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Advanced Database Management Systems

Explores advanced concepts and techniques in managing large-scale databases, including data modeling, security, and emerging trends in database technology.

database

management

systems

advanced

relational

nosql

query

optimization

replication

sharding

consistency

scalability

security

backup

recovery.

SQL Profiling Collect auxiliary statistics on a SQL statement along with partial execution statistics and store them in a SQL Profile.

  • True

The _____ is an area of memory allocating dynamic sections of itself, privately for one set of connection processes.

  • PGA

Which of the following two dynamic performance views can you use to identify the relationship between Oracle server sessions and RMAN channels?

  • V$PROCESS and V$SESSION

Performance tuning is the final step in a four-step process: planning, implementing, and monitoring must precede it.

  • True

The database buffer cache holds blocks of data from disk that have been recently read to satisfy a SELECT statement or that contain modified blocks that have been changed or added from a Data Manipulation Language (DML) statement.

  • True

Which is the best method for recovering a tempfile?

  • Add another tempfile to the TEMP tablespace and drop the corrupted or missing tempfile while the database is running.

Which of the following are not RMAN standalone commands?

  • ALLOCATE CHANNEL

In the case of a system crash or instance failure, due to a power outage or CPU failure, the ______, performs crash recovery by applying the entries in the online redo log files to the datafiles.

  • system monitor

To enable password encryption for a specific backup, use the ______ command

  • set encryption

Using Database Replay consists of four main steps: 1. Workload capture 2. Workload preprocessing 3. Workload replay 4. Analysis and reporting

  • True

Which of the following background processes exist in both an ASM instance and an RDBMS instance, and also support ASM disk groups?

  • RBAL

If you want to use two-way mirroring (normal redundancy) for a new disk group, how many failure groups do you need?

  • Two failure groups.

What is the difference between coarse striping and fine striping for files in a disk group?

  • Coarse striping spreads files in units of 1MB each across all disks, and fine striping spreads files in units of 128KB.

The types of user-managed backup you can perform are dependent on whether your database is running in ARCHIVELOG mode.

  • True

The group of datafiles containing the tablespace(s) to be recovered.

  • recovery set

Which of the following does not occur when you register a target database with the recovery catalog database using the REGISTER DATABASE command?

  • Information about manual tablespace backups is registered in the recovery catalog.

If you are interested in recovering only a small set of logically isolated tables to a previous point in time, you may be able to perform recovery using Oracle’s Flashback Table features.

  • True

You want to switch from AMM to ASMM. What is the correct statement you need to run?

  • alter system set memory_max_target = 0;

backout options: NOCASCADE_FORCE Back out the specified transactions, ignoring dependent transactions.

  • True

You have configured backup optimization for your database using CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION ON. For which of the following commands will RMAN not skip a backup if the files are identical?

  • BACKUP TABLESPACE USERS;

You can use V$BACKUP_ASYNC_IO to monitor asynchronous RMAN I/O. What column or columns do you use to determine which file is the bottleneck during a backup?

  • A large value for LONG_WAITS / IO_COUNT

What is the difference between a full backup and a whole database backup?

  • A full backup consists of a backup of one or more datafiles or tablespaces, whereas a whole database backup contains all datafiles, for all tablespaces plus the control file.

Before running the first replay, you must perform some prerequisite checks:Remap connection strings to the replay system from the production system.

  • True

a database ______ is the smallest unit of storage in Oracle.

  • block

Is in charge of redo log buffer management. It is one of the most active processes in an instance with heavy DML activity.

  • LGWR

SCN-based incomplete recovery works well if your applications save the SCN at critical points in a process flow, or the alert or trace logs indicate a serious error as of a particular SCN.

  • True

Which of the following procedures will run a SQL Access Advisor job against a single SQL statement?

  • DBMS_ADVISOR.QUICK_TUNE

Identify the true statement regarding incremental and differential backups.

  • A differential backup is the default type of incremental backup and backs up all changed blocks since the last level 0 or level 1 incremental backup.

The _______is the next level of logical grouping in the database

  • extent

Recorded client request contains the information: Transaction information

  • True

Which of the following columns is not in the data dictionary view FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY?

  • ORA_ROWSCN

DUPLICATE command: SKIP TABLESPACE Exclude specific tablespaces, except for SYSTEM and UNDO.

  • True

Which of the following statement is not true regarding database backups?

  • As of Oracle Database 11g, RMAN supports only online backups.

Which of the following commands does not back up the current control file?

  • SQL< ALTER SYSTEM BACKUP CURRENT CONTROLFILE;

What happens to the state of an ASM instance when a connected RDBMS instance fails?

  • There is no effect on the ASM instance.

You have created a virtual private catalog to separate your RMAN administration duties among several DBAs for 20 different databases. Which role must you grant to each virtual catalog owner to allow the person to access existing registered databases?

  • RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER

Under what circumstances would you use the RMAN command UPGRADE CATALOG?

  • When you are using a version of the recovery catalog that is older than that required by the RMAN target database client.

To use guaranteed restore points, you must also enable these prerequisites: You must have archived redo log files available starting from the time of the first guaranteed restore point.

  • True

Structure Analysis Restructure the SQL statements to see if better execution plans are generated

  • True

At which level does ASM perform mirroring?

  • At the database object level

When you want to create a duplexed backupset, what is the maximum number of copies of each backup piece you can create with one BACKUP command?

  • A maximum of four.

Which of the following clauses is not valid for the RMAN DUPLICATE command?

  • SKIP OFFLINE

The three possible states of a log file group are INACTIVE, ACTIVE, and CURRENT.

  • True

Access Paths Analyze the impact of creating new indexes, materialized views, and partitioning.

  • True

To use guaranteed restore points, you must also enable these prerequisites: The COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be 10.2 or higher.

  • True

To use guaranteed restore points, you must also enable these prerequisites: The database must be running in ARCHIVELOG mode

  • True

RMAN makes it easy to make a full copy or a subset of a target database.

  • True

Recorded client request contains the information: Bind values

  • True

Which of the following methods can you use to retrieve the current System Change Number (SCN)?

  • Query the CURRENT_SCN column of the V$DATABASE view.

Identify the data dictionary view you can use to check for object dependencies between tablespaces.

  • TS_PITR_CHECK

key tuning parameters for the BACKUP command: ____________ The maximum number of files per backupset.

  • filesperset

If you lose all of the tempfiles from your temporary tablespace, what is the most likely result noticed by your users?

  • The users can’t use ORDER BY or GROUP BY in their queries.

If a user connection is dropped or a user process otherwise fails, ______ does the cleanup work

  • PMON

Before running the first replay, you must perform some prerequisite checks: Ensure that the target system has access to the replay directory

  • True

DUPLICATE command: NOFILENAMECHECK Don’t check for duplicate filenames between the source and destination databases.

  • True

Which tablespaces contain critical datafiles that must be recovered when the database is offline?

  • SYSTEM and UNDO

When you want to restore backup, either to the same database or to a different database, you must specify the decryption password with ________

  • set decryption

When using the VERSIONS BETWEEN clause for Flashback Version Query, what can’t you use to restrict the number of rows returned by the query?

  • A guaranteed restore point

Identify the correct statement regarding TSPITR terminology.

  • The recovery set is the group of datafiles containing the tablespace(s) to be recovered.

You want to remap your database links so that they do not reference production database objects. Within which Database Replay step do you perform the remapping?

  • During the workload replay step

Your server’s physical memory is 8GB and no other applications or Oracle instances are running on the server. For a new Oracle instance running a decision support system, what is a good starting point for setting PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET?

  • 3.2GB

To use guaranteed restore points, you must also enable these prerequisites:The database must be running in ARCHIVELOG mode.

  • True

contains two major subcaches: the library cache and the data dictionary cache.

  • shared pool

Which of the following initialization parameters is not valid?

  • LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = ‘SERVICE=RMTDB99’

You can use DELETE_REPLAY_INFO to delete a report in the replay directory.

  • True

backup of a database involves reading a set of database rows and writing them to a file

  • logical

Recorded client request contains the information: SQL text

  • True

Which of the following is not a valid status for an online redo log group?

  • INVALID

What method does RMAN use to enable fast incremental backup?

  • It uses a block change tracking file.

holds the most recent changes to the data blocks in the datafiles.

  • redo log buffer

You run the following command to create a whole database backup: RMAN< backup as copy database spfile plus archivelog delete input; What does the DELETE INPUT clause do?

  • After the backup completes, RMAN deletes the archived log files from the flash recovery area and any other archived log file destinations.

Statistics Analysis Check for stale or missing statistics, and recommend refreshing or creating them

  • True

Which of the following procedures will run a SQL Tuning Advisor job against a SQL Tuning Set?

  • DBMS_SQLTUNE.EXECUTE_TUNING_TASK

You have lost all online control files. Specify the correct order for the following tasks: · Restore the control file from backup or run CREATE CONTROLFILE. · Start database recovery and specify the keywords BACKUP CONTROLFILE. · Start up the database in MOUNT mode. · Open the database with RESETLOGS. · Shut down the database.

  • 5, 1, 3, 2, 4

You will perform complete closed database recovery. Put the following steps in the correct order. 1. Open the database to users. 2. Identify files needed for recovery. 3. Start up the database in MOUNT mode. 4. Bring the datafiles online. 5. Apply archived and online redo log files to roll forward. 6. Oracle applies undo to roll back uncommitted changes. 7. Restore recovery-related files containing committed and uncommitted transactions

  • 2, 7, 4, 3, 5, 1, 6

The phrase “closed databaserecovery” is somewhat of a misnomer if you consider that the database instance may still be available when one or more datafiles become unavailable.

  • True

is a group of extents that form a database object that Oracle treats as a unit, such as a table or index.

  • segment

Identify the true statement about Automatic Memory Management (AMM).

  • MEMORY_MAX_TARGET enables AMM, and it is a dynamic parameter.

It refers to one of the log file status in V$LOG described as The log is being cleared by ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE. After being cleared, the status changes to UNUSED.

  • clearing

DUPLICATE command: OPEN RESTRICTED When the destination database is ready, open it immediately with the RESTRICTED SESSION option.

  • True

What is the difference between an RMAN local script and an RMAN global script?

  • A local script is available only for a single target database.

The four steps to create a set of recommendations are as follows: 1. Create a task 2. Define the workload 3. Generate the recommendations 4. Review and implement the recommendations

  • True

backups involve copying the files that constitute the database. These backups are also referred to as file system backups because they involve using operating system file backup commands.

  • physical

Which of the following CREATE RESTORE POINT commands will preserve the restore point past the time specified by the initialization parameter CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME?

  • CREATE RESTORE POINT SAVE_IT_NOW PRESERVE

The group of datafiles containing the tablespace(s) to be recovered

  • recovery set

The RMAN SWITCH command is equivalent to what SQL command?

  • ALTER SYSTEM RENAME FILE

Identify the correct statement regarding duplicate databases created with RMAN.

  • RMAN copies the database from the target to the duplicate database and both can have the same name.

Identify the true statement about Flashback Data Archives.

  • If you do not specify a RETENTION clause for a Flashback Data Archive, you must specify it when assigning a table to the Flashback Data Archive.

What is the maximum number of database writer processes (DBWn) in an Oracle database instance?

  • 20

A distinct advantage to using ARCHIVELOG mode is that you can perform online backups (also known as hot backups), while the database is available to users.

  • True

Which of the following initialization parameters is not required to configure Flashback Database operations?

  • UNDO_RETENTION

DUPLICATE command: SKIP READONLY Exclude read-only tablespaces from the copy operation.

  • True

Choose the four best commands from the following list that you would use to enable ARCHIVELOG mode, and put them in the correct order: 1. STARUP MOUNT 2. SHUTDOWN ABORT 3. ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG; 4. STARTUP FORCE 5. ALTER DATABASE ENABLE ARCHIVELOG; 6. ALTER SYSTEM SWITCH LOGFILE; 7. SHUTDOWN NORMAL 8. ALTER DATABASE OPEN; 9. SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE

  • 9, 1, 3, 8

key tuning parameters for the BACKUP command: _________ The maximum number of input files that a channel can have open at a given time.

  • Maxopenfiles

If you are recovering one or more tablespaces or the entire database from backups that have different passwords, you can conveniently specify all the passwords at once with _______

  • set decryption

What are the default characteristics of an ASM file created with no options?

  • The ASM object is striped but not mirrored.

The point in time or SCN to which the tablespace will be recovered.

  • target time

If you do not use a recovery catalog, what data dictionary or dynamic performance views must you query to retrieve RMAN backup information?

  • The V$ views on each target such as V$BACKUP_SET and V$DATAFILE_COPY

backout options: NOCASCADE Back out only the specified transaction, if possible.

  • True

To use guaranteed restore points, you must also enable these prerequisites: You must have a flash recovery area configured.

  • True

backout options: CASCADE Back out all transactions and their dependent transactions.

  • True

It refers to one of the log file status in V$LOG described as the log group is not needed for instance recovery, may be in use for media recovery, and may or may not be archived

  • Inactive

To create a duplicate database, put the following steps in the correct order: 1. Start the auxiliary instance as NOMOUNT. 2. Allocate auxiliary channels if necessary. 3. Run the RMAN DUPLICATE command. 4. Create a password file for the auxiliary instance. 5. Ensure network connectivity to the auxiliary instance. 6. Open the auxiliary instance. 7. Start the source database in MOUNT or OPEN mode. 8. Create an initialization parameter file for the auxiliary instance. 9. Create backups or copy existing backups and archived log files to a common location accessible by the auxiliary instance.

  • 4, 5, 8, 1, 7, 9, 2, 3, 6

When you run the RMAN RESTORE CONTROLFILE command, where does RMAN put the previous version of the control file?

  • To all locations defined by the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter unless overridden with the TO ‘>filename

is used by the Oracle JVM (Java Virtual Machine) for all Java code and data within a user session.

  • java pool

Question text The SGA is a group of memory structures for an Oracle instance that are shared by the users of the database instance

  • True

Which of the following roles should you grant to the recovery catalog owner?

  • RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER

When restoring a database to a new host, what is the first command you should run as part of the restoration process?

  • SET DBID

is an optional area of the SGA. It is used for transactions that interact with more than one database, message buffers for processes performing parallel queries, and RMAN parallel backup and restore operations.

  • large pool

writes new or changed data blocks (known as dirty blocks) in the buffer cache to the datafiles.

  • database w riter

Place the following commands in the correct order for restoring a control file from an RMAN autobackup: 1. RECOVER DATABASE 2. ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS 3. STARTUP NOMOUNT 4. ALTER DATABASE MOUNT 5. RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP

  • 3, 5, 4, 1, 2

backups back up all changed blocks since the last level 0 incremental backup

  • cumulative incremental

Which two dynamic performance views can you use to identify files that need to be backed up, regardless of whether you are in ARCHIVELOG mode or NOARCHIVELOG mode?

  • V$DATAFILE and V$CONTROLFILE

You have lost the most recent archived redo log files from the recovery catalog database as well as the tablespace containing the RMAN catalog. You can do an incomplete restore of the recovery catalog database to a point in time after the target databases were registered with the recovery catalog. What commands can you use to resynchronize the target database’s metadata and backup information with the recovery catalog database?

  • Use the RESYNC CATALOG command to update the recovery catalog with the latest records from the target database’s control file and the CATALOG START WITH command to record any additional backups that are no longer in the target database’s control file.

Other datafiles required to recover the tablespace(s), such as the datafiles for the SYSTEM, UNDO, and TEMP tablespaces

  • auxiliary set

What is the difference between a critical and a noncritical datafile in a recovery scenario?

  • To recover a critical datafile, the database must be in MOUNT mode. To recover a noncritical datafile, the database can be open.

Which of the following initialization parameters control Automatic Shared Memory Management (ASSM)?

  • SGA_TARGET

The SQL Tuning Advisor performs all but which of the following analyses?

  • Changes to materialized views

backup is the default type of incremental backup that backs up all changed blocks since the last level 0 or level 1 incremental backup

  • differential

Recovery falls into one of two general categories: complete and incomplete.

  • True

What happens to the rows in FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY when part of the transaction is no longer available in the undo tablespace?

  • The OPERATION column contains the value UNKNOWN.

What is the value for INSTANCE_TYPE in the init.ora file or SPFILE for an ASM instance?

  • ASM

A default installation of the Oracle database using the Oracle Universal Installer with a seed database, or using the Database Creation Assistant, will automatically create a password file.

  • True

Before running the first replay, you must perform some prerequisite checks:Remap references to other production systems via database links, external .tables, directory objects, URLs, and E-mail notifications.

  • True

If you specify the initialization parameter DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST, what other initialization parameter must be set?

  • DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE

Which of the following parameters are required for an ASM instance?

  • INSTANCE_TYPE

After the capture operation is complete, the captured information must be preprocessed by transforming the captured data into replay files that can be easily replayed on the target system

  • True

backout options: NONCONFLICT_ONLY Back out changes to nonconflicting rows of the specified transaction only

  • True

You have just received a pager alert indicating that the flash recovery area is below 3 percent free space. Which view and column can you query for a possible corrective action for this space condition?

  • DBA_OUTSTANDING_ALERTS, SUGGESTED_ACTION

The SQL Tuning Advisor analyzes one or more SQL statements sequentially, examining statistics, and potentially recommends creating a SQL profile, new indexes, materialized views, or a revised SQL statement.

  • True

You can use two different methods to authenticate a database administrator: operating system (OS) authentication or password file authentication.

  • True

Backing up the control file for a database running in ARCHIVELOG mode produces the same end result as the method you use in NOARCHIVELOG mode.

  • True

Which of the following is the default substitution variable for the FORMAT clause of the BACKUP command?

  • %t

is a block of executable code designed to perform a specific task

  • background process

Which of the following data dictionary views contains a list of the tables using a Flashback Data Archive?

  • DBA_FLASHBACK_ARCHIVE_TABLES

You set the initialization parameter BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVES to TRUE. What effect does this have on the type of I/O that the server processes perform for RMAN if you are using tape?

  • Tape I/O is automatically asynchronous.

It refers to one of the log file status in V$LOG described as the log group has not been used yet.

  • unused

key tuning parameters for the BACKUP command: ______________ The maximum size of a backup piece per channel.

  • MAXPIECESIZE

Your database is running in NOARCHIVELOG mode, and you perform occasional incremental level 1 backups in MOUNT mode. To what point in time can you recover the database if you lose a datafile for the USERS tablespace?

  • You can recover the entire database up to the point in time of the last incremental level 1 backup

The net service name of your target database is DW and the net service name of your recovery catalog database is RCAT. The environment variable ORACLE_SID has a value of RCAT. Which of the following sets of commands will successfully create a recovery catalog?

  • connect catalog rman/rmanpass create catalog;

What is the difference between the V$LOG and V$LOGFILE views?

  • V$LOG contains the status of the online redo log groups and V$LOGFILE contains the status of individual redo log group members.
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