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Use monetary policy to manage economic fluctuations and achieve price stability, which means low and stable inflation with explicit inflation targets.
To an economist, ________ is anything that is generally accepted in payment for goods and services or in the repayment of debt.
The aggregate supply curve shows the relationship between _____________
Which of the following would Fed consider eliminating?
All of the following are necessary criteria for a commodity to function as money except
An individualʹs annual salary is her _____
The view that velocity is constant in the short run transforms the equation of exchange into the quantity theory of money. According to the quantity theory of money, when the money supply doubles ________________
The type of monetary policy that is used in Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom is _________
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of inflation targeting?
According to Keynesʹs theory of liquidity preference, velocity increases when ___________
The theory of purchasing power parity cannot fully explain exchange rate movements because ___________
Because it is a unit of account, money _______
An important financial institution that assists in the initial sale of securities in the primary market is the ____
Paper currency that has been declared legal tender but is not convertible into coins or precious metals is called ________ money.
The monetary base minus currency in circulation equals _______
Which of the following statements are true?
It is a monetary phenomenon because it cannot occur without the monetary authorities pursuing an accommodating policy of a higher rate of money growth.
Which of the following statement is true? Automated teller machines ______
Which set of goals can, at times, conflict in the short run?
Discount policy affects the money supply by affecting the volume of ________ and the ________.
The ________ describes the points for which the goods market is in equilibrium.
Dennis notices that jackets are on sale for $99. In this case money is functioning as a ________.
In an agreement to exchange dollars for euros in three months at a price of $0.90 per euro, the price is the __________
Operational risk is hard to quantify
Which of the following statements is false?
Under monetary targeting, a central bank announces an annual growth rate target for ________.
Because inflation was not a serious problem during the Great Depression, Keynesʹs analysis assumed ____________________
This is the nation's main monetary authority.
The most common type of discount lending, ________credit loans, are intended to help healthy banks with short-term liquidity problems that often result from temporary deposit outflows.
Points on the IS curve satisfy ________ market equilibrium.
This is the central bank of the United States.
Long-term debt has a maturity that is ________.
The immediate (two-day) exchange of one currency for another is a ___________
Of the three players in the money supply process, most observers agree that the most important player is
What type of spending is the total demand for consumer goods and services (hamburgers, stereos, rock concerts, visits to the doctor, and so on):
This refers to the board of seven appointed members that supervises the operations of the Federal Reserve System and sets monetary policy.
When money prices are used to facilitate comparisons of value, money is said to function as a ________.
VISA is also known as Mastercard
Under a fixed exchange rate regime, if a countryʹs central bank runs out of international reserves, it cannot keep its currency from ____________
Automated Teller Machine is a form of Electronic Banking facility.
Both ________ and ________ are Federal Reserve assets.
A major objective of the BSP is to regulate and control the supply of money and the availability of credit.
A monetary policy strategy that uses a fixed exchange rate regime that ties the value of a currency to the currency of a large, low inflation country is called ________ targeting.
Loophole mining refers to financial innovation designed to ________
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage to inflation targeting?
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the Fedʹs ʺjust do itʺ approach to monetary policy?
The long-run aggregate supply curve is ___________
Which of the following is NOT an entity of the Federal Reserve System?
Money is defined as
Because inflation in Germany after World War I sometimes exceeded 1,000 % per month, one can conclude that the German economy suffered from __________
A central feature of monetary policy strategies in all countries is the use of a nominal anchor, which is a nominal variable that monetary policymakers use as an ____________
Which of the following can be described as direct finance
What is hyperinflation?
Which of the following is an entity of the Federal Reserve System?
There are ________ members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
This is the Federal Reserve's actions that change the money supply to inﬂuence the economy
The accounts that show international transactions involving currently produced goods and services are called the ___________
The primary goal of the European Central Bank is ________
Today 1 euro can be purchased for $1.10. This is the __________
Devaluation of a state's currency tends to increase imports into the state.
The difference between money and income is that ______
The rate of change of the price level, usually measured as a percentage change per year.
Banks acquire the funds that they use to purchase income-earning assets from such sources as
As a store of value, money __________
This is the fraction of a bank's deposits, determined by the Federal Reserve, that it must keep in reserve so that it can loan out money.
The velocity of money is defined as ____________
The ________ describes the combinations of interest rates and aggregate output for which the quantity of money demanded equals the quantity of money supplied.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of inflation targeting?
The ability of a central bank to set monetary policy goals is ____________
Which of the following are reported as assets on a bankʹs balance sheet?
A bimetallic standard is a monetary standard based only on gold
Inflation results in ______________
Which of the following bank assets is the most liquid?
If the money supply is $2 trillion and velocity is 5, then nominal GDP is _____________
The ________ states that exchange rates between any two currencies will adjust to reflect changes in the price levels of the two countries.
Actual investment spending is comprised of two components:
Countries with the highest inflation rates are likely to have _______________
The most important types of multinational corporations are financial corporations.
It is the average price of goods and services in an economy.
This refers to the monetary policy tool most used by the Federal Reserve to adjust the money supply.
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of exchange-rate targeting?
Which is true during hyperinflations?
When inflation is defined to be a condition of a continually rising price level, ________ economists agree with Milton Friedmanʹs proposition that inflation is a monetary phenomenon.
This is a plan to reduce the amount of money in circulation.
Price stability is desirable because ____________________
It is the excess of government expenditures over tax revenues for a particular time period, typically a year.
Every financial market has the following characteristic:
This refers to paper money and coins.
A disadvantage of virtual banks (clicks) is that ______
Exchange rates are determined in _________
A nominal variable, such as the inflation rate or the money supply, which ties down the price level to achieve price stability is called ________ anchor.
The World Bank is an international organization that:
The monetary policy strategy that provides an automatic rule for the conduct of monetary policy is ___________
1The interest rate charged on overnight loans of reserves between banks is the _____
This refers to the interest rate that banks charge their best customers.
The sum of the Fedʹs monetary liabilities and the U.S. Treasuryʹs monetary liabilities is called __________
The monetary policy strategy that relies on a stable money-income relationship is ________________
M1 includes currency and demand deposits but excludes traveler’s checks.
Bank capital is listed on the ________ side of the bankʹs balance sheet because it represents a ________ of funds.
When money prices are used to facilitate comparisons of value, money is said to function as a _____
Which of the following are not reported as assets on a bankʹs balance sheet?
It is creating a marketable capital market instrument by bundling a portfolio of mortgage or auto loans.
A financial market in which only short-term debt instruments are traded is called the ________ market.
Goal independence is the ability of ________ to set monetary policy ________.
Bank customers perceive Internet banks as being ______
While the discount rate is ʺestablishedʺ by the regional Federal Reserve Banks, in truth, the rate is determined by __________
An agreement to exchange dollar bank deposits for euro bank deposits in one month is a ___________
Which of the following is not a source of borrowings for a bank?
Secondary reserves include
The Keynesian theory of money demand emphasizes the importance of ________________
The amount of assets per dollar of equity capital is called the A) asset ratio. B) equity ratio. C) equity multiplier. D) asset multiplier
The difference between merchandise exports and imports is called the ________ balance.
A decrease in ________ increases the money supply since it causes the ________ to rise.
Which of the following is not an operating instrument?
A budget ________ occurs when government expenditures exceed tax revenues for a particular time period
The most common type of discount lending that the Fed extends to banks is called ____________
Fiat money is a legal tender proclaimed to be money by law
Which of the following is an advantage to money targeting?
_______ is a flow of earnings per unit of time
The share of checkable deposits in total bank liabilities has
Which of the following is not a nontransaction deposit?
This is also called tight-money policy.
Which of the following are reported as liabilities on a bankʹs balance sheet?
Which of the following is not an element of inflation targeting?
Which of the following is a disadvantage to monetary targeting?
When tax revenues are greater than government expenditures, the government has a budget ________.
One way to derive aggregate demand is by looking at its four component parts, which are:
All ________ are required to be members of the Fed.
The quantity theory of money is a theory of how _______________________
This refers to the interest at which a depository institution lends available funds to another depository institution overnight.
Which is not included in six basic goals that are continually mentioned by personnel at the Federal Reserve?
The monetary base consists of ____________
While the discount rate is ʺestablishedʺ by the regional Federal Reserve Banks, in truth, the rate is determined by _________
This is an economic theory that suggests that rapid changes in the money supply are the main cause of economic instability.
Of moneyʹs three functions, the one that distinguishes money from other assets is its function as a _______
The demand for money as a cushion against unexpected contingencies is called the ___________________
This refers to the Federal Reserve's sale and purchase of federal government securities.
One of the attractions for a bank of funding a client through a bank bill facility is that the security can be sold into the money markets.
Which regulatory body charters national banks?
Whatever a society uses as money, the distinguishing characteristic is that it must
What is the equation of exchange?
A basic measure of bank profitability is the return on assets (ROA). Which of the following is the correct formula for ROA?
Bank loans from the Federal Reserve are called ________ and represent a ________ of funds.
The Fed does not tightly control the monetary base because it does not completely control
The rate of inflation increases when _________
A financial market in which previously issued securities can be resold is called a ________ market.
This is a plan to increase the amount of money in circulation.
This refers to the interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges when it lends money to other banks.
The Glass Stegall Act of 1933, allows commercial bank to sell new offerings of government securities or from engaging in brokerage activities.
Fiat money must be backed by a specific amount of gold and silver
It as the advantage of being much lighter than coins or precious metal, but it can be accepted as a medium of exchange only if there is some trust in the authorities who issue it and if printing has reached a sufficiently advanced stage that counterfeiting is extremely difficult.
The stability of financial markets is also fostered by ________________, because fluctuations in interest rates create great uncertainty for financial institutions.
His analysis started with the recognition that the total quantity demanded of an economyʹs output was the sum of four types of spending: consumer expenditure, planned investment spending, government spending, and net exports.
Bankʹs make their profits primarily by issuing ________.
What is the discount rate?
Which of the following statements are true about the bank balance sheet?
The money market is in equilibrium ________.
Bank reserves include _________
Large-denomination CDs are ________, so that like a bond they can be resold in a ________ market before they mature.
If peanuts serve as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and a store of value, then peanuts are
The condition of a continually rising price level is defined as _____________
Budget deficits are important because deficits
The theory of asset demand suggests that the most important factor affecting the demand for domestic and foreign assets is ____________________
The rate of inflation tends to remain constant when ____________
An exchange rate is the rate at which goods are traded between two states.
A hard currency is backed only by gold or silver.
When banks borrow money from the Federal Reserve, these funds are called ____________
The aggregate demand curve is the total quantity of an economyʹs __________________
Due to the lack of timely data for the price level and economic growth, the Fedʹs strategy _________
Bank capital is equal to ________ minus ________.
As a store of value, money
What is the exchange rate?
The time-inconsistency problem with monetary policy tells us that if policymakers use discretionary policy, there is a higher probability that the ________ will be higher, compared to policymakers following a behavior rule.
A bank is insolvent when ______
30) The share of checkable deposits in total bank liabilities has _______
Of moneyʹs three functions, the one that distinguishes money from other assets is its function as a _______.
Bank reserves include
The Federal Reserve usually keeps the discount rate _____________
Duration analysis is based on what is known as ______________, which measures the average lifetime of a security's stream of payments.
Kevin purchasing concert tickets with his debit card is an example of the ________ function of money
A central bank ________ of domestic currency and corresponding ________ of foreign assets in the foreign exchange market leads to an equal decline in its international reserves and the monetary base, everything else held constant.
________ policy involves decisions about government spending and taxation.
A disadvantage of ________ is that it is very heavy and hard to transport from one place to another.
Which of thevis not included in the five autonomous factors (factors independent of income) that shift the aggregate demand function?
A debit card differs from a credit card in that
A breakdown of financial markets can result in _____
When does inflation occur?
Eurodollars are created when deposits in accounts in the U.S are transferred to a bank outside the country and are kept in the form of dollars.
A negative supply shock causes ________ to ________.
The total production of goods and services is also called _______
The most common definition that monetary policymakers use for price stability is __________
A nominal anchor promotes price stability by __________
In the Keynesian model, the quantity of money demanded is ________ related to income and ________ related to the interest rate.
Introduction of checks into the payments system reduced the costs of exchanging goods and services. Another advantage of checks is that
The World Bank was established to aid in the reconstruction of post-World War II Europe.
Which of the following is an advantage of the Fedʹs ʺjust do itʺ approach to monetary policy?
The most important advantage of the discount policy is that the Fed can use it to __________
A foreign exchange intervention with an offsetting open market operation that leaves the monetary base unchanged is called ____________
Everything else held constant, if a central bank makes a sterilized purchase of foreign assets, then the domestic currency will ________.
The fraction of checkable deposits that banks are required by regulation to hold are
The interest rate on seasonal credit is equal to _______
Because ________ are less liquid for the depositor than ________, they earn higher interest rates.
Net profit after taxes per dollar of equity capital is a basic measure of bank profitability called _____
According to aggregate demand and supply analysis, inflation is caused by _____________________
Patrick places his pocket change into his savings bank on his desk each evening. By his actions, Patrick indicates that he believes that money is a
The discount rate refers to the interest rate on _________
A credit union is a non profit organization
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