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Introduction to Criminology

Focus on the critical areas of field theory, methodology and criminal behaviour in all forms of criminal activity, such as political and environmental crime.











subject area

crime offenders






Integrated National Police was the municipal police force for the cities and large towns of the Republic of the Philippines.

  • True
  • False

This is also known as juvenile offending.

  • Juvenile delinquency

This theory suggests that the strength and durability of an individual's bonds or commitments to conventional society inhibit social deviance.

  • Social control theory

According to Social Structure Genre, crime is seen as a product of society as a result of:

  • Land Use
  • Morality
  • Political Conflict
  • Ethics
  • Racism
  • Poverty
  • Unemployment
  • Lack of Education

According to Freud, the id is concerned with instant pleasure or gratification while disregarding concern for others.

  • True
  • False

They agree with Merton's explanation of anomie, but also suggest that an illegitimate opportunity structure must exist.

  • Robert K. Merton
  • Emile Durkheim
  • Richard Cloward
  • Lloyd Ohlin
  • Karl Marx

Criminal law is a device to control societies.

  • Criminal law

Durkheim’s Typology of Suicide

  • Morality
  • Political Conflict
  • Egoistic
  • Anomic
  • Land Use
  • Fatalistic
  • Altruistic
  • Culture

Any act punishable by law that is committed through opportunity created during the course of a legal occupation.

  • Occupational crime

According to classical theory, crime happened because of their behaviour and not because of their mental state.

  • True
  • False

This theory is about individuals seeking innovative solutions to strain must learn (or know) the values and skills needed to take advantage of illegitimate opportunities that are available.

  • Strain theory

A type of crime committed by members of less prestigious occupational groups.

  • Blue-collar crime

Criminology is an interdisciplinary science that gathers and analyses data on crim and criminal behaviour.

  • True
  • False

The function that is designed to support the line functions and assist in the performance of the line functions.

  • Administrative

Criminology is a moral exercise.

  • True
  • False

This theory suggest that stress, frustration, and strain increase the likelihood of deviant behavior.

  • Strain theories

Defined as behavior that violates standards or expectations.

  • Deviance

Philippine Constabulary was created by the American colonial government to replace the Spanish colonial Guardia Civil.

  • True
  • False

Fraud and embezzlement that occurs within or against financial institutions that is insured or regulated.

  • Bank fraud

He agrees with Merton's explanation of anomie, but also suggests that an illegitimate opportunity structure must exist.

  • Merton's anomie

What are the (5) Key Principles of the Classical School of Criminology (choose all applicable answers).

  • Acts of Man
  • Hedonism
  • Punishment
  • Guilty Verdict
  • Evidence
  • Human Rights
  • Rationality
  • Due Process
  • Imprisonment
  • Cross Examination

The act of compelling observance of or compliance with a law, rule, or obligation.

  • Enforcement

Brigadier General Rafael Crame is the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary.

  • True
  • False

The Philippine National Police is the civilian peace keeping arm of the Philippine government.

  • True
  • False

He suggests social conditions place pressures on people differently throughout the class structure and people react individually to these conditions.

  • Social class

According to Freud, the ego is develop early in a person’s life.

  • True
  • False

A type of crime committed by white-collar employees that are not related to their job.

  • Avocational crime

American criminologist and author of social control theory.

  • Social control theory

Criminals learn behavior from family and peers.

  • Criminal behavior

What are the root causes of crime (select 5 applicable answers)

  • moralism
  • social determinism
  • positivism
  • biological determinism
  • ethics
  • law
  • psychological determinism

I.Q. of criminals are the same as the I.Q. of a normal person.

  • True
  • False

Five areas of Police personnel management.

  • Holding and retaining competent personnel
  • Creating a peaceful society
  • Fighting crimes
  • Acquiring competent personnel
  • Developing and motivating personnel
  • Efficient administration of the program with adequate budget
  • Labor and human relations

Some aspect of legal crime is the desire to win a case is stronger that ensuring all actions that are taken are legal and sometimes resulting into bribe and other form of corruption.

  • True
  • False

A type of Police policy stated in broad terms, such as statement of objectives, philosophy and creed. Others stress in general terms management traits, such as fairness in dealing with officers, understanding and human treatment of the work force.

  • General statement of principles

Defined as going along with those who have no special right to direct our behavior.

  • Conformity

By breaking rules, the criminal is labelled as deviant.

  • Labeling theory

This is the rule of conduct, and just obligatory laid by the legitimate authority.

  • Law

A type of crime that is illegal or greed-driven activities committed within the context of a legitimate occupation.

  • Occupational crime

Mala prohibita are acts that are universally condemned irrespective of political or economic system.

  • True
  • False

Criminal anthropology is the scientific study of the relationship between human physical characteristics and criminality.

  • True
  • False

Different types of crime.

  • Personal
  • Inchoate
  • Statutory
  • Cultural
  • Jealousy
  • Envy
  • Greed
  • Property

One of the principle of positivism is acceptance of social determinism.

  • True
  • False

The process where a juvenile delinquent needs to undergo for the offenses he/she has committed. (Arrange your answer in proper order)

  • Rehabilitation, Reformation, Reintegration

A type of crime when a service oriented business such as car repair shop over charge for parts.

  • Service business fraud

Humans choose to commit crimes because they could not fill the basic needs.

  • True
  • False

The unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods and services, including gambling, prostitution, load-sharking, narcotics, and labor racketeering.

  • Organized crime

Philippine Constabulary Metropolitan Command or MetroCom was created pursuant to Executive Order of the President on 14 July 1967 to supplement police forces within the Greater Manila Area and combat all forms of criminal activity.

  • True
  • False

This theory states that people come to identify and behave in ways that reflect how others label them.

  • Labeling theory

This type of crime is committed when store owners bribe government officials to avoid closure or fines of their restaurant.

  • Restaurant crime

Edwin Sutherland disprove that crimes were committed by people with low I.Q.

  • True
  • False

According to normative definition, crime is a social behaviour, a violation of conduct norms.

  • True
  • False

According to this theory, juveniles learn to engage in crime in the same way they learn to engage in conforming behavior: through association with or exposure to others.

  • Social learning theory

This unit is composed of staff function, finance, planning, and training.

  • Administrative unit

The function that carry out the major purposes of the organization, delivering the services and dealing with the public.

  • Primary or Line Function

This is also known as juvenile delinquency.

  • Juvenile offending

He believed individual behavior was socially determined.

  • Overview

This theory ascertains the need for belonging and attachment to others is fundamental, influencing many behavioral, emotional, and cognitive processes.

  • Social control theory

What are the 2 types of juvenile offenders?

  • Snatcher
  • Vagrant
  • Fraud
  • Age specific offenders
  • Repeat offenders

Psychoanalytic theory was first laid out by Sigmund Freud.

  • True
  • False

The events and circumstances that someone faces in their life, either raises of lowers their propensity for crime.

  • Crime

This unit is composed of line function, patrol, traffic, and investigation.

  • Operational unit

Kinds of Criminal Intent.

  • Grave
  • General
  • Specific
  • Misconduct

Sutherland introduced the causes of white-collar crime as criminals are motivated by the same forces that drive other criminals, that is, self-interest, the pursuit of pleasure, the avoidance of pain.

  • True
  • False

Theoretical views studying changes in criminal offending patterns over a person's entire life.

  • Life course theories

A type of crime when a lawyer engages in criminal conduct in the course of their duties, including fraud and over-billing.

  • Legal crime

This theory is most commonly associated with the sociology of crime since labeling someone unlawfully deviant can lead to poor conduct.

  • Labeling theory

One of the principles of biological theory is that human conduct is rooted in instinct.

  • True
  • False

The function involving the logistical operations of the organizations.

  • Auxiliary Function

Crime is an intentional act in violation of the criminal law committed without defence or excuse, and penalize by the state.

  • True
  • False

Humanistic psychological theory by Maslow and Halleck assumes that all humans are bad even though they are sometimes influenced to act badly.

  • True
  • False

This defines crimes, its nature, and prescribes for its punishments.

  • Criminal law

Criminology studies how society reacts to crime.

  • True
  • False

A type of Police policy from top management level and is intended to set up guidelines in the operation of the police organization.

  • Originated policy

A type of Police policy born when problems arise at the lower levels of the organization and the main in charge does not know how to meet the problem. Subordinates then appeal to his superiors for guideline and for guidance.

  • Appealed policy

An organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency connotes bureaucratic structure and behavior, relatively routine decision-making and maintenance of the internal order.

  • Administration

One of the principles of biological theory is that behavior may be inherited.

  • True
  • False

This unit is composed of auxiliary function, communications, and records management.

  • Service unit

Crime is socially harmful act with possibility for penalty by the state.

  • True
  • False

Criminals have weakened social bonds with family.

  • Major Weaknesses of Social Bond

This is an act of participating in unlawful behavior as a minor or individual younger than the statutory age of majority.

  • Juvenile delinquency

It is the moment when minors cease to be considered such and assume legal control over their persons, actions, and decisions, thus terminating the control and legal responsibilities of their parents or guardian over them.

  • Age of majority

Crime is cause by the individual free will.

  • True
  • False

Crimes by prestigious professionals include doctor’s lawyers, professors, scientist, and the clergy.

  • True
  • False

According to this theory association with delinquent friends is the best predictor of delinquency other than prior delinquency.

  • Social learning theory

The process involved in ensuring strict compliance, proper obedience of laws and related statutes focuses on the policing process or how law enforcement agencies are organized and managed in order to achieve the goals of law enforcement most effectively, efficiently, and productively.

  • Police administration

Criminology is penology.

  • True
  • False

This theory strain can be a result of blocked opportunities and the failure to achieve one's goals.

  • Strain Theory

Criminology is the study of the causes of crime.

  • True
  • False

The (4) variables of social control theory.

  • Attachment
  • Involvement
  • Culture
  • Commitment
  • Political conflict
  • Belief
  • Obedience
  • Morality

According to the Freudian theory, criminals are physiologically different from the rest of the society.

  • True
  • False

According to Freud, the superego develops as a person incorporates the moral standards and values of the community; parents; and significant others, such as friends and clergy members.

  • True
  • False

Charles Darwin introduced a theory that human aggression serves other purposes but take on covert forms.

  • True
  • False

Crime is considered a form of deviance from a socially-created act.

  • True
  • False

A type of Police policy over specific situation. These are more rigid in nature. Direct and less flexible.

  • Specific rules

A type of Police policy comes from the government in the forms of laws, administrative orders, and rules and procedures of contract specifications.

  • Imposed policy

Different levels of seriousness of a crime.

  • Misconduct
  • Misdemeanour
  • Grave
  • Felony

Defined as compliance with authorities in a hierarchy.

  • Obedience

Factors affecting criminal behavior.

  • Economic
  • Genetic
  • Guilt
  • Envy
  • Religion
  • Social
  • Social Norms
  • Pressure
  • Political
  • Self-Interest
  • Psychological
  • Culture

Mala in se are acts that are bad because they are prohibited.

  • True
  • False

This is a state in which norms are no longer effective in regulating behavior within a society.

  • Regulating behaviour

According to John Braithwaite, criminals are motivated by a disparity between corporate goals and the limited opportunities available through conventional business practices.

  • True
  • False

Corporate crimes are the violation of a criminal statute by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of and for the benefit of the corporation.

  • True
  • False

Identify the categories in the attrition system (Choose 5 appropriate answers)

  • By relief
  • By attainment of maximum tenure in position
  • By suspension
  • By civil or criminal offense
  • By demotion in position or rank
  • By other means
  • By non-promotion

This type of crime is when store owners short-weigh their commodities to gain more profit.

  • Retail crime

Criminology is criminal justice.

  • True
  • False

Defined as violations of criminal law to which formal penalties apply.

  • Crime

Psychodynamic theory is centered on the notion that an individual’s early childhood experience influences his or her likelihood of committing future crimes.

  • True
  • False

Classical school of criminology emphasized the idea that people make choices to commit crim and that punishment should be about preventing future crimes from being committed.

  • True
  • False
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