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Fundamentals of Database System

Introduces database concepts, including relational databases, tables and data types, data selection and manipulation, views, stored procedures, and more.

elmasri navathe


ramez elmasri

system fundamentals

computer science

information technology








Column header / field

  • Attributes

SQL is not a Programming Language.

  • True
  • False

Level of database design use to create database.


AND operator displays a record if all the conditions separated by AND are FALSE.

  • True
  • False

It is a stricter form of 2nd and 3rd normal form

  • Boyce Codd Normal Form (BC/NF)

DCL - Use the command: Permissions

  • True
  • False

AND operator displays a record if all the conditions separated by AND are TRUE.

  • True
  • False

To sort the records in descending order, use the DESC keyword.

  • True
  • False

The table is in a 1NF if It satisfies the definition of a relation.

  • True
  • False

Used to control data access

  • DCL

sum of all or selected values

  • sum

Used to manage data within the object schema.

  • Data Manipulation Language (DML)

Cross Join – Used the foreign key as the matching criteria

  • True
  • False

_____ means missing value.

  • NULL


  • all kinds of keys

We use _____ to give column another name.


number of all or selected values

  • count

A process of producing a set of tables (relations) with a proper attribute.



  • Time


  • true/false

It is a command used or a request for information from a database.


minimum of all or selected values

  • min

Composite attribute can be divided into more attributes.

  • True
  • False

Display a form to be fill out by the user.

  • Forms-based Interfaces

Table definition

  • Schema of relation

Used to performed or rollback the changes that we made in the database using DML commands.

  • Transaction Control Language (TCL)

Data model is a collection of concepts that is used to describe the structure of a database.

  • True
  • False

A computerized system that permits users to create and maintain a database.


It is between high-level and low-level data models.


Include all qualified records from the right table in the join condition even if they do not have matching records in the left table.


Multi-value dependency

  • 4th Normal Form (4NF)


  • name, primary key

Data abstraction is the data type, relationships and constraints that apply to the data.

  • True
  • False

Used to give or control privilege in a database.

  • Data Control Language (DCL)

Internal Level describes the physical storage structure of the database.

  • True
  • False


  • Tuples

People whose jobs require access to the database for querying, updating, and generating reports.


Like Web search engines (engine like Google), which the user can specify a string or any keywords and expect to get a relevant result.

  • Keyword-based Database Search


  • Text

Entity Instance is an instance of a particular entity.

  • True
  • False

Attribute describes an entity class.

  • True
  • False

Logical Design – transforming the ERD into relational model.

  • True
  • False

Structured Query Language is a command use by relational database management system to perform database operations.

  • True
  • False

Include all qualified records from both tables in the join condition.


It describes how entities are related to each other.


Used to sort the result.


In SQL the command language used is like an Spanish language.

  • True
  • False

Database System automatically takes care of backup and recovery.

  • True
  • False

Maximum Cardinality describes the maximum number of entity instances in the relationship.

  • True
  • False

Minimum Cardinality describes the minimum number of entity instances that must participate in a relationship.

  • True
  • False

Use to retrieve data from multiple tables.


We call the database and DBMS software together as a _____


The participation of an entity in the relationship is optional.

  • Optional

The interface allows users to access their data through their mobile phone or mobile device.

  • Applications for mobile devices

Is an instance of a particular entity.


Displays a record if any of the conditions separated by OR is TRUE.


Records that have matching records from two (2) tables


Used to define and modify data structures

  • DDL

NO Transitive Dependency

  • 3rd Normal Form (3NF)

Composite Attribute can be calculated from other attributes.

  • True
  • False

All possible column values

  • Domain

Controlling Redundancy is used to improve the performance of queries.

  • True
  • False

It is a collection of related data.


A single entity instance of one entity class is related to a single entity instance of another entity class.

  • One-to-One

DML - Manipulate data using commands: insert, update and delete

  • True
  • False

Who is responsible in administering the primary and secondary resource in the database?


Used for creating tables, schema etc. in database.

  • Data Definition Language (DDL)

Entities can be related indirectly by two (2) relationships.


NO “repeating groups” (columns)

  • 1st Normal Form (1NF)

Facts that can be recorded and that have implicit meaning.

  • DATA

Include all qualified records from the left table in the join condition even if they do not have matching records in the right table.


Its is one or more columns of a relation or table that is used to identify a record.

  • KEY

Each entity instance of one entity class is related to a multiple entity instance of another entity class; and vice versa.

  • Many-to-Many

It is the number of tuples in a relation.


It is a question or an inquiry, sometimes loosely used for all types of interactions with databases.


It is the number of attributes in a relation.


An Expression can be a single constant, column, variable, or scalar function.

  • True
  • False

Indirect relationship causes functional dependency.


Null means zero

  • True
  • False

The interface presents a menu that lead to a user through request.

  • Menu-based Interfaces for Web Clients or Browsing

Describes how entities are related.


A single entity instance of one entity class is related to a multiple entity instance of another entity class.

  • One-to-Many

Use to get aggregation results for different groups of records.


This relationship exists if they are independent or different to each other.


For each entity instance the value of the identifier attribute is Unique.

  • True
  • False

NO Partial Dependency

  • 2nd Normal Form (2NF)

Data Manipulation Language is use for manipulating data in a database.

  • True
  • False

Compound Conditions use logical operators to filter or connect multiple criteria.

  • True
  • False

Relational Model is a table with columns and rows.

  • True
  • False

A non-key attribute is dependent on part of a composite primary key.


Relationships can't have attributes.

  • True
  • False

An Expression can't be a number, columns, literals, functions connected by operators

  • True
  • False

Asterisk (*) means all or a list of _____


A displayed schema is called Schema figure.

  • True
  • False

DDL used to control data access.

  • True
  • False

Used to retrive data and manipulate data

  • DML

They are liable for identifying the data to be stored within the database and for selecting appropriate structures to represent and store this data.


The table is in a 2NF if there's NO Partial Dependency.

  • True
  • False


  • name, data type, size, value range

It is needed when minimum cardinality is optional on a table.


The participation of an entity in the relationship is mandatory.

  • Mandatory

Physical data models is a concept that shows how the data is stored on the computer.

  • True
  • False

There’s no difference between the description of database and the database itself.

  • True
  • False


  • Integer

A thing that shares a common attribute.


Attribute is a name for a set of similar things that you can list. Like objects, events, people.

  • True
  • False

DDL - Schema: databases, tables, views and many more

  • True
  • False

Columns or expressions can be in the SELECT clause only if they are in the GROUP BY clause.

  • True
  • False

It is a combination of symbols and operators that returns a single value.


OR operator displays a record if any of the conditions separated by OR is TRUE.

  • True
  • False

average of all or selected values

  • avg

Use _____ if there is ambiguity when distinguishing a column.


The relational model (RM) was first described by Edgar F. Codd

  • True
  • False

No primary key can be null.

  • True
  • False

SQL is used to retrieve data from relational databases.

  • True
  • False

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) was proposed by _____


maximum of all or selected values

  • max


  • Relation

Null means a value is unknown.

  • True
  • False

An attribute that has a multiple value.

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