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Venture Capital

The world of financing entrepreneurial ventures, providing insights into investment strategies, risk assessment, and portfolio management for venture.

investment

funding

startups

equity

capital

risk

entrepreneurship

innovation

growth

exit

portfolio

valuation

due diligence

angel investors

seed funding

scalability

A main area of financial due diligence that confirms the historical earnings of the company excluding non-recurring costs/expenses, as this will affect the valuation of the company.

  • Debt and debt-like items
  • Information technology
  • Normal working level of capital
  • Tax structure
  • Quality of earnings
  • Human resources

Main responsibilities is to source investment opportunities by cultivating and maintaining relationships with investment bankers, consultants, and others.

  • Partner
  • Associate
  • Principals
  • Vice President

This PE investments can add significant value in order to help companies realize their market potential and become market leaders in their respective industries.

  • distressed buyout
  • mezzanine financing
  • venture capital
  • growth capital
  • leveraged buyout

A main area of financial due diligence that looks into that which affects payroll and that in turn affects the taxes for which the company is responsible.

  • Debt and debt-like items
  • Normal working level of capital
  • Information technology
  • Quality of earnings
  • Human resources
  • Tax structure

A main area of financial due diligence that calculates the company’s total debt-like items outstanding, because it will impact the total amount given to the sellers.

  • Debt and debt-like items
  • Human resources
  • Normal working level of capital
  • Information technology
  • Quality of earnings
  • Tax structure

A main area of financial due diligence that looks into IT issues can cause a significant block in a smooth transition if the systems are not reviewed correctly and comprehensively.

  • Normal working level of capital
  • Debt and debt-like items
  • Information technology
  • Quality of earnings
  • Tax structure
  • Human resources

Before 2008, large-scale buyouts were becoming ever more prevalent. Which company generated the largest Leveraged buyout of US$44B?

  • Toys “R” Us
  • Hertz Corporation
  • Energy Future Holdings
  • Hilton Hotels
  • Harrah’s Entertainment

A financial sponsor may realize gains in a portfolio company investment via a sale to a strategic acquirer. This allows for an immediate liquidity event for the financial sponsor. Strategic buyers typically intend to hold the acquisition over the long-term and thereby gain a greater competitive advantage and market share in its respective industry. A strategic buyer is usually a non-PE firm, and the acquisition is in the buyer’s strategic interest (whether it’s for market growth, trade secrets, new products, synergies, or other business improvements). Therefore the trade sale will usually command the highest sale price. For these reasons, the sale to a strategic buyer is generally the preferred exit option for an LBO investor.

  • True
  • False

A due diligence question that includes understanding the “stickiness” of customers and the company’s reliance on suppliers.

  • Financial performance
  • Industry growth/addressable market
  • Competitive landscape and market position
  • Customer base/suppliers
  • Capital requirements of the business

One restrictive characteristic is that it is often not pre-payable by the company for a few years, so that high yield debt investors can lock-in their high interest rate for at least a couple years.

  • High yield debt
  • Equity
  • Subordinated debt
  • Senior debt

A good LBO candidate characteristic requires having relatively low exposure to seasonal fluctuations in cash flows, as well as low sensitivity to cyclical fluctuations.

  • Multiple areas to create value
  • Favorable industry trends
  • Stable, recurring cash flows
  • Multiple avenues of growth
  • Low capital expenditure requirements Favorable industry trends
  • Strong market position and sustainable competitive advantage
  • Strong management team

The most notorious leveraged buyout was Kohlberg Kravis Roberts’ buyout of which company for US$31.1B?

  • RJR Nabisco
  • Bain Capital
  • Carnegie Steel Company
  • The Carlyle Group

A good LBO candidate characteristic is exemplified by high barriers to entry, high switching costs, and strong customer relationships.

  • Multiple areas to create value
  • Multiple avenues of growth
  • Strong management team
  • Low capital expenditure requirements
  • Strong market position and sustainable competitive advantage
  • Favorable industry trends
  • Stable, recurring cash flows

The largest component of an LBO company’s capital structure.

  • High yield debt
  • Senior debt
  • Equity
  • Subordinated debt

They interact directly with the management of portfolio companies, target companies, and investment banks.

  • Partner
  • Managing Director
  • Associate

A due diligence question that includes understanding how sustainable the target’s business model is and where it is positioned relative to its competitors.

  • Competitive landscape and market position
  • Financial performance
  • Industry growth/addressable market
  • Capital requirements of the business
  • Customer base/suppliers

This type of PE usually involves investor compensation in the form of interest combined with upside participation.

  • mezzanine financing
  • growth capital
  • distressed buyout
  • leveraged buyout
  • venture capital

Private equity firms create funds to focus on areas where they think that can create value for companies.

  • True
  • False

Select which are included in an associate's daily responsibilities.

  • Select one or more (4):
  • discuss any new events occurring in the industry or sector you cover
  • discuss your assumptions and the feasibility of the scenario of an updated LBO model
  • source investment opportunities
  • conduct negotiations with investment banks
  • summarize the findings of a financial due diligence report in an internal memorandum
  • submit a Letter of Intent (First Round Bid) to possibly acquire the relevant business

This legal due diligence provides a summary of any pending litigation, history of past litigations, and what may arise in the company, such as environmental, employment, customer or worker compensation issues.

  • Environmental
  • Lawsuits, litigations, patents
  • Information technology
  • Material contracts
  • Health and welfare plans
  • Human resources
  • Property, plant and equipment
  • Corporate filings

A characteristic of an LBO firm that continually search for companies that are well-positioned to benefit from attractive industry trends, since it results in above market growth and provides stronger equity return potential as well as stronger downside protection for the investment.

  • Multiple avenues of growth
  • Multiple areas to create value
  • Stable, recurring cash flows
  • Favorable industry trends
  • Strong market position and sustainable competitive advantage
  • Low capital expenditure requirements
  • Strong management team

It has less restrictive covenants or limitations, a longer time to maturity, and no required amortization payments.

  • High yield debt
  • Equity
  • Subordinated debt
  • Senior debt

Today, practically all PE deals are executed with the sole intention of creating economic value for shareholders and the economy at large.

  • True
  • False

Capital structure considerations are important for all private equity deals.

  • True
  • False

RJR Nabisco’s deal during the 1980s was a substantial success for the investors who bought the company.

  • True
  • False

This legal due diligence includes looking at software or hardware agreements with external parties, contractually obligated product features or service level agreements, license agreements, and other technology agreements.

  • Human resources
  • Material contracts
  • Health and welfare plans
  • Lawsuits, litigations, patents
  • Property, plant and equipment
  • Environmental
  • Information technology
  • Corporate filings

Works closely with the senior partners of the firm on strategy and negotiations.

  • Director
  • Partner
  • Associate
  • Vice President

Handles most of the financial modeling and initial due diligence for investment opportunities

  • Managing Director
  • Principal
  • Vice President
  • Associate

In this type of buyout, a private equity firm purchases a financially agitated company below market value with the intention of divesting the company in the future for a higher value.

  • growth capital
  • distressed buyout
  • leveraged buyout
  • mezzanine financing
  • venture capital

It has the lowest financial cost and is the first in line in the capital structure to receive its money during the liquidation of the company.

  • High yield debt
  • Senior debt
  • Subordinated debt
  • Equity

This legal due diligence looks at past and current material contracts.

  • Information technology
  • Property, plant and equipment
  • Material contracts
  • Lawsuits, litigations, patents
  • Corporate filings
  • Environmental
  • Health and welfare plans
  • Human resources

A typical fund for a private equity firm has a total lifespan of approximately how many years?

  • 5 years
  • 10 years
  • 15 years
  • 20 years

As PE firms grow their capital base from funds, they are able to grow the firms, as a result of the increased fees received for managing the investments in the various funds they are managing.

  • True
  • False

Large LBO firms generally have a more regimented hierarchy and firm structure where the roles are more defined for associates, and where there are unlimited internal promotion opportunities and unlimited opportunities to get involved in deal sourcing

  • True
  • False

This legal due diligence includes a detailed review of key operating or capital leases.

  • Material contracts
  • Environmental
  • Corporate filings
  • Property, plant and equipment
  • Information technology
  • Health and welfare plans
  • Lawsuits, litigations, patents
  • Human resources

A good LBO candidate characteristic with low maintenance capital expenditure requirements providing management more flexibility in terms of how it can allocate the company’s capital and run its operations.

  • Multiple areas to create value
  • Low capital expenditure requirements
  • Favorable industry trends
  • Strong management team
  • Multiple avenues of growth
  • Strong market position and sustainable competitive advantage
  • Stable, recurring cash flows

A good LBO candidate characteristic has a balanced and diverse growth strategy, so that a company’s success is not completely reliant on one driver.

  • Strong market position and sustainable competitive advantage
  • Low capital expenditure requirements
  • Multiple areas to create value
  • Strong management team
  • Multiple avenues of growth
  • Stable, recurring cash flows
  • Favorable industry trends

This PE investments are made at an early stage in the company’s life cycle.

  • leveraged buyout
  • growth capital
  • mezzanine financing
  • venture capital
  • distressed buyout

Private equity firms were able to complete blockbuster buyouts during 2005-2007 due to stringent US monetary policy and strong credit markets.

  • True
  • False

This legal due diligence process is to confirm that all corporate filings have been filed correctly and to understand the legal organization of the company, such as whether there are any strange corporate structures.

  • Lawsuits, litigations, patents
  • Material contracts
  • Corporate filings
  • Information technology
  • Human resources
  • Health and welfare plans
  • Property, plant and equipment
  • Environmental

Companies of relatively large sizes and industries can be targets of leveraged buyout transactions

  • True
  • False

Instead of being seen as an industry that focuses on making operations leaner through layoffs and restructuring, PE firms are starting to be seen as being able to help sustain and build companies, as well as increase employment levels.

  • True
  • False

They deal routinely with the private equity firm’s Investment Committee.

  • Managing Director
  • Principal
  • Vice President
  • Partner

A main area of financial due diligence that assumes that the company needs a normal level of working capital to remain in business, and thus removes it from the purchase price.

  • Quality of earnings
  • Human resources
  • Normal working level of capital
  • Debt and debt-like items
  • Tax structure
  • Information technology

Performance inventive fees of PE firms represents what percentage taken from exited investments.

  • 10%
  • 15%
  • 20%
  • 25%

A private equity firm’s performance fees are also called incentive fees, carried interest or commission.

  • True
  • False

A main area of financial due diligence that entails providing a detailed analysis of the federal, state, local, and international tax situation.

  • Information technology
  • Human resources
  • Tax structure
  • Quality of earnings
  • Debt and debt-like items
  • Normal working level of capital

In these transactions, a financial sponsor or a consortium acquire the target company using debt instruments for the majority of the purchase price.

  • growth capital
  • leveraged buyout
  • distressed buyout
  • mezzanine financing
  • venture capital

This type of PE is characterized by the size of investment between $50,000 to $5M.

  • distressed buyout
  • mezzanine financing
  • growth capital
  • leveraged buyout
  • venture capital

They are expected to generate investment opportunities and potential acquisition ideas.

  • Associate
  • Vice President
  • Managing Director
  • Principal

A due diligence question that looks into the company’s historical performance in order to understand how realistic the company’s forecast projections are.

  • Financial performance
  • Competitive landscape and market position
  • Capital requirements of the business
  • Industry growth/addressable market
  • Customer base/suppliers

A due diligence question that includes understanding of the total capital needed to run the operations of a business is needed, especially during difficult times.

  • Customer base/suppliers
  • Competitive landscape and market position
  • Capital requirements of the business
  • Financial performance
  • Industry growth/addressable market

A characteristic of an LBO firm that is crucial to success as private equity firms will provide strategic guidance but will almost exclusively rely on management to execute their operating strategy.

  • Strong management team
  • Multiple avenues of growth
  • Low capital expenditure requirements
  • Favorable industry trends
  • Stable, recurring cash flows
  • Strong market position and sustainable competitive advantage
  • Multiple areas to create value

This legal due diligence looks at employment terms/agreements, individual contracts, collectively bargained agreements, and retention/severance agreements.

  • Health and welfare plans
  • Property, plant and equipment
  • Corporate filings
  • Lawsuits, litigations, patents
  • Material contracts
  • Information technology
  • Human resources
  • Environmental

Fundraising for PE investments has been much more promising after 2008 because of investors having more capital to invest in private equity.

  • True
  • False

A due diligence question that includes understanding the market environment and the external factors affecting the business.

  • Financial performance
  • Competitive landscape and market position
  • Capital requirements of the business
  • Customer base/suppliers
  • Industry growth/addressable market

Typical management fees of PE firms represents what percentage of the total assets under management annually.

  • 1.0%
  • 1.5%
  • 2.0%
  • 2.5%

In 2012, private equity buyouts were again in billions surpassing the 2005-2007 boom years.

  • True
  • False

This type of PE investments can help reduce the overall required rate of return on the capital used to execute the LBO, by lowering the required equity investment, and thereby make some LBO deals feasible that otherwise were not.

  • venture capital
  • leveraged buyout
  • mezzanine financing
  • distressed buyout
  • growth capital

It is used to service and pay down the outstanding debt during the ownership of the company.

  • CASH FLOW

It has the most junior portion of the capital structure.

  • High yield debt
  • Subordinated debt
  • Equity
  • Senior debt

This type of PE is the acquisition of a publicly or privately-held company, typically characterized by the significant amount of debt financing used for the acquisition relative to the equity financing used.

  • leveraged buyout
  • growth capital
  • distressed buyout
  • venture capital
  • mezzanine financing

The company that was considered to have made the first leveraged buyout in history with his purchase of Carnegie Steel Company in 1901 from Andrew Carnegie and Henry Phipps for $480 million.

  • J.H. Whitney & Co.
  • Kohlberg Kravis Roberts
  • J.P. Morgan
  • American Research and Development Corp.

Examples of a good LBO candidate include selling underperforming assets, increasing the efficiency of operations, pricing optimization, organizational structure, and diversifying the customer base.

  • Strong market position and sustainable competitive advantage
  • Multiple areas to create value
  • Low capital expenditure requirements
  • Stable, recurring cash flows
  • Strong management team
  • Favorable industry trends
  • Multiple avenues of growth

Firms that do hire analysts straight out of college will offer those analysts roles focusing more on logistical tasks, such as participating in conference calls, reviewing data and legal documents, and supporting the associate and vice president with internal investment materials.

  • True
  • False

Smaller firms will often promote associates to senior associates, and those firms in general tend to provide less opportunities for internal promotions to more senior roles.

  • True
  • False

To make the accurate assumptions, you will have to understand the types of companies the sponsor likes to invest in and their investment strategy, such as the purchase price, capital structure, growth and margin assumptions, and exit strategy.

  • True
  • False

This legal due diligence understands any potential liabilities the business is exposed to in its environment while conducting the day-to-day processes, such as hazardous material or toxic waste.

  • Lawsuits, litigations, patents
  • Corporate filings
  • Information technology
  • Environmental
  • Property, plant and equipment
  • Health and welfare plans
  • Material contracts
  • Human resources

In this type of buyout, the creditors are likely to become equity holders, they will acquire many rights as full or partial owners of the business, and this can lead to very important issues regarding control of the business.

  • leveraged buyout
  • mezzanine financing
  • venture capital
  • growth capital
  • distressed buyout
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