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A security tool that monitors network or system activities, identifying and alerting on potential unauthorized access or malicious activities.
Which of the following is one of the five UEFI boot process phases?
What is the last addressable block where negative addressing of the logical blocks starts from the end of the volume in GPT?
What does the term "false positive" mean in the context of IDS?
Combines information from a number of sensors, other both host and network-based, in a central analyzer that is able to better identify and respond to the intrusion activity.
Which of the following should be considered before planning and evaluating the budget for the forensic investigation case?
Which LBA stores the protective MBR?
A common approach to detecting intruder activity on a system is to periodically scan critical files for changes from the desired baseline, by comparing a current cryptographic checksums for these files, with a record of known good values. Disadvantages include the needed to generate and protect the checksums using known good files, and the difficulty monitoring changing files. Tripwire is an example.
Such attacks involve either significantly increased packet traffic or significantly increase connection attempts, in an attempt to overwhelm the target system.
Which field is the standard identifier set to CD001 for a CD-ROM compliant to the ISO 9660 standard?
A notification device that uses a clapper to strike a gong is a
A local intrusion detection system alerts
Which of the following is NOT used in the calculation of HDD density?
Which of the following is unique to SSDs?
T/F placing the IDS on a shared network segment can result in performance issues
What is the primary purpose of a Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in a cloud environment?
Which of the following applies to installations of outdoor active infrared pulsed multi-beam photoelectric units?
ID component or process that analyzes the data collected by the sensor for signs of unauthorized/undesired activity or for events that may be of interest to the security admin. Sometimes the sensor/analyzer can be part of the same component.
T/F A host based IDS can limit outgoing traffic if a system is compromised.
Which of the following is a common technique used to detect covert channels in network traffic?
What is a common evasion technique used to bypass signature-based IDS?
Monitors network traffic for particular network segments or devices and analyzes network, transport, and application protocols to identify suspicious activity.
Describes a data model to represent information exported by intrusion detection systems and explains the rationale for using this model. An implementation of the data model in the Extensive Markup Language (XML) is presented, an XML document type definition is developed, and examples are provided.
Apprentice, Journeyman, Master
What does the term "payload" refer to in the context of network traffic?
What is a standard partitioning scheme for hard disks and part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)?
What does the term "honeypot" refer to in the context of network security?
Sensors, Analyzers, User Interface
An audit collection module operating as a background process on a monitored system. Its purpose is to collect data on security related events on the host and transmit these to the central manager.
A _____ _____ ______ filters out all known safe traffic, reducing the load on more detailed filters
Monitors the characteristics of a single host and the events occurring within that host, such as process identifiers and the system calls they make, for evidence of suspicious activity.
Data sources, sensor, analyzer, administrator, manager, operator
Collects data from data source, forwards to analyzer.
Match a large collection of known patterns of malicious data against data stored on a system or in transit over a network. The signatures need to be large enough to minimize the false alarm rate, while still detecting a sufficiently large fraction of malicious data. This approach is widely used in anti-virus products.
An intrusion system that allows multiple signals from several sensors to be sent and received over a single communications line is a(n)
What is the primary purpose of a honeypot in network security?
What is the primary goal of obfuscation in the context of IDS evasion?
More common than inline sensors. They monitor a copy of network traffic; the actual traffic does not pass through the device. From the point of view of traffic flow, the passive sensor is more efficient than an inline sensor, because it does not add an extra handling step that contributes to packet delay.
The danger of a short transmission link on an outdoor microwave installation is the signal will be too
Anomaly Detection, Signature/Heuristic Detection
System call traces, audit (log file) records, file integrity checksums, registry access
In MS-DOS and earlier versions of Microsoft Windows, which partition must be first and a primary partition?
What is the primary goal of an IDS evasion technique?
Uses fuzzy set theory where reasoning is approximate, and can accommodate uncertainty.
The human that is the primary user of the IDS manager. The operator often monitors the output of the IDS and initiates or recommends further action.
Which of the following is NOT where potential evidence may be located?
T/F A network IDS can determine if an attack will succeed or fail.
Host-based, Network-based, Distributed/Hybrid
Which of the following is a potential drawback of using an Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS)?
Network IDSs are usually limited in scope by __________ to external attacks
Which of the following is a data structure situated at sector 1 in the volume boot record of a hard disk to explain the physical layout of a disk volume?
Which of the following is NOT an element of cybercrime?
What does the term "zero-day vulnerability" refer to in the context of network security?
Responsible for collecting data. The input may be any part of a system that could contain evidence of an intrusion. Types of input to these includes network packets, log files, and system call traces.
Which item describes the following UEFI boot process phase? (The phase of EFI consisting of clearing the UEFI program from memory, transferring the UEFI program to the OS, and updating the OS calls for the run time service using a small part of the memory.)
Which of the following is NOT a consideration during a cybercrime investigation?
What is the primary goal of a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack?
Which item describes the following UEFI boot process phase? (The phase of EFI consisting of initialization code the system executes after powering the system on, manages platform reset events, and sets the system state.)
Which of the following is important to consider when installing a bell?
Uses a set of known malicious data patterns (signatures) or attack rules (heuristics) that are compared with current behavior to decide if it is of an intruder. Also known as misuse detection. Only can identify known attacks for which it has patterns/rules.
What is the meaning of the acronym POST?
Which item describes the UEFI boot process phase in which the majority of the initialization occurs?
Low Interaction or High Interaction
Which of the following is not a common type of IDS?
Which component of an IDS is responsible for collecting data and network traffic?
Describes the Intrusion Detection Exchange Protocol (IDXP), an application level protocol for exchanging data between intrusion detection entities. IDXP supports mutual-authentication, integrity, and confidentiality over a connection-oriented protocol.
What is the purpose of signature-based detection in an IDS?
Which of the following is a potential advantage of using IDS in a cloud environment?
Which of the following is a potential limitation of using MAC filtering in network security?
An ___ is any system that tries to detect potential attacks launched against a host or network
Which type of IDS is typically used to monitor web applications and protect against web-based attacks?
Enables a user to view output from the system or control the behavior of the system. May be the manager/director/console component.
Which field type refers to the volume descriptor as a partition descriptor?
MBR almost always refers to the partition sector of a disk also known as:
T/F A network IDS is capable of capturing traffic that may be filtered out at the host.
What does the term "false negative" mean in the context of IDS?
GUIDs are displayed as how many hexadecimal digits with groups separated by hyphens?
Which of the following is the correct number of bytes reserved at the beginning of a CD-ROM for booting a computer?
Because they use a lot of Dynamic Link Libraries (DLL) as an intermediary between process requests and the system call interface.
T/F IDSs are Operating System independent.
Which of the following ISO 9660–compliant portions of a compact disc describes the location of the contiguous root directory similar to the super block of the UNIX file system?
What is the primary purpose of a firewall in network security?
Minimal technical skill who primarily use existing attack toolkits. Likely comprise the largest number of attackers, including many criminal and activist hackers. "script-kiddies"
Examples include use of inappropriate websites and use of forbidden application protocols.
Which of these electric field sensors is considered the most reliable?
Which of the following basic partitioning tools displays details about GPT partition tables in Linux OS?
What are the six components of an intrusion systems
Which position does the protective MBR occupy in the GPT at Logical Block Address 0?
A record of the sequence of systems calls by processes on a system is widely acknowledged as the preferred data source of HIDS. Doesn't work well on Windows due to the extensive use of DLLs that obscure which processes make specific system calls.
A Host based IDS contains automated log parsers that check system and application logs for ________
Which of the following is a common technique used in a SYN Flood attack?
Encode probabilistic relationships among observed metrics.
Inline or Passive Mode
What is the primary goal of a denial-of-service (DoS) attack?
This document defines requirements for the Intrusion Detection Message Exchange Format (IDMEF) and the requirements for a communication protocol for communicating IDMEF.
T/F A host based IDS can provide coverage for multiple machines
How many bytes is each logical block in GPT?
T/F A Network IDS can protect system specific files
What is the primary purpose of an Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS)?
What is the main difference between Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and antivirus software?
Which of the following is TRUE regarding computer forensics?
Signature and Rule-based heuristic identification
Most modern operating systems include accounting software that collects information on user activity. The advantage of using this information is that no additional collection software is needed. The disadvantages are that the audit records may not contain the needed information or may not contain it in a convenient form, and that intruders may attempt to manipulate these records to hide their actions.
Network IDSs are best deployed in places that they can see _____ of interest
T/F Placing a network IDS outside the firewall may overwhelm it due to the amount of traffic
The type of magnetic switch that is most difficult for an intruder to defeat is
IDS systems in the late 1980s used automated ___ _______
To be of practical use, an IDS should detect a substantial percentage of intrusions while keeping the false alarm rate at an acceptable level. That's hard. Most users are legitimate, after all. This issue is referred to as?
On Macintosh computers, which architecture utilizes EFI to initialize the hardware interfaces after the BootROM performs POST?
Most NIDS technologies analyze several dozen application protocols, such as DHCP, DNS, FTP, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NFS, POP, RSH, Remote Procedure Call, SIP, Server Message Block, SMTP, SNMP, Telnet., as well as database protocols, IM applications, and peer-to-peer file sharing software. The NIDS is looking for attack patterns that have been identified as targeting these protocols. Attack examples include buffer overflows, password guessing, and malware transmission.
T/F A Network IDS cannot protect form local attacks or copying
Which of the following is a potential drawback of using honeypots for network security?
Bayesian networks, Markov models, Neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, clustering and outlier detection
Consists of a software package that emulates particular IT services or systems well enough to provide a realistic initial interaction, but does not execute a full version of these services/systems.
A security service that monitors and analyzes system events for the purpose of finding, and providing real-time or near real-time warning of, attempts to access system resources in an unauthorized manner.
Data is transmitted from the keypad to a decoder through twisted pair or shielded twisted pair cable in a(n)
A visual evaluation to verify or confirm that something appears as desired is a(n)
Alarm wires and power, lighting, or Class 1 circuits must be separated by at least
Groups of hackers sponsored by governments to conduct espionage or sabotage activities. Known also as Advanced Persistent Threats due to covert nature and persistence over extended periods involved with many attacks in this class.
Which type of IDS uses statistical models and machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies?
A material that neither absorbs nor reflects microwave energy is
Involves the use of rules for identifying known penetrations or penetrations that would exploit known weaknesses. Rules can also be defined that identify suspicious behavior, even when the behavior is within the bounds of established patterns of usage. Typically the rules are specific to the machine/OS.
Which of the following is NOT a legitimate authorizer of a search warrant?
In a wet or corrosive environment, and exterior wall and any security systems equipment must be separated by at least
What is the role of the analyzer component in an IDS?
What is heuristic-based detection in an IDS?
Building control circuits that are powered and controlled by a fire alarm system are governed by
A ____ based IDS is limited to a single system, and verify what HAS happened rather than what MIGHT have happened
Which of the following is TRUE regarding Enterprise Theory of Investigation (ETI)?
Involves the collection of data relating to the behavior of legitimate users over a period of time. Then current observed behavior is analyzed to determine with a high level of confidence whether this behavior is that of a legitimate user or an intruder.
Sufficient technical skills to modify and extend attack toolkits to use newly discovered, or purchased, vulnerabilities; or to focus on different target groups. May be able to locate new vulnerabilities to exploit. A number at this skill level found in all classes.
A ______ based IDS monitors all traffic moving across a segment
Occurs when an attacker probes a target network/system by sending different kinds of packets. Using the responses received from the target, the attacker can learn many of the system's characteristics and vulnerabilities. Thus acts as a target identification tool for an attacker. Scanning can be detected by atypical flow patterns at the application layer, transport layer, and network layer.
Statistical, Knowledge-Based, Machine Learning
Which of the following sets the standard for companies that install certificated burglar and fire alarm systems?
In the GUID Partition Table, which Logical Block Address contains the Partition Entry Array?
Which of the following is NOT a common evasion technique used to bypass IDS?
Anomaly, Signature/Heuristic, Distributed
What is the purpose of the "correlation" phase in the operation of an IDS?
Application Layer and reconnaissance attacks, Transport Layer reconnaissance and attacks, Network Layer Reconnaissance and attacks, Unexpected application services, and policy violations
Where the attacker identifies and characterizes the target systems using publicly available information, both technical/non- technical and the use of network exploration tools to map target resources.
ARMs are ____ based, and can be general or specific.
Develop a model with sets of states, some possibly hidden, interconnected by transition probabilities.
Cyber criminals, activists, state-sponsored organization's, others
T/F A Tap that copies traffic crossing it is a two way connection
Software that exists that can import and analyze data from a variety of sources, sensors, and products. May rely on standardized protocols.
A NFM can create problems if bad traffic is being ______ to look like good traffic
Which of the following is a potential drawback of using a firewall in network security?
A Host based IDS has more ________ than network IDSs; they closely target malicious activity for single OSs
NIDSs analyze TCP and UDP traffic and perhaps other protocols. Examples of attacks are unusual packet fragmentation, scans for vulnerable ports, and TCP-specific attacks such as SYN floods.
Host agent module, LAN monitor agent module, central manager module
Which of the following Windows operating systems powers on and starts up using only the traditional BIOS-MBR method?
Either individuals, usually working as insiders, or members of a larger group of outsider attackers, who are motivated by social or political causes. Known as hacktivists. Often of a low skill level. Aim of attack is to promote/publicize their cause, typically through website defacement, DoS, or theft of data.
Which of these conditions are a vulnerability factor for a magnetic switch sensors?
Which cmdlet can investigators use in Windows PowerShell to parse GPTs of both types of hard disks, including the ones formatted with either UEFI or MBR?
UL local Grade B control panels have how many seconds of attack resistance?
In an advanced IDS system, one could redirect traffic to a _______ and analyze the pattern of attack
Is a real system, with a full OS, services and applications, which are instrumented and deployed where they can be accessed by attackers.
Uses techniques inspired by evolutionary biology, including inheritance, mutation, selection and recombination, to develop classification rules.
Approaches use an expert system that classifies observed behavior according to a set of rules that model legitimate behavior. Advantages are that that they are super robust and customizable, but its disadvantages are that it's hard and takes time to develop knowledge from data/come up with good rules. You have to have human analysis.
What is the main drawback of using only signature-based detection in an IDS?
Addressable intrusion detection systems
Intrusion detection message exchange requirements, intrusion detection message exchange format, intrusion detection exchange protocol
First, these tools may not recognize new threats or radical modifications of existing threatsSecond, it is difficult to update schemes rapidly enough to deal with quickly spreading attacks.
What partition holds the information regarding the operating system, system area, and other information required for booting?
Group the observed data into clusters based on some similarity or distance measure, and then identify subsequent data as either belonging to a cluster or as an outlier.
inserted into a network segment so that the traffic it is monitoring must pass through the sensors. Commonly done by combining a NIDS sensors with something traffic already flows through, like a firewall or switch. It can be a standalone device though. The goal of these is to block an attack when one is detected.
Which of the following is TRUE of civil crimes?
A weakness of Host based IDS systems is that each host must maintain its own ___
Every alarm system must have standby power sufficient to operate the system in a non-alarm status for a minimum of
Actions taken on the system, typically via a local access vulnerability, to increase the privileges available to the attacker to enable their desired goals on the target system.
An _____ __________ ______ determines if remaining traffic represents an attack, as well as the severity of the attack.
Approaches automatically determine a suitable classification model from the training data using data mining techniques. Disadvantage is that this process typically requires significant time and computational resources, but once it's done, it has a good analysis. Uses data mining techniques.
A tap has ___ interfaces representing the traffic crossing it
The ID component/process for which the operator manages the various components of the ID system. Management functions typically include sensor configuration, analyzer configuration, event notification management, data consolidation, and reporting
Which of the following is NOT a common type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack?
The NIDS attempts to determine if the activity on a transport connection is consistent with the expected application protocol. An example is a host running an unauthorized application service.
Target Acquisition and Information Gathering, Initial Access, Privilege Escalation, Covering Tracks
The purpose of recording loop resistance during testing is to aid in
What is the primary purpose of MAC filtering in network security?
In ______ Net IDS screening, the IDS is implemented in promiscuous mode to monitor traffic to all hosts. It may be hidden so as to not send traffic.
NIDs typically analyze IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, and IGMP at this level. Examples of attacks are spoofed IP addresses and illegal IP header values.
An approach used on Windows systems is used to monitor access to the registry, given the amount of information and access to it used by programs on these systems.
Which LBA will be the first usable sector?
Distributed IDS developed by Intel. Has each host and each network device considered to be a potential sensor that you can install the sensor software module on. The sensors in this distributed configuration can exchange information to corroborate the state of the network.
Because individual hosts must maintain host IDSs, there is increased ___________ and reduced system _________.
When a network based IDS is established, its interface is placed in _________ mode
Hackers with motivations other than those listed above, including classic hackers/crackers motivated by technical challenge or peer-group esteem and reputation. "Hobby hackers"
A control panel output that is taken directly from a transistor is a(n)
High level tech skills capable of discovering brand new categories of vulnerabilities, or writing new powerful attack toolkits.
When mirroring a port for a network IDS, you should mirror to the ________ router or ______
Situation where an intruder is not identified as an intruder.
alerts that are generated when the gossip traffic enables a platform to conclude that an attack is underway.
A characteristic of a motor-driven bell is that it
Situation where an authorized user is identified as an intruder.
How large is the partition table structure that stores information about the partitions present on the hard disk?
T/F An IDS prevents network penetration.
Which of these is vulnerable to false alarms from large pets and are easily circumvented if an intruder steps over them
What is the main difference between Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS)?
Which of the following is a potential limitation of using anomaly-based detection in an IDS?
What is the primary function of a network-based IDS (NIDS)?
Which of the following is an example of a well-known NIDS tool?
The human with overall responsibility for setting the security policy of the organization, and thus, for decisions about deploying and configuring the IDS.
Actions such as the installation of backdoors or other malicious software, or through the addition of covert authentication credentials or other configuration changes to the system, to enable continued access by the attacker after the initial attack.
Which type of IDS monitors activities on a single host or device?
Open source, highly configurable and portable host-based or network-based IDS. Often referred to as a lightweight IDS
In ______ Net IDS screening, the IDS is installed in-line with the traffic flow so all traffic must pass through the IDS system.
A security event, or a combination of multiple security events, that constitutes a security incident in which an intruder gains, or attempts to gain, access to a system (or system resource) without having authorization to do so.
What must an investigator do in order to offer a good report to a court of law and ease the prosecution?
Which of the following is an advantage of using a host-based IDS (HIDS)?
Which field type refers to the volume descriptor as a primary?
Simulate human brain operation with neurons and synapses between them that classify observed data.
The agent captures each audit record produced by the native audit collection system. A filter is applied that retains only those records that are of security interest. These records are then reformatted into a standardized format
T/F Active screening does not cause performance issues.
What is the main limitation of using encryption to bypass IDS detection?
Receive input from one or more sensors or from other of themselves. Responsible for determining if an intrusion has occurred. The output of this component is an indication that an intrusion has occurred. The output may include evidence supporting the conclusion that an intrusion occurred.
What does the term "baseline" refer to in the context of IDS?
Where the attacker disables or edits audit logs, to remove evidence of attack activity, and uses rootkits and other measures to hide covertly installed files or code.
Which of the following UNIX/Linux commands can be used to help back up and restore the MBR?
The means by which programs access core kernel functions, providing a wide range of interactions with the low-level operating systems functions.
When blocking traffic, one can close the connection by sending a TCP ___ flag to both ends
Host based IDSs are _____ based analyzers, integrating into the host __ stack
Denial of Service, Scanning, Worms
Which of the following specifications is used as a standard to define the use of file systems on CD-ROM and DVD media?
Leakage current is drained by the intrusion control
Statistic Packet Anomaly Detection Engine (SPADE)
Operates in the same fashion as a host agent module except that it analyzes LAN traffic and reports the results to the central manager.
Which of the following statements is correct with regard to piezoelectric sensor installation?
Receives reports from LAN monitor and host agents and processes and correlates these reports to detect intrusion.
Signature and Anomaly
Analysis of the observed behavior using univariate, multivariate, or time-series models of observed metrics. Good because they are simple/low computation cost, but are difficult to pick which metrics you should use and you can't determine all kinds of behaviors.
Spread among hosts can be detected in more than one way. Some worms propagate quickly and use large amounts of bandwidth. Worms can also be detected because they can cause hosts to communicate with each other that typically do not, and they can also cause hosts to use ports which they normally don't' use. Many worms also perform scanning.
Which group of value is needed to compute standby battery capacity?
Which of the following Federal Rules of Evidence contains Rulings on Evidence?
What is the primary purpose of an anomaly-based IDS?
Which of these is a major requirement of an outdoor microwave installation?
Either individuals or members of an organized crime group with a goal of financial award. To achieve this, their activities may include identity theft, theft of financial credentials, corporate espionage, data theft, or data ransoming. Meet in underground forums to coordinate attacks.
The initial access to a target system, typically by exploiting a remote network vulnerability, by guessing weak authentication credentials used in a remote service, or via the installation of malware on the system using some form of social engineering or drive-by download.
Which of the following is true with regard to magnetic switch sensor installation?
What is the purpose of a decoy in the context of network security?
What is the primary purpose of an Intrusion Detection System (IDS)?
T/F A strength of host based IDSs is that they reduce false positives
T/F Host based IDSs require no additional hardware or network infrastructure
Which of the following is a passive IDS?
T/F Taps only allow monitoring
Which of the following is NOT a type of flash-based memory?
Which of the following is NOT a digital data storage type?
Which of the following is NOT a common phase in the operation of an IDS?
Events from various sources are collected by intermediate collection points such as firewalls, IDSs, or servers that serve a specific segment of a network. These events are summarized for delivery to the central policy system.
Which of the following is NOT a recommended practice when deploying an IDS?
Which of the following Federal Rules of Evidence governs proceedings in the courts of the United States?
Most Network based IDSs are ______ in nature
The raw data that an IDS uses to detect unauthorized/undesired activity. Things like network packets, OS audit logs, application audit logs, and system-generated checksum data.
A response module can ___ attacks, send a real-time _____ to the admin, or actively ____ traffic.
Which of the following is NOT part of the Computer Forensics Investigation Methodology?
What is the purpose of the "logging" phase in the operation of an IDS?
Which of the following describes when a user plugs in a computer and starts it from a fully off condition?
T/F IDSs don't have false positives or negatives
Which Windows operating system powers on and starts up using either the traditional BIOS-MBR method or the newer UEFI-GPT method?
IDSs check for patterns of known ______ and activities indicating malicious ______
A _______ _____ determines what action to take given a specific attack
Packet Decoder, Detection Engine, Logger, Alerter
An interior sensor that provides narrow or wide detection for high traffic areas uses
Summary events, DDI events, PEP events
Which of the following basic partitioning tools displays details about GPT partition tables in Windows OS?
T/F Host based IDSs cannot see into encrypted traffic
What is the primary advantage of behavior-based IDS?
Reside on trusted, self-defending platforms and intelligent IDSs. These systems correlate distributed information, local decisions, and individual device actions to detect intrusions that may not be evident at the host level.
Designed to aid countering threats, specifically against known, less-sophisticated attacks by activist groups, large email scams, etc.
Decoy systems that are designed to lure a potential attacker away from critical systems. designed to:Divert an attacker from accessing critical systems.Collect information about the attacker's activity.Encourage the attacker to stay on the system long enough for administrators to respond.
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