Ctrl + F is the shortcut in your browser or operating system that allows you to find words or questions quickly.
Ctrl + Tab to move to the next tab to the right and Ctrl + Shift + Tab to move to the next tab to the left.
On a phone or tablet, tap the menu icon in the upper-right corner of the window; Select "Find in Page" to search a question.Share Us
Sharing is Caring
It's the biggest motivation to help us to make the site better by sharing this to your friends or classmates.
Combines computer technology with management decision-making methods to analyse, design, implement and manage information systems in a corporate environment.
A repeated field that links records between two tables, is a primary key in one table, and a(n) ____ in the other field.
True or False: Vendor selection criteria include functionality, architectural fit, price, services, and support.
True or False: Since access to information can connote power, the database administrator must be astute not only technologically but politically as well.
A ____ is a specific area of knowledge.
_____ are applications that combine features of two or more online applications.
Probably the easiest way to protect against loss of data is to automatically duplicate all data periodically, a process referred to as data __.
__receive records of routine business transactions—such as the purchase of raw materials or services, or the sale of manufactured goods.
__receive signals from outside the computer and transfer them into the computer.
Current microcomputers have words of _____ and 64 bits.
The model uses the object-oriented approach to maintaining records.
True or False: Multiple characters make up a record.
Organizations often organize their data warehouse as a collection of __, smaller collections of data that focus on a particular subject or department.
True or False: An exchange is an extranet for organizations that offer for sale and bid on products and services of a particular type.
Among the general statistical models, a(n) ______ model is the best-fit straight-line relationship between two variables, such as sales and the money spent on marketing.
In banking, ____ is employed to find profitable customers and patterns of fraud.
One objective of data mining is _____, the discovering of patterns in data that can lead to reasonable predictions.
The code is large enough to identify more than 100 times the number of products and manufacturers that the 12-digit UPCs could.
A(n) __creates a temporary table that is a subset of the original table or tables.
True or False: A protocol called Transport Layer Security (TLS) is used for transactions on the Web.
When a pattern of defects is discovered in a product, _________ helps pinpoint the plant at which it was produced and the particular lot from which it came.
Spreadsheets and word processors are _____.
eBay’s success demonstrates the strategic advantage of the __, an organization that is the first to offer a new product or service.
__automates the classification of data into categories for future retrieval.
In the context of data management, _____ refers to all the occurrences sharing the same types of data.
The recent trend in less rich countries is to adopt ____ to avoid high costs.
True or False: Ideally, the ISs of manufacturing organizations and their suppliers would be linked in a way that makes them subsystems of one large system.
In office LANs, one computer is often used as a central repository of programs and files that all connected computers can use; this computer is called a(n) __.
True or False: In a highly competitive industry that traditionally has had a narrow profit margin, JetBlue managed to gain strategic advantage by reducing cost and therefore reducing the price to the customer.
Programs that can handle many different types of data are called _______.
A DSS’s ____ is a database or data warehouse that provides the data for the intelligence phase of decision making.
The __model provides application software developed and maintained by a third-party provider and offered to organizations for a recurring fee.
The purpose of ____ is to know the consumers better so the business can serve them better, while streamlining its marketing and sales operations.
_________ is used to try to interpret handwritten and printed texts not originally designed for source data entry.
True or False: Global Trade Item Numbers (GTINs) have to be modified to support global supply chains.
True or False: With encryption, the original, unencrypted message is called ciphertext.
The protocol used to transfer and download Web information is ____.
Brand-name success is a perfect example of __.
__technology enables one server to be virtually split into many addressable servers, each for a different client and with its own domain name.
_________ is based on UNIX and can be obtained free of charge.
_________ refers to an organization's initiative of adding to a product or service to increase its value to the consumer.
IEEE 802.3, known as __, is the only LAN protocol of significance.
A(n) ____ problem is one in which an optimal solution can be reached through a single set of steps.
True or False: The most important development in hardware to support supply chain management has been a technology called radio frequency identification (RFID).
A(n) ____ is developed to emulate the knowledge of an expert to solve problems and make decisions in a relatively narrow domain.
True or False: Strategic information systems are defined by their technical features per se, and not by how they are used.
Outcomes rarely respond in equal measure to changes in ____, which are categories of data considered when following a sequence of steps.
True or False: The process of associating a character-based name such as course.com with an IP address is called domain name resolution, and the domain name resolution service is DNS (Domain Name System).
A(n) _____ is the field by which records in a table are uniquely identified.
An organization that offers the use of software through communication lines is called a(n) __.
If the cost-accounting procedures of a particular company are so specific that no commercially available software can perform them, the company must develop ____ software.
True or False: The dialog module of a decision support system (DSS) is responsible for displaying the results of an analysis.
__consists of diagrams that describe the following types of software: use case, class, interaction, state, activity, and physical components.
__________ help to find the populations and regions that are most likely to purchase a new product or service.
True or False: In the capacity of project leaders, senior systems analysts are put in charge of several analysts and programmers.
True or False:
For some business needs you must use a(n) __, a combination of two or more fields that together serve as a primary key, because it is impractical to use a single field as a primary key.
__________ are used as a shared resource, connecting hundreds of users to a variety of computers from desktops, laptops, and other servers.
Identify an advantage of certifications.
The cost of damage is the aggregate of all the potential damages multiplied by their respective ____.
__is a process by which one starts with a table that shows broad information and successively retrieves tables of more specific information.
_____ encryption is defined as encryption that comprises two keys: a public key, and a private key.
True or False: Project management tools enable the creation and manipulation of local or shared databases.
The essence of strategy is innovation, so __is often gained when an organization tries a strategy that no one has tried before.
True or False: If the return on investment (ROI) of an economic analysis is negative, the system is economically feasible, or cost justified.
When soliciting vendor details, the project manager sends a ____ to the vendors identified, requesting general, somewhat informal information about a product.
Some companies might want to use entire physical servers all for themselves and therefore can opt for _____.
Multinational corporations must use ____, which are systems that serve organizations and individuals in multiple countries.
True or False: The only language that computer hardware understands is a series of electrical signals that represent bits and bytes.
Once criminals have a person’s identifying details, such as a Social Security number, driver’s license number, orcredit-card number, they can pretend to be this person, which is a crime called ___.
True or False: Instead of differentiating a product or service, an organization can add to the product or service to increase its value to the consumer.
When failure occurs because an organization tries to be on the technological leading edge, observers call it the __.
Clients should not expect vendors to list the service level and ____; the clients must do it.
True or False: Switching costs can be explicit or implicit.
The standard ______ was developed for devices that communicate with each other within a short range of up to 10 meters (33 feet) in the office, at home, and in motor vehicles.
True or False: Consumers of the final goods and services are involved in B2B trading.
True or False: Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology enables us to conduct transactions and to make payments quickly.
Images on a monitor are made up of small dots called _______.
True or False: Controls translate business policies into system features.
Transactional data is copied into a ______, which is a separate data repository.
True or False: Encryption slows down communication because the software must encrypt and decrypt every message.
A(n) __with a modem is very slow (usually no faster than 56 Kbps), so most users and small businesses today are turning to faster connections that use digital signals throughout the connection, such as DSL
True or False: Most mathematical and physical problems are semi-structured.
Programs designed to perform specific jobs, such as calculating and executing a company’s payroll, are collectively called ______.
When the process of manufacturing products is complete, the next link in the supply chain is __.
The job of a(n) __involves the creation of new systems or the modification of existing ones.
In order to overcome connectivity issues and reduce security risks, some clients prefer to use a(n) ___ rather than the Internet to connect to application service providers.
_________ is the raw material in the production of information.
__s software that the developer gives to potential adopters for trial use.
Businesses such as Amazon.com and Buy.com that transact business only through an online environment are called ____ retailers.
The first generation of mobile communication technologies used _____.
Medical ____ help diagnose patients and suggest treatments.
True or False: To retrieve records from a relational database, or to sort them, you must use a key.
True or False: Languages such as HTML and XML are incompatible with geographic information systems (GISs).
True or False: Neural nets have been very effective in detecting fraud of many types.
__takes place when an operation switches from using an old system to using a new system.
A(n) ___ is a way to authenticate online messages, analogous to a physical signature on a piece of paper, but implemented with public-key cryptography.
Agile methods are an efficient approach to development when a system is ____, when it deals with unstructured problems, and when the users cannot specify all the requirements at the start of the project.
True or False: Organizations avoid telecommunications because these increase costs and office space.
To prepare for mishaps, either natural or malicious, many organizations have well-planned programs in place, called __.
True or False: A problem that arises with international information interchange is that countries treat trade secrets, patents, and copyrights differently.
The American Stock Exchange (AMEX) has a special department to prevent _____ of the securities under its supervision.
Light is not susceptible to EMI (electromagnetic interference) and __, which is why fiber optic communication is much less prone to error than twisted pair and radio transmission.
____ is meant to guarantee that the experts have passed tests that ensure their skills.
The practice of outsourcing routine activities, such as customer order entry or human resource transactions, is called __.
As an independent memory device, flash memory takes two main forms: as a memory card, and as a(n) ______.
__is sometimes called TV cable or simply “cable” because of its common use for cable television transmission.
One of the most interesting developments in worldwide telecommunications is __through the Internet: anyone with access to the Internet can download one of several free applications that help locate and download files from any online computer.
True or False: A join table combines data from two or more tables.
Online retailing, called __, continues to grow throughout the world for several reasons: greater availability of faster communication lines to households, growing confidence in online purchases, and the increasing ability to
True or False: Web page development packages expedite development of webpages.
True or False: Online analytical processing (OLAP) applications are powerful tools created specifically for shift employees.
True or False: Authorities usually deal with unauthorized use of computers as theft.
___________ records sums owed to the organization and by whom.
Instead of spending money on the purchase of data storage devices, a company can contract with a(n) ____ and have all or some of its files stored remotely on the provider's devices.
True or False: Cookies are always temporary; they are installed only for one session, and are removed when the user leaves the site.
The ________ is the maximum number of bits that the control unit can fetch from primary memory in one machine cycle.
_____ can be very tiny, about the size of a rice grain, or several square inches, depending on the amount of information they need to contain and the environment in which they are used.
True or False: In the IT arena, outsourcing has a single meaning.
The research company IDC argues that almost half of the work that ____ do in organizations has already been done, at least partially.
__are constraints and other restrictions imposed on a user or a system, and they can be used to secure systems against risks or to reduce damage caused to systems, applications, and data.
__________ are used to execute transactions in which financial institutions transfer huge amounts of money using electronic funds transfer (EFT).
True or False: Domain names always start with www.
True or False: A repeater amplifies or regenerates signals so that they do not become weak or distorted.
Some companies require workers to create reports of their finding to transfer knowledge into manageable ___.
_____________ are normally responsible for developing cost analyses, design considerations, implementation timelines, and feasibility studies of a computer system before making recommendations to senior management.
A(n) ____ is required when it is not possible to exploit expertise by coupling quantitative data from a database with decision models.
A(n) ____________ interfaces and interacts with other systems.
True or False: Hypermedia enables linking text, pictures, sounds, animations, and video.
_____ involves high volumes of data compiled from traditional, ordinary business activities, as well as newer, nontraditional sources.
True or False: Enterprise resource planning systems cannot be used for managing daily operations.
True or False: Renters of dedicated servers usually have root access, which means they act as unrestricted administrators of that computer.
True or False: Outsourcing is a concept that might encompass more than just commissioning the development of an application.
True or False: The permissive model of software licensing permits anyone to use, modify, and make applications with the code, but not to use it in proprietary products for sale or licensing.
While blogging is publishing text and other visual material, _____ is publishing sound and video.
True or False: A schema describes the structure of the database being designed: the names and types of fields in each record type and the general relationships among different sets of records or files.
Some companies offer specifically designed ______ to analyze shoppers’ behavior at their sites based on captured data such as pages viewed, options clicked, and the sequence of pages shoppers viewed.
True or False: An alliance can be created to enable customers to use the same technology for purchases from different companies.
When application developers write code, they use the __ for the operating system on which the application will run.
True or False: 3GLs are significantly less procedural than 4GLs.
Different ____ can significantly impact what a company may or may not display from its servers.
__are total losses of electrical power.
True or False: In recent years, enterprise applications have constituted a far larger part of IT expenditures on packaged software.
__is the proportion of time that the ASP’s systems and communication links are up and running.
True or False: Geographic information systems (GISs) are often the best decision aids for map-related decisions.
True or False: While accounting systems focus on recording and reporting financial changes and states, the purpose of human resource management systems is to facilitate financial planning and business transactions.
_______ are high-frequency radio waves that can carry signals over long distances with high accuracy.
To link records from one table with records of another table, the tables must have at least one field in common, and that field must be a ____ field for one of the tables.
Information systems that help seize opportunities are called __.
A _____ is a type of malware that spreads in a network without human intervention.
According to the ____, all legal matters are confined to the country from which a site operates.
True or False: Mobile commerce allows people to use their mobile devices to experience an event and react immediately.
True or False: Inaccuracies affect data integrity.
True or False: Several manufacturers of computer equipment offer individual keyboard-embedded and mouse-embedded fingerprint devices.
To group knowledge into manageable data, companies use ___ software.
Businesses use ______ to analyze data.
A(n) __is software that combines data that is input by the user with the data relationships stored in the knowledge base.
True or False: The great majority of business and individual software is open source, that is, software that is developed and sold for profit.
True or False: Data warehouses replace transactional databases.
If someone from outside a company accessed the company’s computer without authorization and used it for any purpose whatsoever, the act would be __under the laws of every state in the United States.
True or False: From a technical point of view, online databases that are used with Web browsers are different from other databases.
True or False: When investing in securities, such as stocks and bonds, it is important to know the prices of securities in real time.
True or False: A paradoxical aspect to IT outsourcing is that while contracts are signed for long periods of time, they typically involve rapidly changing technologies.
Which of the following is true of objective-oriented programming languages?
In ____, the voltage of the power decreases, or there are very short interruptions in the flow of power.
The most popular OOP languages are Java, Visual Basic, and ______.
Information that can be gleaned from stored data is ____.
_______ primarily involves modifying programs to meet new business needs, but also debugging of errors that were not detected when testing the developed code.
True or False: The purpose of marketing is to track every financial transaction within a company—from a few cents expenditure to a multimillion-dollar purchase, from salaries and benefits to the sale of every item.
In most cases when both positions are encountered in one organization, the chief technology officer (CTO) reports to the __.
The purpose of __________ is to track every financial transaction within a company, from a few cents to multimillion dollar purchases, from salaries and benefits to the sale of every item.
When building a new database, users must first build a _____.
____ often help ensure that a user does not receive the same unsolicited information multiple times.
True or False: Few hosting firms provide subscribers with e-mail addresses.
The usage of __in web technologies ensures that data exchanged between the SCM systems of two organizations are interpreted correctly.
Online databases that are used with web browsers _____.
In the ____ phase of decision making, the method for considering a data is designed.
True or False: The terms “data” and “information” mean the same thing.
Managers should focus on the asset they must protect, which in most cases is ____, not applications.
True or False: Small businesses cannot use targeted marketing due to their low budget.
A _______ is an independent memory device and is also known as a thumb drive.
To ensure compatibility with other applications within an organization, the organization’s IT professionals should adopt and supply_________tools to interested users.
To __is to make a digital audio recording, usually of voice, and post the file on the Web so that people can download it and listen to it.
True or False: Loyalty programs, such as frequent flier and consumer clubs, help organizations amass a steady flow of data about their customers.
Linking among documents involves __technologies, and embedding information such as sound and video clips in documents uses multimedia technologies.
When both the sender and recipient use the same secret key, the technique is called ____.
A(n) ____ is a small file that a Web site places on a visitor’s hard disk so that the Web site can remember something about the surfer later.
Organizations can leverage _____ to communicate with consumers immediately.
_______ use a modular approach, which offers ease of maintenance and efficiency in applications development.
Wireless technologies enable what some people call mobile commerce, or __.
Bluetooth is considered a _____ technology, because it typically supports a network used by only one person.
True or False: A computer connected directly to the Internet backbone—the highest speed communication channels—is called a host.
True or False: An important element of online retailing is the absence of a selection facility similar to a brick-and-mortar store.
True or False: Telecommunications has made business processes less efficient.
True or False: The three phases involved in building a data warehouse from transactional data are extraction, transforming, and loading.
A(n) __is the software that enables the OS to control a device, either one installed inside the computer or an external device such as a flash memory drive.
__consists of post-implementation debugging and updating (making changes and additions), including adding features that were originally desired but later postponed so budget and time limits could be met.
Typically, __________ ISs receive records of routine business transactions—such as the purchase of raw materials or services, or the sale of manufactured goods—from transaction processing systems (TPSs).
The meaningful information gleaned from data warehouses using software tools is referred to as ____.
A(n) ________ is the software that enables the OS to control a device.
True or False: Eight-bit bytes are not sufficient for languages with larger numbers of characters, such as Chinese.
True or False: Expertise in narrow domains can be programmed in expert systems.
The _______ mediates applications and the computer, and controls peripheral devices.
_________ tags contain circuitry that allows recording of information about a product.
True or False: RSS software called an aggregator or feed reader automatically checks for new content and downloads files from a designated site in the same way as is done for text files from online newspapers.
__applications are programs that enable workers to collaborate in real time over the web.
Business intelligence applications access large pools of data, usually transactional records stored in large databases called _______.
True or False: Fiber optic technology uses electricity to represent bits.
Rather than containing a set of IF-THEN rules, more sophisticated ESs use ____, which are designed to mimic the way a human brain learns.
True or False: Companies that are growing fast and rely on software for deployment of their operations often hire the services of ASPs.
True or False: The important factors in choosing a networking medium are availability, current and potential bandwidth, and vulnerability to electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI).
True or False: Object-oriented databases (ODBs) do not store records, but data objects, which is an advantage for quick updates of data sets and the relationships among them.
______are often designed to quickly present predefined business metrics, such as occupancy ratios in hotels and hospitals, or inventory turns in retail.
The first step in systems analysis is ____, which determines whether there is a real need for a system and whether the system as conceived is feasible.
A(n) __Correct consists of several subsystems, components of a larger system, with sub goals, all contributing to meeting the main goal.
Indirect costs in time and money spent adjusting to a new product that competes with the old is an example of implicit __.
True or False: The greater the number of interdependent systems, the greater the expected downtime.
True or False: When an application is developed especially for an organization, specific program goals and custom requirements are considered during the development process.
Enter the acronym only
The purpose of __________ is to pinpoint the people and organizations most likely to purchase what the organization sells and to promote the appropriate products and services to those people and organizations.
A(n) __is involved in creatively deciding how to represent the organization on the web.
If your last and first name, as well as address and other details appear in the files of the department where you work as well as in the payroll file of the Human Resource department, there is duplication of data, or __.
True or False: The greatest advantage of tailored applications is their low cost.
Businesses use _______ to save on travel costs and lodging, car fleets, and the time of highly salaried employees incurred on bringing together employees working in different organizations or at different sites in the same organization.
__Correct are facts or conclusions that have meaning within a context.
A person who holds the position of __must have both technical understanding of current and developing information technologies and business knowledge.
The of a modern business shows a network of information subsystems that exchange information with each other and with the world outside the system.
True or False: The simplest WAN is a satellite linkup between LANs in two different countries.
True or False: In-house development teams can usually complete a new application project in less time than an IT vendor can.
The time between generating an idea for a product and completing a prototype that can be mass-manufactured is known as engineering lead time, or _______.
In an environment where most information technology is available to all, __that are originally developed to create a strategic advantage quickly become an expected standard business practice.
__webpages can be built with several programming tools: CGI, Java servlets, PHP, and ASP (Active Server Pages).
A(n) __________ system is used at all levels of an organization, and often by non-managerial staff.
Which of the following conditions must exist for an information system to be a strategic information system?
The number next to ______ refers to data speed in multiples of 51.84 Mbps, considered the base rate bandwidth of a very high connection speed service.
In _______ manufacturing, suppliers ship parts directly to assembly lines, saving the cost of warehousing raw materials, parts, and subassemblies.
True or False: All countries welcome a policy of free access to information as a means to reaffirm their sovereignty.
To ensure against interruptions in power supply, organizations use ____ systems, which provide an alternative power supply for a short time, as soon as a power network fails.
True or False: Online analytical processing (OLAP) is increasingly used by corporations to gain efficiencies.
A technological challenge to information systems is the way characters are usually represented by _____ in computers.
Data warehouses could be regarded as a type of ____, where new useful information is the precious find.
True or False: Companies in the same industry competitors often collaborate in establishing a website for one or several purposes.
____ includes cookies and other, more sophisticated applications that are installed on your computer unbeknownst to you and transmit information about you while you are online.
_________ defines the degree to which a goal is achieved.
In user development of applications, the lack of ____ makes system maintenance difficult at best and impossible at worst.
The goal of is not to gain small incremental cost savings, but to achieve great efficiency leaps—of 100 percent and even 1000 percent.
True or False: The use of e-mail, instant messaging, and voice mail has brought some secondary benefits to business communications by establishing a permanent written or electronic record of, and accountability for, ideas.
______is the attempt by organizations to put procedures and technologies in place to transfer individual knowledge into databases.
An increasing amount of ____ in the financial services and many other industries are made in real time using DSSs.
The combined storage of both data and the procedures that manipulate the data within an object is referred to as _____.
_________ is a popular medium for connecting computers and networking devices because it is relatively flexible, reliable, and low cost.
An organization can learn much about its customers, sellers, and itself by mining data warehouses and using OLAP software, but such techniques still do not satisfy another important challenge: how to manage __.
The ability of websites to serve as prompt exchanges of information has supported another popular business model, the ____ or name-your-own-price auction.
__is a magnification or expansion of the amount, types, and level of detail of data that is collected and stored.
In 1976, Europeans adopted the 13-digit European Article Number (EAN), while American companies used the 12- digit __.
True or False: A decision is easy to make when one option will clearly bring about a better outcome than any other.
_____ software records individual keystrokes.
True or False: Companies find that the data that they collect directly from consumers provides a full picture of customer needs.
The ___________ of a specific raw material is the optimal quantity that allows a business to minimize overstocking and save cost, without risking understocking and missing production deadlines.
Intelligent __allow employees to enter questions in free form or close to free form.
______ are point-to-point dedicated digital circuits provided by telephone companies.
True or False: New processor-making technologies let engineers increase the processing speed of computers while enabling computers to use less energy and give off less heat.
True or False: In dedicated hosting the host dedicates a server to the client, and the client can fully control the content on the server’s disks.
_____ enables business partners to set standards for data formats in Web pages.
Coding a message into a form unreadable to an interceptor is called ____.
__is the process of selecting, exploring, and modeling large amounts of data to discover previously unknown relationships that can support decision making.
The part of the BI software application that parses the questions entered by employees is known as the ____.
__, the time during which ISs or data are not available in the course of conducting business, has become a dreaded situation for almost every business worldwide.
A computer network within a building, or a campus of adjacent buildings, is called a ______.
True or False: Enterprise resource planning applications are expensive.
In most expert systems, the knowledge base is built as a series of ____ rules.
The purpose of _______ is to manage computer resources and perform routine tasks that are not specific to any application.
While ____ might sound benign, many privacy advocates claim that it violates privacy rights.
__combine ideas for making potentially winning business decisions and ideas for harnessing information technology to implement the decisions.
Some software companies, such as Tacit Systems, Hivemine, and Safeharbor Knowledge Solutions have developed , tools that facilitate knowledge sharing through intranets.
A collection of related records, such as all the records of a college’s students, is called a(n) _____.
__enables application software to run on a computer and manages the interaction between the CPU, memory, storage, input/output devices, and other computer components.
True or False: The goal of reengineering is to gain small incremental cost savings.
__provide draws for customers that include combined services that are cheaper.
A _____ line is made of 24 channels (groups of wires) of 64 Kbps each.
When a call is placed on a cellular phone, the signal is first transmitted to the closest , which sends a signal through landlines that dial the desired phone number.
True or False: Material requirements planning (MRP) programs use long-range forecasts to put long-lead material on order.
True or False: Thinking globally and acting locally are ideas that contradict each other.
__________ use physical characteristics of people, such as fingerprints and retina scans, for authentication and access to physical places and online information systems.
The is the most important part of any computer.
A(n) __consists of one or more rigid platters installed in the same box that holds the CPU and other computer components, or attached externally to the computer, usually through a USB port.
Large __might have many constituent LANs and MANs on different continents.
Processing more than one program, or processing several parts of a program, at the same time is often called __, whereby each process is a thread.
______ determines the look and location of text, pictures, animations, and other elements on a Web page.
The process of _____ enables organizations to plan and carefully design their global sites to cater to local needs and preferences.
Many North American and European countries have outsourced development of well-defined applications to professionals in other countries, an act often referred to as ___.
When a(n) __tag is attached to a product, it contains a electronic product code.
True or False: Countries have different regulations on what may or may not be imported and which tariff applies to which imported product.
In relational database, a record or row is called a _____.
____________ involves adoption of new machinery and elimination of management layers.
The CPU and primary memory are usually plugged into a circuit board in the computer case called the ______.
The developers of ______ can obtain the source code free of charge, usually on the web.
The ____________ is responsible for all aspects of an organization’s ISs and is often a corporate vice president.
Many organizations have found that if they accumulate _____, they can use it for important management decisions, such as researching market trends or tracking down fraud.
_____ are measures taken to ensure that only those who are authorized can use a computer or network or to certain applications or data.
Organizations make proactive initiatives to keep their products from becoming a __, which is any product that is sold for about the same price by a multitude of vendors in a highly competitive market, usually with a thin margin of profit.
A(n) ______ is a network used only by the employees of an organization.
The greatest disadvantage of tailored applications is their ____.
True or False: Shipping is the next link in the supply chain after the completion of the process of marketing products.
A _____ can connect dissimilar networks and can be programmed to also act as a firewall to filter communications.
The most important and pervasive set of protocols for telecommunications and networks today is called _____.
DAS, NAS, and SAN often include __, whereby data is replicated on different disks to enhance processing speed and fault-tolerance.
Perpetrators use other people's computers in distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. Professionals call such computers ____.
Raw data is __Correct in information systems to create useful information.
__________ refers to the competitive advantage that a company can achieve by persuading customers that its product or service is better than its competitors'.
The electronic lines or traces used for communication inside a computer is called the __.
In the _____ phase of transferring data from a transactional database to a data warehouse, specialists “cleanse” the data and modify it into a form that allows insertion into the data warehouse.
Expert systems and neural networks are two techniques researched and implemented in a field called __.
A temporary IP address assigned to a computer connected to the Internet intermittently for the duration of its connection only is called __.
An expert system uses a(n) __, which is a collection of facts and the relationships among them.
When executives talk about productivity tools, they really mean computer programs, commonly known as software _____.
By using cookies and recording shoppers’ movements, ____ software can create electronic consumer profiles for each shopper and buyer.
OLAP applications are usually installed on a special server that communicates with both the user’s computer and theserver or servers that contain a data warehouse or ____.
The combination of _______ and clock rate determines throughput.
The __of a medium is the speed at which data is communicated, which is also called the transmission rate or simply the bit rate.
An alternative for households that cannot obtain cable or DSL connections to the Internet is _____.
__is the study of the comfort and safety of human beings in their working environment.
True or False: Coaxial cable connects to network devices with RJ-45 plug-in connectors.
IT companies that provide both hardware and software have seen revenue from ____ service portion of their business grow faster than from the sale of hardware and software.
Communication on the Internet primarily follows the network protocol, __, which is actually a set of related protocols.
True or False: A firm gains bargaining power with a supplier when the firm has many competitors.
Computer telephony integration (CTI) is a technique enabling a computer to use the digital signal coming through a telephone line as _________ in a computer system.
The Europeans adopted the 13-digit ____ as a standard for universal product codes.
______ is a standard method of wireless communications, specifically for high-speed data transmission for mobile phones.
In the ______ phase of data warehousing, specialists compare the data in the data warehouses with the original data to confirm completeness.
On the web, an example of alliances is a(n) __________.
True or False: When end users develop applications, they should be encouraged to develop applications that interface with other organizational systems.
True or False: The design and implementation of information technology need not support an organization’s deployment of globalization.
True or False: The messages sent to access data in a database are called protocols.
General-purpose applications are available as __; that is, they come ready to install from an external storage medium such as a CD or a file downloaded from a vendor’s website.
True or False: When you purchase an application, whether a computer game or a business program, you purchase a compiled version of the code, that is, the object code.
__is a calculation of the difference between the stream of benefits and the stream of costs over the life of the system, discounted by the applicable interest rate.
Which of the following is true of multimedia software?
Mostly, customer relationship management (CRM) systems support three areas: ________, sales, and customer service.
_____ transfers visitor inquiries from a busy server to a less busy server for identical information and services.
______ is a secured protocol used for confidential transactions.
A(n) _____ is created “on the fly” as a result of a query and exists only for the duration the user wishes to view it or to create a paper report from it.
Analyzing an organization’s data and identifying the relationships among the data is called ____.
True or False: Symmetric encryption is also called “public‐key” encryption.
True or False: Mathematicians call a sequence of steps a parameter.
In the permissive model of software ________, anyone can use modify, and make the software into a product that can be sold for profit.
True or False: A majority of web users prefer to access the web in English rather than using any other language.
A dynamic __application responds to commands by composing tables “on the fly.”
True or False: Companies prefer their decision support systems (DSSs) to access the data warehouse rather than the transactional database.
_____ is one of the primary languages used to compose and retrieve web pages and support the presentation of pictures with marked areas.
When a system is developed by a software vendor for a wide market rather than for a specific client, conversion often takes place at ___.
In the context of B2B trading, online advertising is done mainly in two ways: through _____ and through banners.
True or False: Many enterprise resource planning systems are used by service representatives in combination with a telephone.
The customer’s ability to determine the timing and services of their needs from a business organization through a website is referred to as _____.
The term ________ refers to the sequence of activities involved in producing a product or service.
True or False: A data store is any event or sequence of events in which data is either changed or acted on.
The data-mining application that identifies which prospective clients should be included in a mailing or email list to obtain the highest response rate is known as ____.
True or False: Storage and retrieval on sequential storage devices are slow but the devices are inexpensive, which makes tapes suitable for backup purposes.
A supply chain management is an enterprise application because the systems that support each business process:
A carefully drawn can provide a useful representation of a system, whether existing or planned.
Two qualities to check when purchasing a laser or ink-jet printer are speed, measured in ______, and density, measured in dots per inch (DPI).
True or False: Much of the extraction, transforming, and loading (ETL) activity involved in data transfer can be automated.
An ES is constructed with a set of rules, but as data on real successes and failures of decisions is accumulated and fed into the system, the __refines the rules to accomplish a higher success rate.
True or False: The fact that countries have different laws has little impact on global business in general, and on e-commerce in particular.
When a radio frequency identification tag is attached to a product, it contains a(n) ________.
True or False: Practically any mobile-based system that gives a company competitive advantage is a strategic information system.
True or False: Offshoring has caused layoffs of programmers in Western countries and created much bitterness among those professionals and supporters of local labor.
As computers convert to operating systems that support _____, displaying different character sets should be less of a problem.
True or False: Database management systems structure files, store data, and link records.
True or False: The developers of proprietary software make the source code of their software public.
Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook are productivity tools in the Microsoft Office ____.
True or False: A direct link to a wireless router or access point creates a hotspot.
True or False: Design support systems (DSSs) sort out a good risk as a person or institution that is likely to default on a loan.
__Applications can easily answer questions such as, “Where are my weakest performing sales offices?” and “What products are selling well?”
A unique key can serve as a(n) __.
Even if storage cost is not as attractive as that of CDs, portability and the fact that their ports are ubiquitous in PCs might push one toward selecting a ______.
True or False: Redundancies increase expected downtime in business information systems.
__enables users to complete a particular application or task, such as word processing, investment analysis, data manipulation, or project management.
Identify the risk factor in decision support systems that lead to ethical issues.
A con artist telephones an employee, pretends to be from his own organization's IT unit, and says he must have the employee’s password to fix a problem. This is an example of ____.
According to the provisions of the Data Protection Law, individuals or organizations that receive __not directly from the subject must identify themselves to the subject.
The ability to limit users’ views to only specific columns or records gives a(n) __an advantage: the ability to implement security measures.
True or False: Since no provider can guarantee 100 percent uptime, ASPs often promise 99.9 percent uptime.
Compared to the Universal Product Code (UPC), the additional bar in the _____ identifies a product’s country of origin.
The most basic metric that can be measured at a site is the number of ____.
True or False: Businesses that handle business transactions and store large amounts of data in a central computer often use mainframes, which some IT professionals fondly call “big iron.”
In the ___ phase of transferring data from a transactional database to a data warehouse, the builders create the files from transactional databases and save them on the server that will hold the data warehouse.
The concept in which an application service provider offers the use of computer programs through a network (the Internet or private network) is known as ____.
The two units in the CPU are the arithmetic logic unit and the _______.
The relational database model consists of __which are used to contain records.
In the database approach, a(n) ____ is any object about which an organization chooses to collect data.
A cut-over conversion is also called __conversion.
True or False: Instant messaging (IM) offers users real-time online interactivity.
True or False: With digital subscriber line (DSL), the data is transformed into analog signals.
____ are excellent tools for building both the data and the models that decision support systems need.
True or False: An application service provider (ASP) installs software on a client’s computers.
True or False: Input devices, most commonly computer monitors and printers, deliver information from the computer to a person.
Studies show that __is not the most common reason for outsourcing.
Many banks use automated ____ to determine a client’s creditworthiness.
__is marketing over the telephone and it makes extensive use of IT.
The speed of receiving from a network is called __.
Companies such as Razorfish, DoubleClick, and Engage Software use ____ to collect consumer data.
The popular name of an interface for business intelligence tools is ____.
To accelerate their work, programmers can use one of several __, such as Microsoft Visual Basic, Embarcadero Delphi, Micro Focus COBOL, ASNA Visual RPG, and Visual C++.
Which of the following is a result of forming strategic alliances?
________ fulfill organizational needs for reliable data communications while relieving the organization of the burden of providing its own network management and maintenance.
A ____ is a bogus record in a networked database that neither employees nor business partners would ever access for legitimate purposes.
OLAP applications can process ____ records per second.
While a database itself is a collection of several related files, the program used to build databases, populate them with data, and manipulate the data is called a(n) __.
True or False: A small ad hoc team usually performs a quick preliminary investigation to determine the need for a new system.
Knowledge management attempts to transfer individual knowledge into __.
True or False: People are often denied credit based on the decisions made by machines.
On the Web, _____ includes identifying the sites your audience frequently visits.
____________, which are used to accumulate data about expenditures involved in producing specific products, make excellent use of IT to compile pricing data.
_____ is a set of disks that is programmed to replicate stored data to provide a higher degree of reliability.
True or False: The majority of problems in the business world are structured.
_____ include ERP, SCM, and CRM applications and typically cost millions of dollars.
The __________ is an important input to material requirements planning (MRP) applications that includes a list of all raw materials and subcomponent demands.
Companies should not rely on end users to develop applications that ____.
In a(n) monitor, the inner side of the screen has a layer of tiny phosphoric dots, which make up the pixels.
Which of the following is considered a strategic advantage of the first-mover?
The implementation of a new IS, also called ____, consists of two steps: conversion and training.
____ software closely conforms to an individual unit’s subculture, which makes the transition to a new system easier for employees.
True or False: Linguistic translation of a website alone can capture cultural sensitivities.
The motive for developing and improving _________ is not monetary, but rather the satisfaction of solving programming problems and the recognition of one’s contribution.
The bandwidth of a communication medium is measured as _______.
Companies that want to operate globally must adapt their information systems to changing formal or __standards.
The combination of customer relationship management (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) systems is referred to as _____.
According to the European union, people ____.
______ is a structured, disciplined approach that facilitates the adoption of new or modified systems by various groups and individuals within an organization.
__in general means hiring the services of another organization or individual to perform some of the work that otherwise would be performed by the hiring organization or its employees.
True or False: Companies raise barriers to entrants by obtaining legal protection of intellectual property.
The enforces a privacy law called the Directive on Data Privacy.
Companies that sell online maintain large warehouses and pay for picking, packing, and shipping, three activities known as _____.
A decision support system’s _____ module is a database or data warehouse that provides the data for the intelligence phase of decision making.
Ford created a joint venture with General Motors Corp. and DaimlerChrysler to establish __, a website that serves as an electronic market for parts suppliers who can bid online on requests for proposals posted by the automakers.
____ are the main reasons behind the slow adoption of new forms of electronic payments.
True or False: Data-mining software searches through large amounts of data for meaningful patterns of information.
A _________ is an array of components that work together to achieve a common goal, or multiple goals, by accepting input, processing it, and producing output in an organized manner.
True or False: Legacy systems are older systems that organizations decide to continue to use because the investment in a new system would not justify the improved features or because the old systems have some advantage that cannot be obtained from newer systems.
_____ has fewer restrictions on storage space and transactions, and since only one site resides on the disks, no other site can affect its functionality.
__________ specifically refers to the efficiency of human resources.
Since ________ reduces the amount of paper in organizations, some of its most enthusiastic adopters are companies in paper-intensive fields such as law, retail, insurance, and banking.
Which of the following is a good practice to consider when designing websites for an international audience?
A ___________ is responsible for researching, planning, and recommending software and systems choices to meet an organization’s business requirements.
WiMAX is a(n) ____ technology.
A _____ is the general logical structure in which records are stored within a database and the method used to establish relationships among the records.
The developers of __do not make the source code of their software public.
When using a(n) _____, the user enjoys the knowledge and experience that have been accumulated by other people over many years.
Thinking of an organization in terms of its suborganizations or subsystems is called _________.
Business intelligence __help executives quickly receive metrics, ratios, and trends in mostly graphic format.
Applications that can be integrated with other software to create new useful applications are called ______.
A(n) ____ is a Web page that invites surfers to post opinions and artistic work, as well as links to sites of interest.
True or False: Companies that choose not to fully develop their own recovery plan can outsource it to companies that specialize in either disaster recovery planning or provision of alternative sites.
Sometimes a(n) _____ is automatically created using data, such as the date and time of a transaction or the name or password of the user updating the file.
One way to increase market share is to lower prices, and the best way to lower prices is to ________.
A(n) _____ includes a description of a database's structure, the names and sizes of the fields, and details such as which field is a primary key.
_____ are entered to manipulate data, including adding, deleting, and updating data.
True or False: Popular output devices include the keyboard, mouse, trackball, microphone, and various types of scanners.
Organizations can achieve competitive advantage if they are powerful enough to __suppliers to their mode of operation or buyers to their product.
Hardware or software that blocks access to computing resources is called a(n) ____.
__systems are designed to support any and all relationships with customers.
The ____ part of the DSS that allows the user to interact with it is called the .
The conceptual blueprint of a database is called a(n) ____.
True or False: For an information system to be an strategic information, one of the conditions is that the information system must serve an organizational goal rather than simply provide information.
__is an expert system that includes instrumentation that connects to the patient’s body and feeds various data about the patient’s condition into the ES to be analyzed for pulmonary diseases.
True or False: Technical support involves the quality of the equipment that the hosting company provides, security measures it maintains the sophistication of server and load management, and the technical skills of its personnel.
True or False: If the first statement that an interpreter checks is free of syntactic errors, it inteprets the statement into object code and makes the computer execute it.
Companies that provide IT services are commonly called ____.
True or False: Similar to auctions among companies, some Web sites serve as auction hubs for individuals.
Which of the following is true of operating systems?
_____________ provide customers with cheaper combined service and the convenience of one-stop shopping.
Contracts for ____ software development might be incompatible with agile development methods.
True or False: Serving customers better and faster, as well as learning more about their experiences and preferences, is facilitated by decision support systems (DSSs).
True or False: IEEE 802.15 is a family of wireless protocols, collectively known as Wi-Fi.
The lack of a ____ in Big Data can make data collected from nontraditional sources a challenge to analyze.
When organizations use a customer relationship management (CRM) system, the _______ of such systems provide data for the DSS.
True or False: While many versions of Linux can be downloaded free of charge from the web, most firms prefer to purchase a packaged version.
A challenge with traditional file storage is _____.
Companies that are first to adopt advanced systems that reduce labor enjoy __or as long as their competitors lag behind.
True or False: A barrier to potential new market entrants is the high expense of entering the particular market.
True or False: FTTH is point-to-point transmission between two stationary devices, usually between two buildings, as opposed to mobile wireless, in which people carry a mobile device.
A(n) _______ is one for which there is no algorithm to follow to reach an optimal solution.
A(n) ____ diagram is used to describe the flow of data in a business operation.
With a(n) __, a user controls the cursor by moving his or her finger along a touch-sensitive pad.
In the __phase of decision making, decision makers collect facts, ideas, and beliefs.
Both data-mining and OLAP software are often integrated into ____ for the purpose of collecting business intelligence about customers.
True or False: A data warehouse is a large, typically relational, database that supports management decision making.
________ is a feature that enables a user to access additional information by clicking on selected text or graphics.
Agile methods developed out of ___, an application development approach that emerged in the 1980s aimed at cutting costs and time.
True or False: Computers collect, store, and process data into information according to instructions people provide via computer programs.
To optimize employee benefits, some companies use special software, incorporating a(n) __that determines the optimal health and retirement plans for each employee based on factors such as marital status, age, occupation, and other data.
The country-of-origin and country-of-destination principles deal with the issue of ____.
Companies can reduce their inventory by communicating with their suppliers through a shared system and letting them know the exact number of units of each item they need and the exact time they need them.
True or False: In direct access, records are organized sequentially.
True or False: A fixed variable model offered by the model management module of a decision support system does not change.
The process of a group of colleagues meeting and working collaboratively to generate creative solutions and new ideas is known as ______.
True or False: Knowledge management software makes storage and organization of unstructured data more of a challenge.
A major effort of most businesses, especially retail businesses, in using customer relationship management (CRM) systems is to collect ____ about customers.
True or False: Hardware, in computer terms, refers to the physical components of a computer.
True or False: In November 2000, the European union (EU) passed a law that lets consumers file lawsuits against an online business only in the country of the online business.
True or False: Designing a website for an international audience usually requires less planning than a national one.
Storage area network (SAN) identifies large quantities of data, called _______, and therefore can transfer and back up large amounts of data at a time.
_______ is a standard for software that digitizes and compresses voice signals and transmits the bits via the Internet link.
True or False: Modern customer relationship management (CRM) systems can help capture the entire customer experience with an organization, from response to an online advertisement to automatic replenishment of products to proactive service.
A company achieves __by using strategy to maximize its strengths, resulting in a competitive advantage.
True or False: Artificial intelligence (AI) focuses on methods and technologies to emulate how humans learn and solve problems.
A _________ is a body of clients that is large enough to attract many other clients.
In the field of engineering, DSS models might simulate the ____ environment.
True or False: An advantage of a flat-panel monitor is its lower power consumption.
To turn data into useful information, the system utilizes its ____, which offers a single fixed model, a dynamically modified model, or a collection of models from which either the DSS or the user selects the most appropriate one.
Before licensing a particular software package, the company should test the system using ____, which is comparing actual performance against specific quantifiable criteria.
In ____, the client’s website is stored on the host’s same physical server along with the sites of other clients.
The ability to scramble and code messages through keys that are shared only between the sender and receiver is referred to as _____.
True or False: Web designers need to be sensitive to cultural differences.
A(n) __is one piece of information about an entity, such as the last name or first name of a student, or the student’s street address.
The inclusion of foreign keys to create join tables might cause considerable __, a complexity that has not diminished the popularity of relational databases.
A single Wi-Fi router can be connected to a(n) __, which in turn is connected to a wired network and usually to the Internet.
The term __is associated with a high-speed networking connection, which is required for fast transmission of large files and multimedia material.
Identify a principle of the Directive on Data Privacy that conflicts with U.S. practices.
True or False: Database fields are limited to holding text and numbers.
In addition to communication that takes place between computer components, communication occurs between computers over distances called __Correct.
True or False: When a line is capable of carrying multiple transmissions simultaneously, it is said to be broadband.
True or False: With single sign-on, users are required to identify themselves every time they access each of several different systems.
Knowledge management tools build __and help employees access them.
The most important element of an outsourcing agreement for both parties, but mostly for the client, is what professionals call the ____.
In __, the raw data is organized in tables that show information in summaries and ratios so that the inquirer does not have to wait for processing raw data.
___________ have been used to provide service via the Web, such as helping residents find locations of different services on a city map or plan travel routes.
__________ are expenses incurred when a customer stops buying a product or service from one business and starts buying it from another.
_____ helps the users know what they can find and analyze in the data warehouse.
____ is a tool used to translate MS-Word documents to multiple languages.
The most important metric in the airline industry is _________, which is how much it costs to fly a passenger one mile of the journey.
Which of the following patents does Priceline.com hold that prevents competitors from entering its business space?
CIOs often cite ____ as an effective way to bring down the amount of work their subordinates must do.
True or False: Direct marketing is a data-mining application that identifies the reasons customers switch to competitors and predicts which customers are likely to do so.
True or False: Optical bar recognition senses data encoded in the series of thick and thin black bars in bar codes.
The first phase in the supply chain is ________.
True or False: The electronic bill presentment and payment allows bills to be presented automatically, directly from the companies’ information systems to payers’ email addresses, and therefore save labor, paper, and postage.
In a _________, a market rarely remains the domain of one organization for long; thus, competition ensues almost immediately.
The __considers several factors such as the item’s cost, the discount schedule for large quantities, the cost of warehousing ordered parts, the cost of alternative uses of the money, and other factors
Among the methods for system development, ____ is clearly the best option for many small companies.
Companies might offer two versions of their sites, one for wide bandwidth and another for ____.
The control unit uses special circuitry called a(n) __, which synchronizes all tasks.
Changing and manipulating the data in an information system is called ________.
is the most common programming language for creating Web pages and other information viewable in a Web browser.
The most common computer-related type of repetitive-stress injury is _______.
__are sequences of steps, formulas, models, and other tools that systematically reduce the alternatives to a manageable number.
The Greek word tele, which means “______,” is part of such words as “telephone,” “teleconference,” and other words referring to technologies that allow communications over large distances.
In airlines, the purpose of DSSs is to find the proper pricing to maximize the overall revenue from selling seats for each flight.
_______ is a process for outsourcing a variety of tasks to a distributed group of people, both online or offline.
BI software has become so popular in large companies that Microsoft decided to integrate such software into its popular database management system, _____.
Organizations must use software tools to process data into meaningful information to make _____ useful.
______ allow Internet access to anyone within range who uses a wireless-equipped device, provided logging in is not limited by controlled access codes.
Which of the following is true of open source software?
Material requirements planning (MRP) programs use _______ to put long-lead material on order.
An extranet might be viewed as connecting ____ of business partners.
True or False: The larger the number of companies competing within an industry, the better off each company is.
Practically all search engine sites, such as Google and Yahoo!, use __software, and continue to improve the software to provide more precise and faster responses to queries.
True or False: Traditional retailers, often called brick and mortar businesses, have extended their “storefront” by launching an e-tailing arm.
When ______ a software package, the buyer gains several benefits such as immediate system availability, high quality, low price, and available support.
_____ allows clients to take advantage of the vendor’s experience that the vendor hasgained through work with many clients in different environments.
Clicking different areas of a map can zoom in and out as well as bring up related information in the form of other maps or text, utilizing the ____ capabilities of the web to the fullest.
True or False: One of the most useful manipulations of object-oriented databases (ODBs) is the creation of a new table from two or more other tables.
True or False: A typical geographic information systems (GIS) consists of a database of quantitative and qualitative data from which information is extracted for display.
One objective of data mining is __, the finding of groups of related facts not previously known.
True or False: Compilers and interpreters are types of programming language translators.
The major advantage of mobile phone is that _______.
__can be rewritten and hold its content without electric power.
__equips traveling salespeople with information technology to facilitate their productivity.
True or False: For many companies, IT is not their core competency and should not be a focus of their efforts.
To keep up this site, we need your assistance. A little gift will help us alot.Donate
- The more you give the more you receive.Related Subject
System Analysis Design and Development
Web Enhanced Animation Graphics
Labor Relations and Negotiations
Labor Law and Legislation
Information Technology Practicum
Introduction to Basic Accounting
International Issues for Human Resources Management
Information Systems Operations and Maintenance
Theories of Crime Causation
Programmable Logic Controller
Object Oriented Programming Laboratory
Mobile Application Design and Development 2
Mobile Application Design and Development
Managing Information and Technology
Mail and Web Services
Living in the Information Technology Era
Information Technology Capstone Project
Introduction to Multimedia
Introduction to Information Systems
Introduction to Human Computer
Introduction to Computing
Intro to Hardware Description Language
Internet Technology in Real Estate
Internet Marketing and Entrepreneurship
Integrative Programming and Technology 2
Information Security and Management
Information Assurance and Security 3
Information Assurance and Security 2
Fundamentals of Investigation and Intelligence
Fundamentals of Database System
Chemistry for Engineers
Database Management System
Data Structures and Algorithms
Data Communications and Networking 2
Data Communications and Networking
Cyber Security: Theories and Practice
Current Trends and Issues
Integrative Programming and Technology
Data Communications and Networking 4
Applied Business Tools and Technologies
System Administration and Maintenance
Application Lifecycle Management
Systems Integration and Architecture
Information Assurance and Security
Principles of Operating System and its Application
Data Communications and Networking 3
Auditing and Assurance Concepts and Applications
3D Game Art Development
Principles of Marketing
Pricing Strategy and Tactics
New Market Development
Monetary Policy and Central Banking
Shopee 3D Floor
Lazada Smart TV Box
Our team has been certified on Ezoic the google award-winning platform for publishers.
We just wanted to take this opportunity to genuinely thank you for visiting with us and supporting our team hard work.