their calculation.

- True
**False**

It gives an indication of how close an individual observation clusters about the mean value

**a. Variance**- b. Standard Deviation
- c. Percentile
- d. Range

Parametric tests usually have more statistical power than their non-parametric equivalents.

**True**- False

The greater the value of the F ratio,

- the larger the total variance.
**the less the sample distributions overlap.**- the more the sample distributions overlap.
- the smaller the total variance.

Individuals are selected at regular intervals from the sampling frame.

- Clustered Sampling
- Stratified Sampling
**Systematic Sampling**- Simple Random Sampling

It is the measurement of correlation and ranges (depending on the correlation) between +1 and -1. +1 indicates the strongest positive correlation possible, and -1 indicates the strongest negative correlation possible.

- Correlation Analysis
- Autocorrelation
**Pearson's product-moment coefficient**- Spearman's Rank

Descriptive statistics help us to simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way.

**True**- False

What is the reason why it is not necessary to create a scatter chart?

- It is needed for the second step.
**It is just for visualizing the data**- We cannot interpret the analysis without the chart
- It has no significance and is not related to the analysis

Measures of central tendency are ways of describing the central position of a frequency distribution for a group of data.

**True**- False

Depending on the statistical test you have chosen, you will calculate a probability of observing your sample results (or more extreme) given that the null hypothesis is true.

**True**- False

As the number of observations increases the t-distribution gets to look more like the standard normal distribution.

**True**- False

It is the event expected to change when the independent variable is manipulated

- a. Erroneous Variable
- b. Continuous Variable
**c. Dependent Variable**- d. Independent Variable

After we use the original data to calculate the difference scores for a paired t-test, we no longer need the original data for the paired t-test calculations.

**True**- False

A nice thing about the correlated groups design is that it can still be done even if there are an uneven number of observations in the groups.

- True
**False**

It is a characteristic that varies from one individual member of population to another individual.

- a. Parameter
- b. Measurement
- c. Data
**d. Variable**

A t-test compares means, while the ANOVA compares variances between populations. You could technically perform a series of t-tests on your data

**True**- False

Descriptive statistics therefore enables us to present the data in a more meaningful way, which allows simpler interpretation of the data

**True**- False

It has an absolute zero.

**Interval**- Ratio
- Nominal
- Ordinal

A correlation coefficient that is applied to ranked variables was introduced by Spearman, whilst Pearson and Fisher introduced independently correlation coefficients that measure the strength of the relationship between non-ranked variables.

**True**- False

Example of this are number of episodes of respiratory arrests or the number of re-intubations in an intensive care unit.

**a. Discrete Data**- b. Sample
- c. Population
- d. Continuous Data

Which of the following is an assumption of one-way ANOVA comparing samples from three or more experimental treatments?

**a. All of the mentioned**- b. All the response variables within the k populations follow a normal distributions.
- c. The samples associated with each population are randomly selected and are independent from all other samples
- d. The response variable within each of the k populations have equal variances.

The F ratio is typically used to test differences between

- two independent means.
- two dependent means.
- a sample and a population mean.
**three or more means.**

The statistics are presented in a indefinite form so they also help in condensing the data into important figures.

- True
**False**

It is the variable whose change isn’t affected by any other variable in the experiment.

- a. Constant Variable
- b. Erroneous Variable
- c. Dependent Varaible
**d. Independent Variable**

Independent and dependent variables always go on the same places in a graph.

**True**- False

Which of the following would most likely cause the confidence interval to become smaller?

- a. Increasing the mean
- b. Decreasing N
**c. Decreasing the standard error**- d. Increasing alpha

Statistics is only the science of uncertainty and not the technology of extracting information from data.

- True
**False**

It is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.

**Non Probability Sampling**- Probability Sampling
- Population Sampling
- Sampling

It is the process of taking a subset of subjects that is representative of the entire population.

- Population
- Sample
**Population Sampling**- Sampling

A potential source of confusion in working out what statistics to use in analysing data is whether your data allows for parametric or non-parametric statistics.

**True**- False

You carried out an ANOVA on a preliminary sample of data. You then collected additional data from the same groups; the difference being that the sample sizes for each group were increased by a factor of 10, and the within-group variability has decreased substantially. Which of the following statements is NOT correct.

- a. The degrees of freedom associated with the error term has increased
- b. FDATA has changed
- c. SSE has decreased
**d. The degrees of freedom associated with the treatment term has increased**

The chi-square distribution (also called the chi-squared distribution) is a special case of the beta distribution

- True
**False**

What is the mean of the scores of the subject Language?

- a. 2
**b. 3.07**- c. 1
- d. 5

Scientific research rarely leads to absolute certainty.

**True**- False

If we hold all other factors constant, then as the error term of a t-statistic becomes greater

- a. there is a greater likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis
- b. the between-groups variance becomes greater
- c. the probability of making a Type I error increases
**d. the probability of making a Type II error increases**

Descriptive Statistics is the branch of statistics that involves organizing, displaying and describing data.

**True**- False

Identify what branch of statistics focus on the measures of central tendency and dispersion.

- a. Inferential Statistics
- b. Non Parametric Statistics
- c. Parametric Statistics
**d. Descriptive Statistics**

What is the conventional level of significance typically adopted in psychology?

**P < 0.05**- P > 0.005
- P > 0.001

The critical values for t will always be ______________ the critical values for z:

**More than extreme**- More
- Less
- Less than extreme

Homogeneity of variance is the assumption that:

- the no populations have different variances
**the two populations have different variances**- the three populations have different variances
- the two populations have same variances

The measures of central tendency are mean, median and mode.

**True**- False

By what alternative name is Pearson's Correlation Analysis also known?

- Spearman's Correlation Analysis
**Pearson's Product-Moment**- Chi-Squared Product-Moment
- Kruskal-Wallis Correlational Analysis

What other solution can you do to compute for the average of the scores?

- a. =SUM()/30
- b. =SUM()
- c. = first number + last number / 30
**d. =SUM()/COUNT()**

It is one of the measures of correlation which quantifies the strength as well as the direction of such relationship

- Autocorrelation
**Pearson's product-moment correlation**- Correlation Analysis
- Spearman's Rank

Analyze the chart. What is your interpretation of the chart?

- As the price go down, the volume goes down
**As the price go up, the volume goes down**- As the price go up, the volume goes up
- No changes in both price and volume

It is used to make predictions or comparisons about a larger group (a population) using information gathered about a small part of that population.

- Scientific Method
- Differential Statistics
- Descriptive Statistics
**Inferential Statistics**

Sex or Gender is classified under what level of measurement?

**a. Nominal**- b. Interval
- c. Ordinal
- d. Ratio

Which of the following may have an adverse effect on a correlation coefficient?

- too many people in your experiment
- the scores on one variable have larger numbers than the other variable
**restricting the range of possible scores**- a negative relationship between your X and Y variables

The correlation coefficient is sensitive to outlying points therefore the correlation coefficient is resistant.

- True
**False**

The significance of statistical figures can be seen best when validating solid arguments or predictions out of hypotheses or conjectures that may seem overwhelming to a layman.

**True**- False

This method is a non probability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.

- Convenience Sampling
- Quota Sampling
**Snowball Sampling**- Purpose Sampling

The ________ sum of squares measures the variability of the sample treatment means around the overall mean

- a. error
**b. treatment**- c. total
- d. interaction

One-way ANOVA between groups is used when you want to test two groups to see if there's a difference between them.

- True
**False**

What should Levene's test be in order to use the 'equal variance assumed' row of a t-test?

- It should be significant (P > 0.05)
**It should be significant (P < 0.01)**- It should be significant (P < 0.001)
- It should be significant (P < 0.005)

When the expected values (E) are obtained by multiplying row totals by column totals

- not valid.
- a chi-square goodness-of-fit test.
- equivalent to a one-sample t test.
**a chi-square test of independence.**

On the negative side, findings of correlation does not indicate causations i.e. cause and effect relationships.

**True**- False

This industry use statistical approaches to estimate the number of depositors and their claims for a certain day

- a. Economics
- b. Mathematics
**c. Banking**- d. Medicine

Parametric tests can provide trustworthy results with distributions that are skewed and nonnormal

**True**- False

If your measurement scale is nominal or

- Inferential Statistics
- Descriptive Statistics
- Parametric Test
**Non Parametric Test**

In a chi-square test, the "expected" counts are the values we expect if there is an association between the variables.

- True
**False**

Comparison is one of the main functions of economics as the absolute figures convey a very less meaning.

- True
**False**

Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from ____________________________.

- Non Parametric Statistics
- Parametric Statistics
**Inferential Statistics**- Descriptive Statistics

Residual plot in regression analysis is used to mean plot of regressors

- True
**False**

When the number of elements of the population is fixed and thus making it possible to enumerate it in totality.

- Existent Population
**Finite Population**- Infinite Population
- Hypothetical Population

The parametric test is the hypothesis test which provides generalizations for making statements about the ____________________ of the parent population.

- a. Range
**b. Mean**- c. Mode
- d. Median

The error deviations within the SSE statistic measure distances:

- between groups
**within groups**- None of the mentioned
- between each value and the grand mean

An independent t-test can be used to assess which of the following?

- It assesses how many factors there are in questionnaire data
**It assesses differences between two groups of participants**- It assesses relationships between two ratio data sets
- It assesses relationships between two interval data sets

Mean may be influenced profoundly by the extreme variables called _____________________.

- a. Standard Deviation
- b. Variance
**c. Outliers**- d. Range

It is the average of all the elements of a set

- a. Median
**b. Mean**- c. Mode
- d. Range

It is commonly used for testing relationships between categorical variables.

- a. T-Test
- b. ANOVA
- c. Correlation Analysis
**d. Chi-Square**

These are measurements for which there is no natural numerical scale, but which consist of attributes, labels, or other non numerical characteristics.

**a. Qualitative Data**- b. Continuous Data
- c. Quantitative Data
- d. Discrete Data

The Jerome Light Bulb Company recently conducted a statistical test to determine whether the number of hours that light bulbs last is normally distributed with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 20. A sample of 300 light bulbs was divided into 8 groups to form a grouped data frequency distribution. The degrees of freedom for the test will be 299.

- True
**False**

These are the two main branches of statistics

- a. Population and Sample
**b. Descriptive and Inferential**- c. Qualitative and Quantitative
- d. Differential and Statistical

If the independent had more than two levels, then we would use a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

**True**- False

You want to know whether people in different regions of the country are equally likely to vote Democratic, Republican, Independent, or Libertarian in the next election. You would use a

- a. chi-square goodness-of-fit test.
**b. chi-square test of independence.**- c. either chi-square test, depending on how you set up the problem.
- d. both chi-square tests, in order to check the results of one with the other.

Measures of spread are ways of summarizing a group of data by describing how spread out the scores are

**True**- False

Which among the set is bimodal?

- a. {122, 221, 122, 223}
**b. {12, 22, 43, 22, 12}**- c. {55, 44, 33, 22, 11}
- d. {2, 2, 2, 3, 4,}

Appropriate use of statistical methodology in data analysis means the data should be analyzed in a way that is both scientifically and statistically unreasonable.

- True
**False**

This method is a nonprobability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.

**Snowball Sampling**- Quota Sampling
- Convenience Sampling
- Purpose Sampling

It is a measurement where the difference between two values is meaningful.

- Proportion
- Ordinal
**Interval**- Ratio

Distributions cannot be displayed using percentages

- True
**False**

Classify the level of measurement it belongs: Gender

- Ratio
**Nominal**- Interval
- Ordinal

Use this test instead of the sign test when you have two independent samples.

**Mood's Median test**- Mann-Whitney test
- Spearman Rank Correlation
- Kruskal-Wallis test

What is the shortcut for getting the standard deviation?

**a. =stdev(B3:B7)**- b. var(B7:B3)
- c. var(B3:B7)
- d. stdev(B3:B7)

1: Use this test to estimate the median of a population and compare it to a reference value or target value

**a. 1-sample sign test**- b. Friedman test
- c. 1-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test
- d. Goodman Kruska’s Gamma

What is the value of the standard error of the mean?

- 5
**.714**- .081
- .071

If we hold all other factors constant, then as the error term of a t-statistic becomes greater,

- there is a greater likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis.
- the probability of making a Type I error increases.
- the between-groups variance becomes greater.
**the probability of making a Type II error increases.**

What is the mode of the scores of the subject Social Science?

- a. 5
**b. 2**- c. 3
- d. 2.8

The degrees of freedom for a 2 x 2 cross-tabulation table for the chi-square test of independence equal

- a. 5
**b. 1**- c. 2
- d. 3

The randomly selected 100 students for a survey is called a population

- True
**False**

Classify the level of measurement it belongs: Score in IQ Test

**Interval**- Proportion
- Ordinal
- Ratio

The main difference between the z and t-tests is that

- a. for a t-test only the sample mean is needed
- b. The z and t-tests are identical except for the size of the sample used
**c. for a z-test the population mean and standard deviation are needed**- d. for a t-test, the population mean and standard deviation are needed

It is a measure of where the "middle fifty" is in a data set

- Range
- Percentile
**Interquartile Range**- Variance

It is used to compare the mean of a population with a theoretical value.

- None of the mentioned
- Unpaired Two Sample
**One-Sample**- Paired

It comes from the Latin nomen, meaning 'name' and nominal data are items which are differentiated by a simple naming system.

- Ratio
- Interval
**Nominal**- Ordinal

Data collection used for a population.

- Sampling
- None of the Choices
- Sample Survey
**Census**

Numbers can be also used to order.

**True**- False

The two-way ANOVA compares the means between the groups you are interested in and determines whether any of those means are statistically significantly different from each other.

- True
**False**

It is important to study statistics in order to formulate well-advance predictions.

**True**- False

How does the shape of the t-distribution change as the sample size increases?

- a. It becomes skewed.
- b. It becomes flatter.
- c. It becomes broader.
**d. It becomes more normal looking.**

The most complicated distribution would list every value of a variable and the number of persons who had each value

- True
**False**

By default, all variables fall in one of the four scales.

**True**- False

Subgroups of the population are used as the sampling unit, rather than individuals

**a. Clustered Sampling**- b. Systematic Sampling
- c. Stratified Sampling
- d. Simple Random Sampling

If most points depict a dispersed descending line this would suggest there would be a weak positive relationship

**True**- False

What is the median of the scores of the subject Language?

- a. 5
- b. 2
**c. 2.5**- d. 1

Use this test to estimate the median of a population and compare it to a reference value or target value

- a. 1-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test
**b. 1-sample sign test**- c. Friedman test
- d. Goodman Kruska's Gamma

The t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other.

**True**- False

It is used when evaluating Tests of Independence under Chi-Square statistic .

- a. Variate Table
**b. Crosstabulation**- c. Observation
- d. Tabulation

Variance is a square of average distance between each quantity and mean.

**True**- False

It is the scientific study of earthquakes.

- Geostatistics
- Astronomy
- Geology
**Seismology**

T-test can help you to figure out if you need to reject the null hypothesis or accept the alternate hypothesis.

- True
**False**

If your results say that the p value is < 0.001 what can you conclude?

- There was a significant result, this would have only arose 10/100 through chance
- There was not a significant result and the null hypothesis can be rejected
- There was a significant result and this would never have happened through chance
**There was a significant result and this would have only arose 1/100 through chance**

If your data isn’t normally distributed, you can’t run the Kruskal-Wallis test., but you can run the nonparametric alternative–the ANOVA

- True
**False**

Which of the following findings is not a correlation?

**Women scored higher than men on narcissism**- As download prices increase sales will decrease
- As time spent revising increase the number of fails will decrease
- As testosterone increases so too does verbal aggression

We use statistics when the number of cases that can occur are really small.

- True
**False**

Say you want to figure out which brand of microwave popcorn pops the most kernels so you can get the most value for your money. You test different brands of popcorn to see which bag pops the most popcorn kernels. Which among the choices is the independent variable?

- Taste of popcorn
- Number of kernels popped
**Brand of popcorn bags**- Value of money

The error sum of squares can be obtained from the equation in two way ANOVA

**SSE = SST – SSR - SSC**- SST = SST + SSR - SSE
- SSE = SST + SSR + SSC
- SSE = SST + SSR - SSC

It is the test of association for ranked variables.

**a. Goodman Kruska's Gamma**- b. 1-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test
- c. Friedman test
- d. 1-sample sign test

It is the difference between lowest and highest value.

- a. Standard Deviation
- b. Percentile
**c. Range**- d. Variance

It is a method of statistical evaluation used to study the strength of a relationship between two, numerically measured, continuous variables (e.g. height and weight).

- Chi-Square
**Correlation Analysis**- ANOVA
- T-Test

These are important in statistics and are often used in the natural and social sciences to represent real-valued random variables whose distributions are not known.

- Normal
- Distribution
- Normal Equation
**Normal Distribution**

Quota sampling has the advantage of being time-and cost-effective to perform whilst resulting in a range of responses (particularly useful in qualitative research).

- True
**False**

Enter the following formula:

- a. Variance
- b. Median
- c. Mean
**d. Standard Deviation**

Every time you try to describe a large set of observations with a single indicator you run the risk of distorting the original data or losing important detail.

**True**- False

To use a t-test the dependent variable must have

**Interval or Ratio Data**- Nominal or Ordinal Data
- Nominal or Interval Data
- Ordinal or Ratio Data

Analysis should reflect the design, and so a matched design should be followed by a matched analysis.

**True**- False

When reporting a Pearson's product-moment in APA format, you would use x.

- True
**False**

Significance testing is based on which of the following principles?

- Idealism
- Evaluation
**Falsification**- Construction

Variable that always goes on the x-axis, or the horizontal axis

**a. Independent Variable**- b. Continuous Variable
- c. Erroneous Variable
- d. Dependent Variable

It is a measure of the strength of a linear association between two variables and is denoted by r.

- Correlation Analysis
- Spearman's Rank
- Autocorrelation
**Pearson's product-moment coefficient**

Enter the following fomula: B9: =average(B3:B7) B10: =count(B3:B7) What does this line does? average(B3:B7)

- a. Display the highest score in the set
- b. Display the number of all scores
**c. Get the mean of the scores**- d. Compute for the total of the scores

There is a subtype in ordinal scale with only two categories like one of the nominal scale and is known as dichotomous ordinal scale.

- True
**False**

When the number of units in a population are uncountable, and so it is impossible to observe all the items of the universe

- a. Hypothetical
- b. Existent
**c. Infinite**- d. Finite

Which of the following is not a use for r?

- reliability
- correlation
**power analysis**- validity

Enter data in A3:B7 the color of 5nips and their total. What are the variables of the activity?

- a. Color
**b. Color and Number of M&Ms/Nips**- c. Number of M&Ms/Nips
- d. Nips

It is the most helpful for exploratory stages of studies such as a pilot survey.

**Non Probability Sampling**- Probability Sampling
- Sampling
- Population Sampling

Non-parametric tests are "distribution-free" and, as such, can be used for non-Normal variables

**True**- False

The formula of sample mean is

- True
**False**

The Chi Square statistic compares the tallies or counts of categorical responses between two (or more) independent groups.

**True**- False

We use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study

**True**- False

Scientific data rarely lead to absolute conclusions.

**True**- False

This test is used to test for differences between groups with ordinal dependent variables.

- 1-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test
**Friedman test**- 1-sample sign test
- Goodman Kruska's Gamma

A researcher can create a map to represent data relationships visually using this

**GIS Program**- Histogram Programs
- Sociograms Programs
- Scatter Plots Programs

The gamma distribution describes the square root of a variable distributed according to a chi-square distribution

- True
**False**

This is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.

- Population Sampling
**Non Probability Sampling**- Sampling
- Probability Sampling

It involves the application of specific statistical techniques to disciplines in biology such as population genetics, epidemiology and public health.

- Statistics
**Biostatistics**- Statistical Science
- Geostatistics

The concept of measurement has been developed in conjunction with the concepts of numbers and units of measurement.

**True**- False

Visually represent the frequencies with which values of variables occur.

- a. Sociograms
- b. Scatter Plots
- c. GIS
**d. Histograms**

We use unplanned comparisons to determine

- which elements omitted from the structural model should be included
- the size of the difference between groups
- whether the F ratio is statistically significant
**which pair or combination of means are significantly different**

This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of two groups, and especially appropriate as the analysis for the posttest-only two-group randomized experimental design.

- Correlation Analysis
- One Way ANOVA
**T-Test**- Z-Test

Parametric tests are those that make assumptions about the parameters of the population distribution from which the sample is drawn.

**True**- False

Parametric type of test.

- a. Chi-Square
- b. Fisher's exact test
**c. ANOVA Test**- d. Mann-Whitney Test

Say youre interested in how rising sea temperatures impact algae life, so you design an experiment that measures the number of algae in a sample of water taken from a specific ocean site under varying temperatures. What is the independent variable?

**The temperature of the ocean**- The depth of the ocean
- The number of algae in the sample
- The color of the water

The parametric test is the hypothesis test which provides generalizations for making statements about the mean of the parent population

**True**- False

Statistical variables do not contain numerical values but rather something __________________________.

- Categorical
**Descriptive**- Experimental
- Logical

Compute the frequency of all nominal variables using what formula?

- a. =NOM.COUNT()
- b. =FREQ()
- c. =COUNT()
**d. =COUNTIF()**

Which of the following is an appropriate null hypothesis for this study?

- Open classrooms improve problem-solving skills
- Problem-solving skills in open classrooms are better than problem-solving skills in traditional classrooms
- Open classrooms affect problem-solving skill
**Problem-solving skills in open classrooms are equal to problem-solving skills in traditional classrooms.**

It is used to investigate whether distributions of categorical variables differ from one another.

**Chi-Square**- T-Test
- Correlation Analysis
- ANOVA

In this, the hypotheses are not about population parameters

- Parametric Test
- Inferential Statistics
- Descriptive Statistics
**Non Parametric Test**

The t distribution varies in shape based on:

- Outliers
**Sample Size**- Population Size
- Variables

Percentile is a way to represent position of a values in data set.

**True**- False

Statistics help predicts the future course of action of the phenomena.

**a. Forecasting**- b. Formulation and Testing of Hypothesis
- c. Comparison
- d. To present facts in definite form

When conducting a one-way ANOVA, the _______ the between-treatment variability is when compared to the within-treatment variability, the _______ the value of FDATA will be tend to be.

- larger, larger
- smaller, larger
**smaller, smaller**- smaller, more random

What name is given to data which can be ranked?

- Normally distributed data
**Ordinal data**- Interval data
- Categorical data

It is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a data sample (a population or a probability distribution).

- Range
**Median**- Mode
- Mean

Which of the following definition defines interval scale?

- a. Have the highest level of measurement
- b. Have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories
**c. Have meaningful intervals between measurements, but there is no true starting point (zero).**- d. Have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories.

It is generally assumed that the ANOVA is an 'analysis of dependencies.'

**True**- False

It is often based on statements of statistical significance and probability.

**Modern science**- Physics
- Science
- Astronomy

It depends on physically measuring things.

- Purpose
- Analytical Method
**Experimental Method**- Observation

It implies the correlation among the values of the same variables but at various times

- Spearman's Rank
**Autocorrelation**- Pearson's product-moment coefficient
- Correlation Analysis

What must data be in order for a Pearson's product-moment to be conducted?

- Normally distributed
**All of these**- Homogeneity of variance
- Free from outliers

A population can be small or large, as long as it includes all the data you are interested in.

**True**- False

A two way ANOVA is used to compare two means from two independent (unrelated) groups using the F-distribution.

- True
**False**

Homoscedasticity can be checked using which type of graph?

- Pie chart
**Scatter graph**- Bar chart
- Line graph

It refers to the relationship among the values that are assigned to the attributes for a variable.

- Measurement
- Levels of Measurement
- Relationhip
**Attributes**

A low standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range of values.

- True
**False**

With this test, you also estimate the population median and compare it to a reference/target value.

**a. 1-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test**- b. Goodman Kruska's Gamma
- c. 1-sample sign test
- d. Friedman test

It refers to a family of continuous probability distributions described by the normal equation

- a. Normal Equation
**b. Normal Distribution**- c. Normal
- d. Distribution

It is a summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information, while descriptive statistics in the mass noun sense is the process of using and analyzing those statistics

- Inferential Statistics
- Scientific Method
- Differential Statistics
**Descriptive Statistics**

What is commonly used for testing relationships between categorical variables?

- T-Test
- Goodness of Fit
**Chi-Square**- Goodness of Independence

One disadvantage of the mean is that a small number of extreme values can distort its value.

**True**- False

These are numerical measurements that arise from a natural numerical scale.

- Variable
- Binary
- Qualitative Variable
**Quantitative Variable**

It is the measurement of average distance between each quantity and mean

- a. Percentile
- b. Range
**c. Standard Deviation**- d. Variance

The ______ sum of squares measures the variability of the observed values around their respective treatment means.

- a. interaction
- b. total
**c. error**- d. treatment

Nominal provides the least amount of detail, and ratio provide the most amount of detail.

**True**- False

This method of sampling is often used by market researchers.

- Convenience Sampling
- Snowball Sampling
- Purpose Sampling
**Quota Sampling**

It provides a mechanism for making quantitative decisions about a process or processes.

**Statistical Test**- Inferential
- Statistics
- Descriptive

If the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient shows zero value, this definitely means that there is no relationship between the two variables

- True
**False**

To test equality of means of more than 2 populations which of the following techniques is used?

- T-test
- Chi-Square Test
- Interval estimate
**ANOVA**

Display the relationship between two quantitative or numeric variables by plotting one variable against the value of another variable

- GIS
- Sociograms
**Scatter Plots**- Histograms

Why, in some cases, is a measure of association needed in addition to a p-value for a statistical test?

- The p-value only specifies the size of the effect.
**There is no good reason to want a measure of association once you have a significant result.**- A measure of association reduces the probability of a Type II error.
- The p-value only specifies the reliability of the effect.

When the k population means are truly different from each other, it is likely that the average error deviation:

- is about equal to the average treatment deviation
**is relatively small compared to the average treatment deviations**- is relatively large compared to the average treatment deviations
- None of the mentioned

It involves the examination across cases of one variable at a time.

- a. Scientific Methods
- b. Data Analysis
- c. Scientific Analysis
**d. Univariate Analysis**

The number of rows in which total variance in a two way ANOVA partitioned is..

- 2
**3**- 4
- 0

The null hypothesis for all chi-square tests asks whether the observed number of cases in a sample what we expect from knowledge of the population.

**True**- False

It is difficult to do flexible modelling with non-parametric tests, for example allowing for confounding factors using multiple regression.

**True**- False

Create a Scatter Chart of the data. Is it necessary to create a scatter chart?

- Yes
**No**- Required
- Not all the times

The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution.

**True**- False

The most popular forms of Chi-Square used in business studies include Pearson product-moment correlation, Spearman Rank correlation and Autocorrelation.

- True
**False**

It is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables

- Measurement
**Levels of Measurement**- Attributes
- Relationship

The time invested often requires determination of the appropriate methodology to apply in analysis corresponding to the hypothesis and design of the investigation.

**True**- False

It aims to describe various aspects of the data obtained in the study.

- a. Differential Statistics
- b. Inferential Statistics
- c. Scientific Method
**d. Descriptive Statistics**

One use of chi-square distribution is Confidence interval estimation for a population standard deviation of a normal distribution from a sample standard deviation.

**True**- False

It means a subgroup of the members of population chosen for participation in the study

- Parameter
- Census
- Population
**Sample**

The main purpose of an ANOVA is to test if two or more groups differ from each other significantly in one or more characteristics.

**True**- False

Which is considered as qualitative data?

- a. Height of a building
- b. Number of students
**c. The texture of a rock**- d. Temperature of a patient in degree

A set cannot have more than one mode.

- True
**False**

If the true means of the k populations are equal, then MSTR/MSE should be:

- close to 0.00
- a negative value between 0 and - 1
- more than 1.00
**close to 1.00**

This method of sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the assembled sample has the same proportions of individuals as the entire population with respect to known characteristics, traits or focused phenomenon.

- Convenience Sampling
- Snowball Sampling
**Quota Sampling**- Purpose Sampling

Correlation analysis can study a wide range of variables and their interrelations.

**True**- False

It is the science of uncertainty.

- a. Physics
**b. Probability and Statistics**- c. Chemistry
- d. Geometry

Descriptive Statistics are used to present _______________ descriptions in a manageable form.

- a. Parametric
- b. Qualitative
- c. Descriptive
**d. Quantitative**

______________ correlation exists if one variable increases simultaneously with the other, i.e. the high numerical values of one variable relate to the high numerical values of the other.

- Regression
**Positive**- Analytical
- Negative

A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean of the data set.

**True**- False

It is also a logical grouping of attributes.

- a. Classification
**b. Variable**- c. Criterion
- d. Attribute

Examples of ratio level data include distance and area (e.g., acreage).

- a. Ordinal
- b. Nominal
- c. Interval
**d. Ratio**

If the sample means for each of k treatment groups were identical (yes, this is extremely unlikely), what would be the observed value of the ANOVA test statistic?

**0.0**- 2.0
- 1.0
- A value between 0.0 and 1.0

Conducting a single F test in one-way ANOVA protects us from Type II error.

- True
**False**

You obtained a significant test statistic when comparing three treatments in a one-way ANOVA. In words, how would you interpret the alternative hypothesis HA?

**At least two treatments are different from each other in terms of their effect on the mean response.**- All three treatments have different effects on the mean response.
- All of the mentioned
- Exactly two of the three treatments have the same effect on the mean response.

What is the value of the perfect positive correlation

- -1
- 0
**+1**

Enter the following data in you Microsoft Excel. What are the variables in this analysis?

**Unit Price and Units Sold**- Unit Price
- The Unit
- Unit Sold

Those that make assumptions about the parameters of the population distribution from which the sample is drawn

- Non Parametric Test
- Inferential Statistics
**Parametric Test**- Descriptive Statistics

The value of statistics is strong because they can serve as predictions as well as probabilities in certain trends.

**True**- False

If you have parametric data, you can run a Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare means

- True
**False**

It is the simplest form of analyzing data. "Uni" means "one", so in other words your data has only one variable.

- Scientific Analysis
**Univariate Analysis**- Scientific Methods
- Data Analysis

The nominal scale forms the basis for such analyses as the Chi-Square because those analyses require that some category is compared to at least one other category.

- True
**False**

It is referred to as such because it is a test to prove an assumed cause and effect relationships

- T-Test
- Chi-Square
- Correlation Analysis
**ANOVA**

The ANOVA structural model (X = + + ) maps sample scores in terms of populations, groups, and individual scores.

**True**- False

Construct a conclusion based on the scale below: What is the interpretation of our computation?

**We have a strong negative correlation in the data**- We have a medium negative correlation in the data
- We have a strong positive correlation in the data
- We have a weak negative correlation in the data

The non-parametric test is the hypothesis test which provides generalizations for making statements about the mean of the parent population.

- True
**False**

It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known.

- a. Z-Test
- b. Correlation Analysis
- c. One Way ANOVA
**d. T-Test**

In this correlation the correlation coefficient is not robust due to the fact that strong linear relationships between the variables are not recognized

- Autocorrelation
**Pearson's product-moment correlation**- Spearman's Rank
- Correlation Analysis

The _______, ___________ and ____________ are the three commonly used measures of central tendency

- a. Mean, Median, Range
**b. Mean, Median, Mode**- c. Mean, Range, Mode
- d. Range, Mode, Median

What is a statistical test which is widely used to compare the mean of two groups of samples. It is therefore to evaluate whether the means of the two sets of data are statistically significantly different from each other?

- a. Goodness of Fit
- b. Goodness of Independence
**c. T-Test**- d. Chi-Square

It is a nominal level variable that can take only two values (yes/no, male/female, Hungarian/non-Hungarian).

- Binominal
- Ordinal
**Dichotomy**- Proportional

It is used to understand the nature of relationships between two individual variables.

- T-Test
**Correlation Analysis**- Chi-Square
- ANOVA

What name is given to data which is made up of frequencies?

- Ordinal data
- Interval data
**Categorical data**- Normally distributed data

Why must you review the materials produced using statistics?

- To organize data
**To draw conclusions and attempt to answer the researcher's question/hypothesis**- To collect the data in an appropriate way
- To identify the group to be studied

It is rare to find perfect correlation (+1 or -1).

**True**- False

If paired scores occupy the same positions within their own distributions (high with high and low with low)

**a. Pearson r will be high and positive.**- b. Pearson r will be close to 0.
- c. Standard deviation will be high.
- d. Pearson r will be low and negative

Which is not a level of measurement?

**Proportion**- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval

The advantage of using probability sampling is the _______________ of the statistical methods after the experiment

- a. Efficiency
- b. Promptness
- c. Adaptability
**d. Accuracy**

Statisticians assume a cause effect relationship and say that one or more independent, controlled variables (the factors) cause the significant difference of one or more characteristics

**True**- False

What is the formula for Chi-Square Statistics?

- Question 8
- Answer saved
**Marked out of 1.00**- Not flaggedFlag question

It assesses whether an association exists between the two variables by comparing the observed pattern of responses in the cells to the pattern that would be expected if the variables were truly independent of each other

- Test of Fit
**Test of Independence**- Test of Goodness
- Test of Dependence

Correlation analysis as a research method offers a range of advantages

**True**- False

7. Now that we have got Excel to calculate the correlation coefficient we need to interpret it to understand its true meaning. The value is always between -1 and +1. What is the value of the perfect negative correlation

- 0
- +1
**-1**- 1

If I want to compare the performance of a particular group to an established, accepted average but information about the population standard deviation is not available. I should

**conduct a one-sample t-test**- conclude that this cannot be done
- conduct a correlated t -test
- conduct a one-sample z-test

What function is use to compute for the average in Excel?

- a. =AVE()
- b. =AVE.COMPUTE()
- c. AVERAGE
**d. =AVERAGE()**

What is a number or attribute computed for each member of a population or a sample?

- a. Data
**b. Measurement**- c. Parameter
- d. Variable

Qualitative data are variables that cannot be ordered in a logical or natural way.

**True**- False

When the difference between two population averages is being investigated, a t test is used

**True**- False

What type of data do you need for a chi-square test?

- Ratio
- Interval
**Nominal**- Ordinal

Nominal is hardly measurement. It refers to quantity more than quality.

- True
**False**- uestion 16
- Incorrect
- Mark 0.00 out of 1.00
- FlaggedRemove flag

It is an accurate representation of the distribution of numerical data.

**Histograms**- GIS
- Scatter Plots
- Sociograms

One of the reasons that a correlated-groups design is more powerful than an independent-samples design is that in the correlated-groups design

- a. the dependent measure is correlated with the subject variables.
- b. the df is greater
- c. the error term is based on all the raw scores.
**d. the error term is based on the difference scores**

The independent variables are called as predicator variable because independent variables predict or forecast the values of the dependent variable in the model.

**True**- False

If you have categorical data, you'll want to run a non-parametric ANOVA (usually found under a different heading in the software, like "nonparametric tests").

- True
**False**

Any difference among the population means in the analysis of variance will inflate the expected values of

**MS Columns**- All of the above
- SSE
- MSE

Stratified sampling is used when we might reasonably expect the measurement of interest to vary between the different subgroups, and we want to ensure representation from all the subgroups

**True**- False

What assumption(s) must be met to conduct an independent-samples t-test?

- a. There must be random sampling of cases
**b. All of these**- c. The data from the dependent variable must be interval or ratio
- d. The data from the dependent variable must be normally distributed

Assuming that the null hypothesis being tested by ANOVA is false, the probability of obtaining a Fratio that exceeds the value reported in the F table as the 95th percentile is:

**< .05**- None of the mentioned
- = .05
- > .05

Which of the following would produce related data?

- Random opportunity sampling
- Testing two different groups of participants on two occasions
- Testing two different groups of participants at the same time
**Testing the same participants on two occasions**

The null hypothesis in analysis of variance asks whether

**all groups are the same**- specific groups are the same
- any groups are the equal
- any groups are the same

Pocedure: By now, you should have completed your table. For excel shortcuts:

- a. var(B7:B3)
- b. var(B3:B7)
- c. stdev(B3:B7)
**d. =var(B3:B7)**

What is the alternative name for a repeated-measures t-test?

**a. A paired-samples t-test**- b. Chi-squared test of difference
- c. A Wilcoxon test
- d. Spearman's Rho

The advantage of using non probability sampling is the accuracy of the statistical methods after the experiment

- True
**False**

It is a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information; that is, data identified according to location

**GIS**- Sociograms
- Histograms
- Scatter Plots

Statistics provide a measure of proof that something is true.

- True
**False**

The coefficient of determination and the R-squared (R2) are not the same

- True
**False**

Measures of central location include the range, quartiles and the interquartile range, variance and standard deviation

- True
**False**

It compares the means of two (and only two) groups when the variances are not equal.

**T-Test**- Chi-Square
- ANOVA
- Correlation Analysis

The sum of squares due to the column factor for one way analysis of variance is given by

**SST-SSE**- SSE-SST
- SST+SSE
- No Answer

Variables can be defined in terms of measurable factors through a process of _______________________________.

- Experimentation
- Definition
- Explanation
**Operationalization**

What type of data is required for a Pearson's analysis which does not include a dichotomous variable?

- Interval or nominal
- Ordinal or interval
**Interval or ratio**- Categorical or ratio

The mean is sensitive to any change in value, unlike the median and mode, where a change to an extreme or uncommon value usually has no effect.

**True**- False

The null hypothesis for the chi-square goodness-of-fit test states that the distribution of

**a. cases for each group is equal to the expected distribution based on theory/knowledge of the population.**- b. sample means is equal to expectation based on fe.
- c. the sample means is equal to the expected distribution based on theory/knowledge of the population.
- d. sample means for each group is equal.

It arise out of the fact that sampling naturally incurs sampling error and thus a sample is not expected to perfectly represent the population

- Non-Parametric Statistics
- Descriptive Statistics
**Inferential Statistics**- Parametric Statistics

A repeated measures t-test can be used to assess which of the following?

- a. It assesses relationships between two interval data sets
- b. It assesses how many factors there are in questionnaire data
**c. It assesses differences between scores obtained on two separate occasions from the same participants**- d. It assesses differences between two groups of participants

As variability due to chance decreases, the value of F will

- Stay the same
- can’t tell from the given information
**Increase**- decrease

A skewed distribution is one reason to run a parametric test.

- True
**False**

The chi-square test is used when we have ordinal data.

- True
**False**

Non parametric tests are used when your data is normal

- True
**False**

Analysis of Variance

- Correlation Analysis
- T-Test
**ANOVA**- Chi-Square

As the number of observations increases, the t-distribution looks more like the standard normal distribution.

**True**- False

There are two key variables in every experiment: the dependent variable and the independent variable.

**True**- False

Which is not classified as Nominal?

- Gender
- School
- True or False
**How Naughty or Nice?**

You obtain a sample chi-square value of X2 = -5.49. On the basis of this value, you know that

- a. the observed frequencies are lower than the expected frequencies across all cells.
**b. you have made a calculation error; chi-square values cannot be negative.**- c. the observed frequencies are higher than the expected frequencies across at least half of your cells.
- d. there is a negative association between your two variables.

The Chi Square statistic is commonly used for testing relationships between categorical variables.

**True**- False

Which of the following is a measure of degree of association?

- the degrees of freedom
- the omega squared
**the probability value**- the t-value

Procedure Enter the following formula: D9: =sum(D3:D7) then B12: =D9/(B10-1) What are your expected outputs in this number?

- a. Get the summation
- b. Nothing
**c. Get the variance**- d. All the Data

In ANOVA, 2 and 2

- are central elements of the structural model
- identify which groups in the design are significantly different
**estimate the size of the difference between groups**- can be used to partition the total variance in scores into its components

What is the mode of the scores of the subject Mathematics?

- a. 1.25
- b. 3
**c. 6**- d. 1

There are four major characteristics of a single variable that we tend to look at

- True
**False**

Which of the following is the correct formula for the chi-square goodness-of-fit test?

**[No Answer]**

Which of the following definition defines nominal scale?

- a. Have the highest level of measurement
**b. Have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories**- c. Have meaningful intervals between measurements, but there is no true starting point (zero).
- d. Have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories.

It does not only classify and order the measurements, but it also specifies that the distances between each interval on the scale are equivalent along the scale from low interval to high interval.

**Interval**- Ordinal
- Ratio
- Nominal

Which of the following would not allow you to calculate a correlation?

- a linear relationship between X and Y
**a curvilinear relationship between X and Y**- negative relationship between X and Y
- a positive relationship between X and Y

If the sample data are consistent with the null hypothesis, but consistent with the alternative, then we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the alternative hypothesis is true.

- True
**False**

All else being equal, as the subjects in a study become more homogenous, the value of the test statistic increases.

**True**- False

The independent variables are called as predicated variable because independent variables predict or forecast the values of the dependent variable in the model.

- True
**False**

It is a measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two variables measured on at least an interval scale.

- Autocorrelation
- Correlation Analysis
**Pearson's product-moment correlation**- Spearman's Rank

Uses parametric scale

- Ordinal
- Proportion
- Nominal
**Interval**

To determine whether the test statistic of ANOVA is statistically significant, it can be compared to a critical value. What two pieces of information are needed to determine the critical value?

**sample size, number of groups**- expected frequency, obtained frequency
- None of the mentioned
- mean, sample standard deviation

It is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position within that set of data.

- Measures of Spread
**Central Tendency**- Measures of Location
- Measures of Dispersion

Display networks of relationships among variables, enabling researchers to identify the nature of relationships that would otherwise be too complex to conceptualize

- a. Scatter Plots
- b. Histograms
**c. Sociograms**- d. GIS

It provides a visual representation of the data.

- a. Computations
- b. Visual Aids
**c. Graphical Method**- d. Drawing

C3: = B3-$B$9 Copy the formula up to C7. What is purpose of the $?

- a. Relative Reference
**b. Absolute Reference**- c. Decoration
- d. Money

With all inferential statistics, we assume the dependent variable fits a normal distribution

**True**- False

How many levels of measurements were discussed?

- a. Six
- b. Five
**c. Four**- d. Three

Every individual in the population have equal chance of being selected as a subject for the research.

**a. Probability Sampling**- b. Population Sampling
- c. Non Probability Sampling
- d. Sampling

It a characteristic or feature that varies, or changes within a study

- Classification
**Variable**- Criterion
- Attribute

Interval scales are exactly like ratio scales, except that they have a true zero point

- True
**False**

According to the text, which of the following is not another name for the correlated-groups design?

- matched-groups design
- before-after design
**repeated-measures design**- paired-groups design

What is the average of scores of the subject Mathematics?

- a. 1
- b. 3
- c. 2
**d. 5**

It uses a random sample of data taken from a population to describe and make inferences about the population

- Descriptive Statistics
- Scientific Method
**Inferential Statistics**- Differential Statistics

You find a statistically significant ANOVA. In order to determine which groups are different, you must conduct

- planned comparisons
- unplanned comparisons
**either planned or unplanned comparisons**- both planned and unplanned comparisons

It is the study of how to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret numerical information from data.

- Economics
- Probability
**Statistics**- All of the Choices

The significance of statistical figures can be seen best when invalidating solid arguments or predictions out of hypotheses or conjectures that may seem overwhelming to a layman.

- True
**False**

Stratified sampling improves the accuracy and representativeness of the results by reducing sampling bias.

**True**- False

The alternative hypothesis for the test is that the two means are equal.

- True
**False**

The only difference between the z and single sample t-test are the size of the samples.

- True
**False**

Measures of dispersion aim to provide an accurate description of the entire data

- True
**False**

It is a method that allows researchers to infer information about a population based on results from a subset of the population, without having to investigate every individual

**a. Sampling**- b. Sample
- c. Population
- d. Population Sampling

It is a variable that goes on the y-axis, or vertical axis.

**Dependent Variable**- Erroneous Variable
- Independent Variable
- Continuous Variable

ANOVA tests in statistics packages are run on parametric data.

**True**- False

It is the non-parametric alternative test to the independent sample t-test.

- Mood's Median test
- Kruskal-Wallis test
- Spearman Rank Correlation
**Mann-Whitney test**

Age is under what level of measurements?

- a. Ratio
**b. Interval**- c. Nominal
- d. Ordinal

Which of the following statistics are important when interpreting an independent samples t-test?

- a. Descriptive statistics
- b. Significance level
- c. T scores
**d. All of these**

Incorrectly rejecting a true null hypothesis is an example of what?

- Type II error
- Significance testing
- Chance
**Type I error**

Snowball sampling can be effective when a sampling frame is easy to identify.

- True
**False**

Parametric tests have no statistical power

- True
**False**

Which is another term for dependent variable?

- Controlled Variable
- Explanatory Variable
- Input Variable
**Predicted Variable**

It gives the ability to quantify and differentiate between options.

- Ratio
- Ordinal
**Interval**- Proportion

Sampling is also done to waste time, money and effort while conducting the research.

- True
**False**

What is the result of the calculation?

**-0.96**- -0.94
- 0.96
- -0.69

What is the average of scores of the subject Social Science?

**a. 2.8**- b. 3
- c. 2.6
- d. 5

Members of the population do not have equal chance of being selected.

- Probability Sampling
- Population Sampling
- Sampling
**Non Probability Sampling**

Which is an example of interval scale?

- Ruler
**Time of the day on a 12-hour clock**- Income
- GPA

Use when you want to find a correlation between two sets of data.

- Kruskal-Wallis test
- Mood's Median test
- Mann-Whitney test
**Spearman Rank Correlation**

With descriptive statistics you are simply ________________ what is or what the data shows

- a. Tabulating
- b. Generalizing
**c. Describing**- d. Computing

The total area under the normal curve is equal to 2.

- True
**False**

If the MSE of an ANOVA for six treatment groups is known, you can compute

- the standard deviation of each treatment group
**the pooled standard deviation**- all answers are correct
- df1

The Chi-Square statistic is most commonly used to evaluate Tests of Independence when using a what?

- Observation
- Tabulation
- Variate Table
**Crosstabulation**

If all points cluster in an ascending line this would suggest there would be a strong positive relationship

**True**- False

It is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.

- Hypothesis
- Alternative Hypothesis
**Null Hypothesis**- Null

It is the attempt to apply the conclusions that have been obtained from one experimental study to more general populations.

**a. Inferential Statistics**- b. Non Parametric Statistics
- c. Descriptive Statistics
- d. Parametric Statistics

Descriptive Statistics can be used to highlight potential relationships between variables.

**True**- False

Which of the following assumptions of ANOVA can be discarded in case the sample size is large?

- Both A and B
**Samples are drawn from the normal population**- Each population has equal variance
- NONE

The assumptions of this test are that the data from each population is an independent random sample and the population distributions have the same shape.

- Spearman Rank Correlation
- Mann-Whitney test
- Kruskal - Wallis test
**Mood's Median test**

Uses non parametric scale

- a. Proportion
**b. Ordinal**- c. Ratio
- d. Interval

Which is classified as Ratio?

- a. Birth order
**b. Sibling**- c. 30 degrees celsius
- d. Yes or No

The t-statistic rests on the underlying assumption that there is the normal distribution of variable and the mean in known or assumed to be known.

**True**- False

It is used to describe the basic features of the data in a study

- a. Parametric Statistics
- b. Inferential Statistics
**c. Descriptive Statistics**- d. Non Parametric Statistics

A small confidence interval is bad because few values are contained within it.

- True
**False**

Since a term including the standard error is added to and subtracted from the mean, if the standard error is smaller a smaller product will be added to and subtracted from the mean.

**True**- False

Variables are central to any analysis and they do not need to be understood well by the researcher.

- True
**False**

It tries to describe the relationship between variables in a sample or population and provides a summary of data in the form of mean, median and mode.

- Inferential Statistics
- Biostatistics
**Descriptive Statistics**- Statistical Science

T-tests and other significance tests are frequently criticized. Over-representation of statistical significance in research may result in

- a. Research Fatigue
- b. Confused Graduate Students
**c. Publican Bias**- d. Lost Funding

For an independent t-test, we assume that the populations of individual scores have the same variance.

**True**- False

It is is calculated by taking the ratio of the sample of the two variables to the product of the two standard deviations and illustrates the strength of linear relationships

- Spearman's Rank
- Correlation Analysis
**Pearson's product-moment coefficient**- Autocorrelation

It is a popular test; it is the test to use when conducting experiments

- Correlation Analysis
- T-Test
**ANOVA**- Chi-Square

The more variables, the more complex the study and the more complex the statistical analysis.

**True**- False

Negative IQR is fine, if your data is in descending order

**True**- False

Which is not an importance of levels of measurements?

- a. Each of the levels of measurement provides a different level of detail
- b. Helps you decide how to interpret the data from that variable.
**c. Helps in solving complex mathematical problems**- d. Helps you decide what statistical analysis is appropriate on the values that were assigned

It is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data.

- a. Parametric Statistics
- b. Inferential Statistics
- c. Non-Parametric Statistics
**d. Descriptive Statistics**

Descriptive statistics are very important because if we simply presented our raw data it would be hard to visualize what the data was showing, especially if there was a lot of it.

**True**- False

The goal is to apply the ______________ to a more general population, assuming the sample size is large enough and the sample representative enough of the broader public.

- Generalizations
- Conclusions
- Directions
- Question text

The only permissible aspect related to numbers in a nominal scale is “counting.”

- True
**False**

The formula for the Chi-Square is a ratio.

- True
**False**

Statisticians now believe that if the expected value (E) falls below 5-10 our chi-square test is not valid.

- True
**False**

This particular type of analysis is useful when a researcher wants to establish if there are possible connectionsbetween variables.

- T-Test
- ANOVA
- Chi-Square
**Correlation Analysis**

It is any characteristics, number, or quantity that can be measured or counted

- It describes methods of collecting, quantitative data
**It describes methods for analyzing quantitative data**- It is a while subject of study
- They can be inferential

The value of statistics is strong because they cannot serve as predictions as well as probabilities in certain trends.

- True
**False**

Although in an interval scale, since there is an absence of the absolute 0 and it works on the principal of an arbitrary 0, the division of variables is not possible.

**True**- False

Which among the data is a sample?

- a. Makatizen
**b. IT Department of University of Makati**- c. All Employees of XYZ Company
- d. Filipinos

Compute the average of all variables using what formula?

- AVERAGE
- =AVE()
- AVE()
**=AVERAGE()**

Calculate the correlation coefficient using the CORREL function. What is the format of the CORREL function?

- CORREL(Array1, Array2)
- =CORREL(Array2, Array1)
- =CORREL(Array1, Array2, TRUE)
**=CORREL(Array1, Array2)**

It is commonly used for analyzing experiment results, testing their significance and displaying the results accordingly.

- Laboratory
- Experiment
**Statistical Method**- Presentations

Use this test to compare differences between two independent groups when dependent variables are either ordinal or continuous.

**a. Mann-Whitney test**- b. Kruskal-Wallis test
- c. Spearman Rank Correlation
- d. Mood's Median test

It is defined as the middle of a distribution in a ranked data

**a. Median**- b. Mode
- c. Mean
- d. Range

Negative correlation exists if one variable decreases when the other increases, i.e. the high numerical values of one variable relate to the low numerical values of the other.

- Analytical
**Negative**- Positive
- Regression

It is used to measure the strength of a linear association between two variables, where the value r = 1 means a perfect positive correlation and the value r = -1 means a perfect negative correlation.

- Spearman's Rank
- Correlation Analysis
- Autocorrelation
**Pearson's product-moment correlation**

Descriptive Statistics simply summaries about the sample and the measures

**True**- False

We are rarely interested in a significance test alone; we would like to say something about the population from which the samples came, and this is best done with estimates of parameters and confidence intervals.

**True**- False

Statistics are powerful tools, but it's the analysis provided afterwards by inferential statistics that explicitly makes claims about what those results mean, why, and in what context

**True**- False

The degrees of freedom for a chi-square goodness-of-fit test are calculated as N-1.

**True**- False

These are often used to communicate research findings and to support hypotheses and give credibility to research methodology and conclusions.

- Standard deviation, range and mean
- AMean, beta and normal distribution
**Mean, median and mode**- Median, range, normal distribution

There are commonly two types of ANOVA tests for univariate analysis - One-Way ANOVA and Two-Way ANOVA.

**True**- False

If data in two way classification id displayed in r rows and k columns, then the degrees of freedom for interaction will be…

**(r-1)(k-1)**- K-1
- R(K-1)
- R-1

In statistics and probability, quartiles are values that divide your data into quarters provided data is sorted in an ascending order.

**True**- False

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